This document summarizes text composition requirements in the Chinese writing system. One of the goals of the task force is to describe issues for Chinese layout, another is to describe correspondences with existing standards (such as Unicode), as well as to encourage vendors to implement relevant features correctly.
This document was created by the Chinese Layout Task Force within the W3C Internationalization Interest Group, and in collaboration with the W3C HTML5 Chinese Interest Group. The Internationalization Working Group has been a great help during the writing of this document. The Chinese Layout Task Force will work with the Internationalization Working Group to publish Group Draft Notes of this document, and to widen the exposure and review of the document.
Basic Features of Chinese Script中文排版的主要特色中文排版的主要特色
Chinese composition exhibits several differences from other writing systems. The major features include:
The Chinese writing system can be broadly classified into either Traditional Chinese or Simplified Chinese. Chinese communities in different regions (e.g. Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, Singapore, Malaysia etc.) may have their own regional standards. These differ with respect to which glyph represents a canonical vs. a variant shape, or how many strokes are contained in a given character. They may also have typographic layout rules specific to their own region.
There are two writing modes: vertical and horizontal. The former is often seen in publications from Taiwan, Hong Kong etc.
In principal, the characters, including Han characters (Hanzi) and punctuation, used in Chinese composition are squares with the ratio of 1:1, and are seamlessly arranged with one another.
For most of the typographic rules described in this document, "regional differences" are more than "differences between Simplified and Traditional Chinese". For example, although most publications in Mainland China use Simplified Chinese characters in horizontal writing mode, a few publications use Traditional Chinese characters in horizontal or vertical writing mode, or Simplified characters in vertical writing mode. The typographical rules in Mainland China, such as the punctuation position rules specified in General Rules for Punctuation (GB/T 15834—2011) also apply to vertical or Traditional Chinese publications published in Mainland China. For vertical and Traditional Chinese publications published in Taiwan, Taiwan's typographic rules are used. Therefore, it is recommended that the user agents distinguish typographical rules by "region" rather than "Traditional or Simplified".
The transfer of each and every writing system into the digital world is an important responsibility of information and communication technology. It plays an important role in the generation, safeguarding, maintenance and re-creation of cultural assets.
As one of the basic work items of this task force, this document summarizes text composition requirements in the Chinese writing system. One of the goals of the task force is to describe issues for Chinese layout, another is to describe correspondences with existing standards (such as Unicode), as well as to encourage vendors to implement relevant features correctly.
Languages Used in this Document本文档所使用的中文语言本文檔所使用的中文語言
This document was developed by people working in different areas, using both Simplified and Traditional Chinese. We very much appreciate the contributions of the editors and collaborators from different linguistic backgrounds, and their willingness to collaborate across linguistic boundaries. In this early version of the Group Draft Note, the version of the script used for the Chinese text depends on the person who contributed the text. We plan to create separate translations of the Chinese text in future versions of this document, but at this early stage, the original contributions are kept as is to enable rapid development of the text.
It explains in detail the similarities and differences among different areas and Traditional/Simplified Chinese composition.
It describes presentational results and considers these results as issues and requirements for Chinese text layout. Meanwhile, it offers principles or methods for handling these issues, without describing particular technological solutions.
It suggests solutions for, or explains, present-day issues that people face in Chinese composition.
It provides typical instances of Chinese composition and their actual use cases as much as possible.
In consideration of non-Chinese readers of this document, figures are used for explanation wherever possible.
It mainly explains modern Chinese publications, going back as far as the introduction of moveable type for Chinese printing. Although there are some differences between those early printed publications and current day publications, they are still considered part of Chinese composition. The document does not yet fully cover ancient books. Future editions may be revised to cover composition of such ancient publications.
For non-Chinese readers, frequency of use is indicated for each requirement. These frequencies are not the outcome of any accurate research, but arise from the long experience of the authors. Non-Chinese readers should understand that they are intuitive for ordinary Chinese readers. These frequencies serve to provide a general guidance for the prioritization of issues.
The main target of this document is common books. But other publications, such as magazines or newspapers, are also included.
Basics of Chinese Composition中文排版基础中文排版基礎
Characters and Principles for Arranging Characters in Chinese Composition中文排版所使用的文字和基本原则中文排版所使用的文字和基本原則
Characters used for Chinese Composition中文排版所使用的文字中文排版所使用的文字
The majority of the text used in Chinese composition consists of Han characters (Hanzi).
Chinese characters include Traditional Chinese and Simplified Chinese alternatives. The former is commonly used in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao while the latter is commonly used in Mainland China, Singapore and Malaysia.
Different glyphs are used in different regions. One Unicode code point of a Han character may have more than one valid glyph, depending on operating system and typeface used. The focus of this document is Chinese composition and will not cover glyph variations in detail.
In addition to Han characters (Hanzi), various punctuation marks, as well as Western characters such as European numerals, Latin letters and/or Greek letters, may be used in Chinese text.
One Simplified Chinese character may have more than one corresponding Traditional form. For example, the Simplified Chinese character 发 can be mapped to either the Traditional Chinese character 發 or 髮. By contrast, the circumstances where one Traditional Chinese character corresponds to more than one Simplified Chinese character are fairly rare but still worth noting. For example, the Traditional Chinese character 乾 may be mapped to either the Simplified Chinese character 干 or 乾. The mapping relationship between Traditional and Simplified Chinese is not one-to-one and particular character conversion depends on its context.
Han characters have square character frames of equal dimensions. Aligned with the vertical and horizontal center of the character frame, there is a smaller box called the character face, which contains the actual symbol. (There should be some space left between the character face and the character frame).
Character size is measured by the size of the character frame. Character advance is a term used to describe the advance width of the character frame of a character, which should be the same as the width of the character.
Principles for Arranging Characters during Chinese Composition汉字的配置原则漢字的配置原則
In principle, when composing a line with Han characters, no extra space appears between their character frames. This is called solid setting.
From the advent of moveable type, each character was set to be flush with one another without any gaps, regardless of vertical or horizontal writing mode. However back then, several sizes of the original pattern of a letter were required to create matrices, while in today's digital era, the same original pattern can be used for any size simply by enlargement or reduction. Because of this, it might be necessary to adjust inter-character spacing when composing lines at large character sizes. When composing lines at small character sizes in outline fonts, hinting data is used to ensure that the width of the strokes that make up a character look correct. When only a small portion of the fonts are smaller, they will be displayed in bitmaps, and there is no need to make extra adjustments.
To achieve a balance between running heads with different numbers of characters, increased inter-character spacing is used for running heads with few characters.
For captions of illustrations and tables, which only have a few characters, increased inter-character spacing is used to achieve balance with the size of the illustration or table.
In some cases, increased inter-character spacing is used for poetry with lines of only a few characters, so as to maintain the balance of the layout.
For publications whose main audience is children, inter-character spacing is increased to make it easier for them to read.
Even inter-character spacing均排均排
Text may be set with equal inter-character spacing between all characters on a given line, so that each line is aligned to the same line head and line end. Since the Han characters and punctuation marks are all in square frames with almost the same dimensions, it is natural that each line is aligned to the same line head and line end. Even inter-character spacing is mainly used in the following cases:
To deal with rules that forbid certain characters at the beginning or end of a line. When a punctuation mark which is not supposed to be positioned at the end of a line happens to appear there, even inter-character space setting is used to move the character before the punctuation mark to the next line together with the punctuation mark. When a punctuation mark, which is not supposed to be positioned at the beginning of a line, happens to appear there, it is necessary to move the last character from the previous line to the beginning of the next line, and there will be one or two (sometimes more) empty spaces left in the previous line. Even inter-character space setting is used to unify the length of each line and justify them.
Even inter-character space setting is used when the number of characters in a table head differs from the table content, such as for person names, so as to justify the table.
Reduced inter-character spacing减少字距減少字距
By reducing the inter-character spacing, a portion of two character frames overlap each other (i.e. solid setting). This method is mainly used in the following cases:
For characters in headings of magazines or advertisements, reduced inter-character spacing can be used to keep the characters on one line, or it can also be used to achieve a special effect for presentation.
Since Han characters are all square-shaped, this method does not apply to headings and content in books produced by letterpress printing.
Typefaces for Chinese Text中文排版常用字体中文排版常用字體
Four frequently-used Typefaces for Chinese Text中文排版经常使用的四种字体中文排版經常使用的四種字體
There are many types of typefaces used in Chinese composition, but the following four typefaces are the most important ones:
These four typefaces can be used alone in the main text of books, or they can be mixed as well. The following sections introduce their usage scenarios respectively.
Song, also known as Songti or Ming, is currently the most common typeface used in Chinese printing. As seen in [[[#fig-song]]].
Song is commonly used in text, headings and annotations. When used in headings, the characters will appear in a bold face, so as to distinguish the heading from the text.
Kai also known as Kaiti or regular script, is another major typeface, which provides calligraphic styles for Chinese text. It shows notable handwriting features. As seen in [[[#fig-kai]]].
Kai is commonly used in official documents and textbooks. Most official documents in Taiwan use Kai in full text.
Kai can also be combined with other typefaces to be used in text that needs to be differentiated from the rest of the content, for example, headlines, references, quotations, and dialogs.
Hei, also known as Heiti or Gothic, is a type style characterized by strokes of even thickness and less decoration, as seen in [[[#fig-hei]]].
Traditionally, publications rarely apply the Hei style for content, but with the growing influence of the World Wide Web and the digital publishing industry, some publications are starting to experiment Hei in this context.
Hei can also be used with other typefaces. It is commonly used in headlines, signs, and personal names in dialogs. In body text, characters in Hei style with thicker strokes typically indicate emphasis.
The Fangsong (Imitation Song) style lies between Song and Kai. As seen in [[[#fig-fangsong]]].
Fangsong is often used in literary works and ancient books, while Mainland China stipulates that the official documents of the government should use Fangsong in principle.
Fangsong can also be used with other typefaces. It is commonly used in secondary titles and isolated paragraphs such as quotations or highlighted sentences.
Books are usually designed in the following sequence.
First, prepare a template of the page format, which determines the basic appearance of document pages.
Then, specify the details of actual page elements based on the template.
Books usually use one basic template for page format, whereas magazines often use several templates.
The type area, sometimes called the printing area, is the rectangle in the middle of the page that contains the main body of the text. The text in the type area can be divided into two or more independent parts according to the reading direction of the text. Each independent part is called a "column", and this type of division is called a "multi-column layout".
Although books tend to use one template for their page format, some further design effort will be needed to extend that template for pages such as the table of contents and indexes. Furthermore, there are many examples of indexes with a different page format than the basic page format, and vertically set books often have indexes in horizontal writing mode, and sometimes multiple columns. This still holds true where the goal is to make the size of the basic page template for indexes close to the size of basic page template in the basic page format.
Trim size and binding side (vertically set Chinese documents are bound on the right-hand side, and horizontally set documents are bound on the left-hand side.)
Principal text direction (vertical writing mode or horizontal writing mode).
Appearance of the type area and its position relative to the trim size.
Appearance of running heads and page numbers, and their positions relative to the trim size and type area.
Establishing a type area may be seen as defining not only a rectangular area on a page, but also within that area, an underlying, logical grid to guide the placement of such things as characters, headings, and illustrations. Once the grid is established according to the principles of composition, the setting of the characters must align with the grid. If the content contains Chinese text only, it is important that the first and last characters on a line should align with the border of the type area. When both Chinese text and Western text are mixed in the content, or forbidden locations of punctuation marks need to be taken into consideration, the setting of the content may not align with the grid.
From the Template of the Page Format to the Actual Page Format从基本版式到实际版面的定版设计從基本版式到實際版面的定版設計
This section explains how to create an actual page format based on the type area.
Realm and position of headings: The spacing of the heading in the block direction (i.e., height of the heading in horizontal writing mode or width of the heading in vertical writing mode) should be calculated from the position of the body text, and set to a multiple of the number of lines. If indent of the heading space is required, the starting point should be from the body text position set by the type area, and the amount of indent should be a multiple of the body text size.
Size of illustrations: In horizontal writing mode, the width of illustrations should, if at all possible, be the width of the type area; in horizontal writing mode with multiple columns, the width of illustrations should, if at all possible, be the width of one type area column. The illustrations are usually set at the head or the foot of the page. Likewise, in vertical writing mode, the height of illustrations should, if at all possible, be either the height of one type area column or the height of the type area. The illustrations are usually set at the right or left of the type area.
Pages for table of contents, index, and bibliography: These pages’ layout is also based on the type area of body text. In practice, additional paddings might be attached onto the start and the end of the lines. Furthermore, these pages might be set in multiple columns while the body text is single column.
Procedure for Defining the Type Area设计基本版式的步骤設計基本版式的步驟
Specifying the dimensions of the type area
For a document with a single column per page, specify the character size, the line length (the number of characters per line), the number of lines per page, and the line gap.
For a document with multiple columns per page, specify the character size, the line length (the number of characters per line), the number of lines per column, the line gap, the number of columns and the column gap.
For determining the position of the type area relative to the trim size, there are various alternative methods available:
Set the type area at the horizontal and vertical center of the trim size.
Position vertically by specifying the size of the space at the head (for horizontal writing mode) or the space at the foot (for vertical writing mode). Position horizontally by centering the type area.
Position vertically by centering the type area. Position horizontally by specifying the size of the space for the gutter.
Position vertically by specifying the space at the head (for horizontal writing mode) or the space at the foot (for vertical writing mode). Position horizontally by specifying the size of the space for the gutter.
In most cases the type area is set at the horizontal and vertical center of the trim size, and can then be adjusted depending on its dimensions. This design method is mainly inherited from letterpress printing technology. For desktop publishing, the dimensions of the type area are usually calculated based on the space between the type area and the trim size.
Considerations when Designing the Type Area基本版式设计的注意事项基本版式設計的注意事項
The following are considerations that need to be taken into account when designing the type area:
When deciding the dimensions of the type area, it is necessary to consider both the trim size and the margin. Generally speaking, the shape of the type area could be made similar to that of the trim size.
There have been different size systems for Chinese fonts. The size system in traditional metal type utilized hào (literally number) units, while in the phototypesetting era, Q was used as the sizing unit instead. When it came to desktop publishing, font sizes were determined by the DTP point system which was built into the software itself. Currently, the traditional hào-system is still used for typesetting in many Chinese publications.
These hào-systems were not standardized by the various foundries in the past. In addition, point-systems were also different in Anglo-American point systems, Europe Continental point systems, DTP point systems and other systems, which resulted in numerous conversion methods between the hào-system and the point-system. The following table lists their most common corresponding conversions as a reference. It is not normative information.
Size 5 is usually used for body text. Newspapers and magazines use both Size 5 and New Size 5. The acceptable minimum size for the text in content is Size 6 (7.875 pt ≒ 2.8 mm). If a smaller size is used, it will be difficult to read due to the complex structure of Han characters.
Line length should be multiples of the character size and the line ends should be aligned with each other.
For Chinese composition without intermixed Western scripts, the characters all have a square-shaped frame, so all line lengths except that of the last line of the paragraph should, in principle, be the same.
The line gaps between each line should be the same throughout the book, except for special cases.
In Traditional Chinese composition, there are cases where pronunciation marks, referred to as 'ruby' in the Japanese Layout Requirements, are inserted between lines. In such cases the line gap is not changed but kept constant. If these elements are likely to occur in the text, the line gap established during type area design needs to be of an adequate size to accommodate them.
The line gap for the type area is commonly set to a value between 50% and 100% of the height of the character frame used for the type area. A shorter line gap can be chosen in cases where the line length is short or the character size of the type area is relatively small. On the other hand, the line gap usually does not exceed the character size. Increasing the line gap beyond the character size does not improve the reading experience.
There is another method of specifying the type area that uses line height rather than line gaps. Line height is the distance between two adjacent lines measured from their reference points. The reference point differs from implementation to implementation. For example, in vertical writing mode, the horizontal center of the character frame can be used, and in horizontal writing mode, the vertical center of the character frame can be used. When the character size is the same for every character, the following calculation is used:
line height = character size / 2 + line gap + character size / 2 = character size + line gap
line gap = line height - character size
Writing Modes in Chinese中文的文字书写方向中文的文字書寫方向
Chinese composition has two text directions, vertical writing mode and horizontal writing mode. Publications from Taiwan and Hong Kong are composed in vertical writing mode or horizontal writing mode; while publications from Chinese Mainland are mostly composed in horizontal writing mode, only some are composed in vertical writing mode.
Ever since the letterpress printing period, the characters and punctuation marks used for Chinese composition have basically been designed to have a square character frame. Thus the same collection of printing types can be used in either vertical writing mode or horizontal writing mode, simply by changing the direction of text. However, some adjustments will be needed for the punctuation marks so as to match the writing direction of the characters and their composition. This is described in more detail in [[[#glyphs_sizes_and_positions_in_character_faces_of_punctuation_marks]]].
Traditionally, Chinese publications were composed mainly in vertical writing mode, and this tradition has been largely preserved in Taiwan and Hong Kong. However, with the increasing amount of translated publications and mixed-text publications, and the default mode of writing in word processors, horizontal writing mode is becoming more and more popular. In Taiwan, government departments, educational materials and books on natural science mainly use horizontal writing mode while literary works such as poetry and novels still use vertical writing mode. Vertical writing mode still stands as an important cultural characteristic of regions where Traditional Chinese is used.
There is usually only one direction for all text throughout a book, but there are cases where horizontal writing mode is used in certain parts of vertically composed books. Tables, captions for illustrations, running heads, and page numbers are usually composed horizontally in a page with a vertical writing mode.
Major Differences Between Horizontal and Vertical Writing Modes横排与直排的主要差异点橫排與直排的主要差異點
The following are the major differences between vertical writing mode and horizontal writing mode:
Arrangement of characters, lines, columns and pages; direction of page progression.
Characters are arranged from top to bottom, lines are arranged from right to left.
Columns are arranged horizontally from top to bottom.
A book starts with the left (recto) side and progresses from right to left.
Characters are arranged from left to right, and lines are arranged from top to bottom.
Chinese traditionally only uses vertical writing mode. When horizontal lines are used in content that is set vertically, such as on stone inscriptions or headings for newspapers and magazines. In such cases, characters should be ordered from right to left. but now this has largely been replaced by the horizontal lines that are read from left to right.
In principle, if numbers are arranged horizontally in a vertical writing mode, the width of the numbers should not exceed 1 em. This rule originated in the letterpress printing era due to the fixed width of each line. Therefore, in vertical writing mode, Western text or European numerals are not limited to two digits, but the width should not exceed 1 em. Some commonly seen examples include "3.0", "A+" and "2B".
In horizontal writing mode there is only one way of arranging alphanumerics, i.e. the normal orientation.
Titles or captions of tables and illustrations.
In vertical writing mode, put the title or caption of tables or illustrations at the left or right side.
In horizontal writing mode, put the title or caption of tables or illustrations at the top or bottom.
The title or caption of tables refers to the text outside the table, which is different from the header row/column and header column in the table.
Arrangement of the table header row/column.
In vertical writing mode, put the header row of the table on the right and the header column on the top.
In horizontal writing mode, put the header row of the table on the top and the header column on the left.
In different regions, the arrangement direction of cells described by row (Chinese: 行 háng) and column (Chinese: 列 liè) in Chinese terminology may be different. For example, 行 in Mainland China usually refers to a horizontal arrangement of cells, and 列 refers to a vertical arrangement of cells; while 行 in Taiwan and Hong Kong usually refers to a vertical arrangement of cells, and 列 (or 栏) refers to a horizontal arrangement of cells.
This document uses row/column in logical directions consistently, i.e., "row" is vertical in vertical writing mode and horizontal in horizontal writing mode, and "column" is horizontal in vertical writing mode and vertical in horizontal writing mode.
Arrangement of an incomplete number of lines on a multi-column format page due to new recto, page break, or other reason.
In vertical writing mode, just finish the line where it ends. The number of lines in each column is not uniform.
In horizontal writing mode, columns can be re-arranged so that each column has the same number of lines. In case the number of lines is not divisible by the number of columns, add the smallest number to make it divisible and re-arrange columns using the quotient as the number of lines so that only the last column shall have the incomplete number of lines.
Line Composition Rules for Punctuation Marks标点符号与其排版標點符號與其排版
The usage of Chinese punctuation marks differs across different regions. One major difference is how the character face is handled and positioned relative to the character frame. Punctuation marks are usually center-aligned in the character frame in Taiwan and Hong Kong, while punctuation marks are positioned in the corner of the character frame on the side closest to the preceding text in the Chinese Mainland. The differences and the correct way to layout punctuation marks in different areas will be introduced in detail later.
Major typesetting differences between Traditional Chinese and Simplified Chinese include the positioning of punctuation and terminological variations. (See more at [[[#glyphs_sizes_and_positions_in_character_faces_of_punctuation_marks]]]).
CJKV punctuation marks use different glyphs which are visually distinct between languages. Unicode currently does not distinguish each of them with unique codepoints. Usually, we use typefaces corresponding to the locale of the written text or have the layout engines adjust the punctuation marks according to the languages automatically.
The content of the following section is mainly based on the content of General Rules for Punctuation (GB/T 15834—2011) issued in Mainland China, as well as the Punctuation Guidance (2008 revised edition) issued by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan. The former is a recommended national standard while the latter is not mandatory for general publications but mainly used to regulate education materials like textbooks.
Categories and Usage of Punctuation Marks标点符号的分类及用法標點符號的分類及用法
Pause or Stop Punctuation Marks点号點號
Pause or stop punctuation marks are used to indicate pauses or the end of a sentence. Some of the pause or stop punctuation marks appear within a sentence, such as secondary commas, commas, semicolons, colons, etc., while others appear at the end of a sentence, such as periods, question marks and exclamation marks.
Periods U+3002 IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP [。] are punctuation marks placed at the end of a sentence. Commas U+FF0C FULLWIDTH COMMA [，] are mainly used for separating parts of a sentence such as clauses. Secondary commas (also known as slight-pause commas or enumeration commas) U+3001 IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA [、] are usually used to separate items in lists, particularly when there are three or more items listed.
In many college textbooks, science and technology literature, and grammar books of Western languages for example, most of which are in horizontal writing mode, where Western language are heavily used. In these cases, U+FF0E FULLWIDTH FULL STOP [．] can be used as periods, while U+002C COMMA [,] or U+FF0C FULLWIDTH COMMA [，] can be used as commas or secondary commas.
许多理工书籍、科技文献、西文教科书、语法书籍等内含大量西文词句，并采用横排，为求标点符号体例一致，也有采用U+FF0E FULLWIDTH FULL STOP [．]为句号、采U+002C COMMA [,]或U+FF0C FULLWIDTH COMMA [，]为逗号与顿号的案例。详见[[[#atypical_punctuation_marks_and_their_arrangements]]]节。
許多理工書籍、科技文獻、西文教科書、語法書籍等內含大量西文詞句，並採用橫排，為求標點符號體例一致，也有採用U+FF0E FULLWIDTH FULL STOP [．]為句號、採U+002C COMMA [,]或U+FF0C FULLWIDTH COMMA [，]為逗號與頓號的案例。詳見[[[#atypical_punctuation_marks_and_their_arrangements]]]節。
Colons and semicolons.
U+FF1A FULLWIDTH COLON [：] consists of two equally sized dots centered on the same vertical line. It is used to start an explanation or a list. U+FF1B FULLWIDTH SEMICOLON [；] is a punctuation mark that separates major sentence elements. A semicolon can be used between two closely related independent clauses, provided they are not already joined by a coordinating conjunction.
U+FF01 FULLWIDTH EXCLAMATION MARK [！] is a punctuation mark usually used after an interjection or exclamation to indicate strong feelings or high volume (shouting), and often marks the end of a sentence. U+FF1F FULLWIDTH QUESTION MARK [？] casually known as the interrogation point, query, or eroteme, is a punctuation mark that indicates an interrogative clause, or phrase in many languages. The question mark is not used for indirect questions.
叹号U+FF01 FULLWIDTH EXCLAMATION MARK [！]与问号U+FF1F FULLWIDTH QUESTION MARK [？]。叹号及问号用于句末，前者表示惊讶，后者表示质疑。
驚嘆號U+FF01 FULLWIDTH EXCLAMATION MARK [！]與問號U+FF1F FULLWIDTH QUESTION MARK [？]。驚嘆號及問號用於句末，前者表示驚訝，後者表示質疑。
Indicator Punctuation Marks标号標號
In contrast with pause or stop punctuation marks, indicator punctuation marks usually indicate a specific feature of the phrase or sentence. They include quotation marks, brackets, parentheses, two-em dashes, ellipses, emphasis dots, connector marks, interpuncts, book title marks, proper noun marks, and solidi.
Quotation marks, usually used in pairs, are commonly used to emphasize certain characters or words, or to indicate the beginning and ending of the dialog or quoted content. If there is a need to use a pair of quotation marks inside a pair of quotation marks, the shape of the inner quotation marks will differ from the parent quotation marks. Quotation marks are a kind of bracket.
When there is a need for quotation marks, Taiwan will apply single quotation marks first, followed by double quotation marks. Single quotation marks include U+300C LEFT CORNER BRACKET [「] and U+300D RIGHT CORNER BRACKET [」]; double quotation marks include U+300E LEFT WHITE CORNER BRACKET [『] and U+300F RIGHT WHITE CORNER BRACKET [』].
在台湾，采用先单、后双的引号体例。单引号，包含开始单直角引号U+300C LEFT CORNER BRACKET [「]与结束单直角引号U+300D RIGHT CORNER BRACKET [」]；双引号，包含开始双直角引号U+300E LEFT WHITE CORNER BRACKET [『]与结束双直角引号U+300F RIGHT WHITE CORNER BRACKET [』]。
在台灣，採用先單、後雙的引號體例。單引號，包含開始單直角引號U+300C LEFT CORNER BRACKET [「]與結束單直角引號U+300D RIGHT CORNER BRACKET [」]；雙引號，包含開始雙直角引號U+300E LEFT WHITE CORNER BRACKET [『]與結束雙直角引號U+300F RIGHT WHITE CORNER BRACKET [』]。
On the other hand, Chinese Mainland will apply double quotation marks first, followed by single quotation marks. In Chinese Mainland, double quotation marks include U+201C LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK [“], U+300E LEFT WHITE CORNER BRACKET [『], U+201D RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK [”], U+300F RIGHT WHITE CORNER BRACKET [』]; single quotation marks include U+2018 LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK [‘], U+300C LEFT CORNER BRACKET [「], U+2019 RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK [’] and U+300D RIGHT CORNER BRACKET [」]. In horizontal writing, quotation marks are usually used. But in vertical writing, use corner brackets instead.
在中国大陆，采用先双、后单的引号体例，弯引号用于横排、直角引号用于直排。双引号，包含开始双弯引号U+201C LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK [“]、开始双直角引号U+300E LEFT WHITE CORNER BRACKET [『]、结束双弯引号U+201D RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK [”]、结束双直角引号U+300F RIGHT WHITE CORNER BRACKET [』]；单引号，包含开始单弯引号U+2018 LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK[‘]、开始单直角引号U+300C LEFT CORNER BRACKET[「]、结束单弯引号U+2019 RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK [’]、结束单直角引号U+300D RIGHT CORNER BRACKET [」]。
在中國大陸，採用先雙、後單的引號體例，彎引號用於橫排、直角引號用於直排。雙引號，包含開始雙彎引號U+201C LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK [“]、開始雙直角引號U+300E LEFT WHITE CORNER BRACKET [『]、結束雙彎引號U+201D RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK [”]、結束雙直角引號U+300F RIGHT WHITE CORNER BRACKET [』]；單引號，包含開始單彎引號U+2018 LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK [‘]、開始單直角引號U+300C LEFT CORNER BRACKET [「]、結束單彎引號U+2019 RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK [’]、結束單直角引號U+300D RIGHT CORNER BRACKET [」]。
When there is a need for multiple-paragraph quotation marks, opening quotation marks should be given to the first and every subsequent paragraph, and closing quotation marks are only used in the final paragraph of the quotation.
There are vertical bracket codepoints such as U+FE41 PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL LEFT CORNER BRACKET in Unicode. But they are not suitable for authors to use directly. They should be replaced via some other mechanism.
Unicode编码中有如U+FE41 PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL LEFT CORNER BRACKET等直立的符号，但作者不适宜直接使用该符号，而是通过其他机制替代使用。
Unicode編碼中有如U+FE41 PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL LEFT CORNER BRACKET等直立的符號，但作者不適宜直接使用該符號，而是透過其他機制替代使用。
Some Traditional Chinese publications in Taiwan might also apply double quotation marks first, followed by single quotation marks.
Traditional Chinese might also use quotation marks, but it is hardly ever used in vertical writing mode.
Parentheses, also known as brackets, round brackets, or curved brackets, contain material that serves to clarify, or is aside from the main point.
According to Punctuation Guidance (2008 revised edition) issued by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan, parentheses used in Chinese include U+FF08 FULLWIDTH LEFT PARENTHESIS [（], U+FF09 FULLWIDTH RIGHT PARENTHESIS [）] and U+2E3A TWO-EM DASH [⸺] or U+2014 EM DASH [—]. In the latter case, either one two-em dash (U+2E3A TWO-EM DASH [⸺]) or two consecutive em dashes can be used.
台湾教育部的《重订标点符号手册》（2008年修订版）称括号为夹注号，分甲式及乙式，甲式为U+FF08 FULLWIDTH LEFT PARENTHESIS [（]与U+FF09 FULLWIDTH RIGHT PARENTHESIS [）]，乙式则为一对各占二个汉字空间的U+2E3A TWO-EM DASH[⸺]或一组两个U+2014 EM DASH[—]。括号属于夹注符号。
台灣教育部的《重訂標點符號手冊》（2008年修訂版）稱括號為夾注號，分甲式及乙式，甲式為U+FF08 FULLWIDTH LEFT PARENTHESIS [（]與U+FF09 FULLWIDTH RIGHT PARENTHESIS [）]，乙式則為一對各佔二個漢字空間的U+2E3A TWO-EM DASH[⸺]或一組兩個U+2014 EM DASH[—]。括號屬於夾注符號。
The description of parentheses in General Rules for Punctuation (GB/T 15834—2011), the national standard issued by China Central Government, is basically the same as above, but it lists two-em dash as one type of dash.
There are other brackets and quotation marks which include: U+3010 LEFT BLACK LENTICULAR BRACKET [【], U+3011 RIGHT BLACK LENTICULAR BRACKET [】], U+3016 LEFT WHITE LENTICULAR BRACKET [〖], U+3017 RIGHT WHITE LENTICULAR BRACKET [〗], left U+3014 LEFT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET [〔], U+3015 RIGHT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET [〕], U+FF3B FULLWIDTH LEFT SQUARE BRACKET [［], U+FF3D FULLWIDTH RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET [］], U+FF5B FULLWIDTH LEFT CURLY BRACKET [｛], U+FF5D FULLWIDTH RIGHT CURLY BRACKET [｝]. These brackets and quotation marks are rarely used in Chinese publications.
其余括号类则有：开始方头括号U+3010 LEFT BLACK LENTICULAR BRACKET [【]、结束方头括号U+3011 RIGHT BLACK LENTICULAR BRACKET [】]、开始空心方头括号U+3016 LEFT WHITE LENTICULAR BRACKET [〖]、结束空心方头括号U+3017 RIGHT WHITE LENTICULAR BRACKET [〗]、开始六角括号U+3014 LEFT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET [〔]、结束六角括号U+3015 RIGHT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET [〕]、开始方括号U+FF3B FULLWIDTH LEFT SQUARE BRACKET [［]、结束方括号U+FF3D FULLWIDTH RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET [］]、开始花括号U+FF5B FULLWIDTH LEFT CURLY BRACKET [｛]、结束花括号U+FF5D FULLWIDTH RIGHT CURLY BRACKET [｝]。
其餘括號類則有：開始方頭括號U+3010 LEFT BLACK LENTICULAR BRACKET [【]、結束方頭括號U+3011 RIGHT BLACK LENTICULAR BRACKET [】]、開始空心方頭括號U+3016 LEFT WHITE LENTICULAR BRACKET [〖]、結束空心方頭括號U+3017 RIGHT WHITE LENTICULAR BRACKET [〗]、開始六角括號U+3014 LEFT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET [〔]、結束六角括號U+3015 RIGHT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET [〕]、開始方括號U+FF3B FULLWIDTH LEFT SQUARE BRACKET [［]、結束方括號U+FF3D FULLWIDTH RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET [］]、開始花括號U+FF5B FULLWIDTH LEFT CURLY BRACKET [｛]、結束花括號U+FF5D FULLWIDTH RIGHT CURLY BRACKET [｝]。
Two-em dashes show a continuation of tone or sound, an abrupt change in thought, or adding new content to the context, appearing as a horizontally and vertically centered line, and take 2 em. Using U+2E3A TWO-EM DASH [⸺] is recommended, but two adjacent U+2014 EM DASH [—] are also often used.
破折号表示语气或声音的延续、语意的转换或行文的补充。呈现上为一条在水平和垂直方向均位于字面正中的直线，占两个汉字空间。推荐使用占两个汉字宽度的U+2E3A TWO-EM DASH [⸺]，但通常也使用两个连续的U+2014 EM DASH [—]来实现。
破折號表示語氣或聲音的延續、語意的轉換或行文的補充。呈現上為一條在水平和垂直方向均位於字面正中的直線，占兩個漢字空間。推薦使用占兩個漢字寬度的U+2E3A TWO-EM DASH [⸺]，但通常也使用兩個連續的U+2014 EM DASH [—]來實現。
Ellipses are used to indicate a truncation of text, an unfinished sentence or a break in speech. An ellipsis in Chinese consists of six dots, takes up the space of two Hanzi characters, and is horizontally and vertically centered within its character frame. This is normally achieved using two U+2026 HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS characters, side-by-side.
This code point, with appropriate rotation and replacement mechanism, will be centered within its character frame regardless of whether it is in vertical or horizontal writing mode, which is more in line with the Chinese typesetting requirements.
Emphasis dots are symbols placed above or beneath characters to emphasize the text, strengthen the tone, or avoid ambiguity. For horizontal writing mode, emphasis dots are placed under the characters, whereas in vertical writing mode, they are usually placed to the right side of the characters. Both U+25CF BLACK CIRCLE [●] or U+2022 BULLET [•] can work as emphasis dots.
着重号用于表示相应文本的强调、着重语气或避免歧义。其形态为标注于文字底端或顶端（横排多在下方〔底端〕、直排多在右侧〔顶端〕）的圆形中黑点，可以为U+25CF BLACK CIRCLE [●]或U+2022 BULLET [•]。
着重號用於表示相應文本的強調、着重語氣或避免歧義。其形態為標注於文字底端或頂端（橫排多在下方〔底端〕、直排多在右側〔頂端〕）的圓形中黑點，可以為U+25CF BLACK CIRCLE [●]或U+2022 BULLET [•]。
Punctuation Guidance (revised edition) issued by The Ministry of Education in Taiwan does not include this mark but it can still be seen in some publications.
Connector marks are used to indicate the beginning and end of time or space, to indicate quantity, to express the name of a chemical compound, to label a table or illustration, to connect a house number in an address, for a phone number, to separate digits which indicate the year, month and date, or to connect compound nouns and for the romanization, as well as the foreign text in the content.
The General Rules for Punctuation (GB/T 15834—2011) does not state the corresponding Unicode code point for the three types of connector marks. However, we can make the deduction that the long connector mark [—] is U+2014 EM DASH [—] and the tilde [~] is U+FF5E FULLWIDTH TILDE [～]. Since the short connector mark should take half the width of the long connector mark, it should be U+2013 EN DASH [–]. The actual length of these connector marks may depend on the writing system as well as the typeface.
《标点符号用法》（GB/T 15834—2011）中没有指定这三个符号的码位，但是基本上可以推断一字线是U+2014 EM DASH [—]，浪纹线是U+FF5E FULLWIDTH TILDE [～]。但是对于“短横线”，该标准5.1.6节规定“短横线比汉字『一』略短，占半个字位置”，因此可以是 U+2013 EN DASH [–]。这些连接号的实际长短根据所用处理系统和使用字体会有区别。
《標點符號用法》（GB/T 15834—2011）中沒有指定這三個符號的碼位，但是基本上可以推斷一字線是U+2014 EM DASH [—]，浪紋線是U+FF5E FULLWIDTH TILDE [～]。但是對於「短橫線」，該標準5.1.6節規定「橫短線比漢字『一』略短，佔半個字位置」，因此可以是U+2013 EN DASH [–]。這些連接號的實際長短根據所用處理系統和使用字體會有區別。
Interpuncts U+00B7 MIDDLE DOT [·], also known as interpoints, middots or centered dots, are punctuation marks consisting of a vertically-centered dot, and are used to mark the boundaries between certain related components, such as mark divisions in transliterated foreign words or the month and day of a date. They are also used with book title marks to separate chapters, articles, and volumes in publications.
The width of interpuncts varies in different regions. In principle, in Hong Kong and Taiwan, interpuncts should have the same dimensions as a Hanzi in both vertical writing mode and horizontal writing mode. In Mainland China, interpuncts take up half the space of a Hanzi.
Due to the fact that Big5 code does not give a detailed definition of interpuncts, sometimes U+FF0E FULLWIDTH FULL STOP [．], U+2027 HYPHENATION POINT [‧] or U+2022 BULLET [•] are used. It is recommended to use U+00B7 MIDDLE DOT [·] altogether. U+30FB KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT [・] is from JIS code, and is therefore not recommended.
过去因大五码未有详细的语意定义，所以有时混用U+FF0E FULLWIDTH FULL STOP [．]、U+2027 HYPHENATION POINT [‧]、U+2022 BULLET [•]等字符作为间隔号的例子，建议使用U+00B7 MIDDLE DOT [·]。而U+30FB KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT [・]来自日文JIS编码，并非中文编码，不建议使用。
過去因大五碼未有詳細的語意定義，所以時有混用U+FF0E FULLWIDTH FULL STOP [．]、U+2027 HYPHENATION POINT [‧]、U+2022 BULLET [•]等字元作為間隔號的例子，建議使用U+00B7 MIDDLE DOT [·]。而U+30FB KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT [・]來自日文JIS編碼，並非中文編碼，不建議使用。
Book title marks.
According to Punctuation Guidance (revised edition in 2008) issued by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan, book title marks are used to indicate the names of works which usually include books, articles, songs, movies, files, calligraphy and paintings. Generally, there are two types of book title marks, wavy low lines or angle brackets. Book title mark type A U+FE4F WAVY LOW LINE [﹏] has a wavy line appearance and is positioned at the foot end of the annotated text. When two works are listed adjacent to each other, their wavy lines should be visually separated. Book title mark type B includes U+300A LEFT DOUBLE ANGLE BRACKET [《], U+300B RIGHT DOUBLE ANGLE BRACKET [》], U+3008 LEFT ANGLE BRACKET [〈] and U+3009 RIGHT ANGLE BRACKET [〉]. The former pair is used for the names of books while the latter pair is used for the names of articles.
根据台湾教育部的《重订标点符号手册》（2008年修订版），书名号分为甲式及乙式，甲式为波浪底线U+FE4F WAVY LOW LINE [﹏]，标注在相应文本底端，二个作品名称相邻时，甲式书名号间须在视觉上分离予以辨别。乙式有双书名号U+300A LEFT DOUBLE ANGLE BRACKET [《]与U+300B RIGHT DOUBLE ANGLE BRACKET [》]、单书名号U+3008 LEFT ANGLE BRACKET [〈]与U+3009 RIGHT ANGLE BRACKET [〉]，前一对用于标示书名号、后一对用于标示篇名。
根據台灣教育部的《重訂標點符號手冊》（2008年修訂版），書名號分為甲式及乙式，甲式為波浪底線U+FE4F WAVY LOW LINE [﹏]，標注在相應文本底端，二個作品名稱相鄰時，甲式書名號間須在視覺上分離予以辨別。乙式有雙書名號U+300A LEFT DOUBLE ANGLE BRACKET [《]與U+300B RIGHT DOUBLE ANGLE BRACKET [》]、單書名號U+3008 LEFT ANGLE BRACKET [〈]與U+3009 RIGHT ANGLE BRACKET [〉]，前一對用於標示書名號、後一對用於標示篇名。
Book title marks are used to indicate titles of books, articles, songs, films, documents, artworks and so on.
According to the General Rules for Punctuation (GB/T 15834—2011) in Mainland China, the names of books as well as chapters should be quoted using double angle brackets [《》]. When there is a need to indicate the name of another book within the double angle brackets [《》], the ordinary angle brackets [〈〉] should be used.
Sizes and positions of Punctuation Marks标点符号的字形、尺寸与字面分布標點符號的字形、尺寸與字面分布
Please find a description of the glyphs and usage of punctuation marks at [[[#categories_and_usage_of_punctuation_marks]]] and [[[#tables_of_chinese_punctuation_marks]]]. There are no notable differences among different regions in the glyphs of punctuation marks. The major differences are their size and where the character face is positioned relative to the character frame.
Punctuation marks used in Taiwan and Hong Kong are usually positioned in the vertical and horizontal center of the square space left for them; while in vertical writing mode and horizontal writing mode, some of the punctuation marks are positioned in different directions so as to mark the corresponding characters more accurately. In Chinese Manland, the punctuation marks are usually positioned following the characters they are supposed to mark; while some punctuation marks might be positioned in different directions due to the vertical or horizontal writing mode. Also, different writing modes might require different punctuation marks to fulfill the same function, e.g. horizontal writing mode requires curved quotation marks while vertical writing mode requires corner brackets.
Pause or stop punctuation marks include the slight-pause comma, comma, semicolon, colon, period, question mark, exclamation mark, etc. They take the same dimensions as well as the direction as a character in their respective writing modes does. In Taiwan and Hong Kong, pause or stop punctuation marks are usually positioned in the vertical and horizontal center of the square space left for them. In Chinese Mainland, they are positioned in the top or bottom side in the space left for them following the marked characters. In horizontal writing mode, the pause or stop punctuation marks are placed at the lower left corner in the square space while in vertical writing mode, they are placed in the right upper corner.
Bracket marks include quotation marks, parentheses, book title mark type B, etc. They should be positioned in pairs at either side of the marked character(s), have the same dimensions as a character, and the same direction as the characters. Bracket quotation marks have different positioning rules in different areas. In Taiwan, single quotation marks will be used first and then double quotation marks, whereas in Chinese Mainland, double quotation marks will be used first and then single quotation marks. Also, the writing mode should be taken into consideration as well. Horizontal writing mode requires curved quotation marks while vertical writing mode requires corner brackets.
Ellipses and two-em dashes, should be vertically and horizontally centered within their square frame, and should be one character in height and two characters in width. They are not supposed to be separated from one line to the next and should be positioned in the same direction as the characters.
Connector marks should take up the same dimensions as a single character, and be vertically and horizontally centered within its square frame. Among the connector marks, the EN DASH should have a short length to distinguish it from the Han character [一], which means one. And they should be positioned in the same direction as the characters they mark.
Middle dots should be vertically and horizontally centered within their square frame. To make more economical use of the available space, or to tighten the overall spacing, sometimes the solidus can have 1/2 em.
Interlinear marks like proper noun marks, book title mark type A, and emphasis dots should be positioned underneath the marked characters in horizontal writing mode. In vertical writing mode, emphasis dots should be positioned to the right side of the marked characters so as not to affect the characters above and beneath them.
Solidi should be vertically and horizontally centered within their square frame. As GB rules, it should take 1/2 em, whereas in Taiwan, there is no clear rule about its dimensions but most publications will give them the same dimensions as a single character.
Book title mark A (wavy low line) is positioned to the bottom of the marked characters in horizontal writing mode, and to the left of the marked characters in vertical writing mode.
Proper noun marks are positioned to the bottom of the marked characters in horizontal writing mode, and to the left of the marked characters in vertical writing mode.
Emphasis dots are positioned to the bottom of the marked characters in horizontal writing mode, and to the right of the marked characters in vertical writing mode.
Atypical punctuation marks and their composition非典型的标点符号及其配置非典型的標點符號及其配置
Science and technology literature科技文献科技文獻
Science and technology literature prefer U+FF0E FULLWIDTH FULL STOP [．] to U+3002 IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP [。] so as to make a clear distinction from the letter [o] or digit .
科技文献中的“句号”多使用U+FF0E FULLWIDTH FULL STOP [．]替代U+3002 IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP [。]，以避免同拉丁字母“o”或数字“0”混淆。
科技文獻中的「句號」多使用U+FF0E FULLWIDTH FULL STOP [．]替代U+3002 IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP [。]，以避免同拉丁字母「o」或數字「0」混淆。
Special cases in publications from Taiwan and Hong Kong港台中文出版品的特殊情况港台中文出版品的特殊情況
In Traditional Chinese publications such as ancient books, science and technology literature, textbooks, or books that have quotations in Western languages, some pause or stop punctuation marks, including the slight-pause comma, colon and period, are positioned following the marked characters. The same applies for Simplified Chinese as well as Japanese so as to unify punctuation styles for both Chinese and Western languages.
Exclamatory question mark, repeating question marks and repeating exclamation marks叹问号与问、叹号叠加嘆問號與問、嘆號疊加
Exclamatory question marks are defined in the General Rules for Punctuation (GB/T 15834—2011) as an extended usage of exclamation marks. For questions with a strong exclamatory tone of voice, it is appropriate to add an exclamation mark after the question mark (?!). However, it is common to see a question mark added after an exclamation mark (!?) in numerous publications as well. In addition, GB rules indicate that it is acceptable to chain up to 3 exclamation marks or question marks in succession (!!!, ???) for exclamatory statements or interrogative sentences which require greater emphasis.
In print publications, GB rules state that when question marks and exclamation marks are chained, they are considered 1 em. Double question marks or double exclamation marks also 1 em. Triple question marks or triple exclamation marks are 2 em. In addition, for vertical writing mode in Taiwan, chained question marks or exclamation marks are upright and take up 1 em.
The following punctuation marks already exist in Unicode: U+2047 DOUBLE QUESTION MARK [⁇]、U+203C DOUBLE EXCLAMATION MARK [‼ ]、U+2048 QUESTION EXCLAMATION MARK [⁈]、U+2049 EXCLAMATION QUESTION MARK [⁉]. They should be used with discretion.
在Unicode中已编有U+2047 DOUBLE QUESTION MARK [⁇]、U+203C DOUBLE EXCLAMATION MARK [‼ ]、U+2048 QUESTION EXCLAMATION MARK [⁈]、U+2049 EXCLAMATION QUESTION MARK [⁉]等符号，在考量字体支持下可斟酌使用。
在Unicode中已編有U+2047 DOUBLE QUESTION MARK [⁇]、U+203C DOUBLE EXCLAMATION MARK [‼]、U+2048 QUESTION EXCLAMATION MARK [⁈]、U+2049 EXCLAMATION QUESTION MARK [⁉]等符號，在考量字體支援下可斟酌使用。
Symbol of death示亡号示亡號
The symbol of death is not defined in the GB rules, but is a punctuation mark which is widely used by the commons. The symbol of death is a solid black border outside the character frame of a person's name to indicate the person is deceased. Its Western counterpart would be the dagger punctuation mark (U+2020 DAGGER † and U+2021 DOUBLE DAGGER ‡).
The symbol of death is used to indicate a person who had been recently deceased, and is often seen in name lists, official reports, genealogy records and so on. It is not used for people who have passed away for some time or well-known deceased individuals.
Prohibition Rules for Line Start and Line End行首行尾禁则行首行尾禁則
In order to maintain a smooth reading experience and consistency of style, there are certain constraints for the positioning of most punctuation marks. In most cases, according to its function, a punctuation mark is prohibited from appearing at the line start or line end. This rule was first implemented during the time of letterpress printing. In Mainland China, the national standard General Rules for Punctuation (GB/T 15834—2011) sets clear rules about the positioning of punctuation marks. In Taiwan and Hong Kong, there is not yet a standard for the usage and positioning of punctuation marks, but most of the publications apply the rules described in this document.
There are four sets of line-breaking rules with different strictness:
Ignore all prohibition against line breaks. Commonly used in newspapers in Taiwan and Hong Kong.
Pause or stop punctuation marks (secondary commas, commas, semicolons, colons, periods, exclamation marks, and question marks), closing quotation marks, closing parentheses, closing angle brackets, connector marks, and interpuncts should not appear at the line start. Opening quotation marks, opening parentheses, and opening angle brackets should not appear at the line end. This is the most recommended method.
Prior to processing the prohibition rules, [[[#punctuation_width_adjustment]]] according to the typesetting style should be processed first, because compression of the punctuation marks will affect the line break position.
In principle, line-breaking rules within a single document should be consistent. However, in the case where three punctuation marks appear together, such as [。』」], prohibition against line break can be ignored to keep a reasonable spacing between characters in each line. This should be considered as a remedial measure and is not recommended generally.
Prohibition Rules for Unbreakable Marks符号分离禁则符號分離禁則
The following punctuation marks should be considered as one unit and take 2 em. They should not be separated into two lines. In cases where multiples of such punctuation marks appear together, it is allowed to separate them into two lines as described in [[[#handling_western_text_in_chinese_text_using_proportional_western_fonts]]]. If they were forced to remain on one line, it might cause too much space between the characters in the previous line and decrease the aesthetics of the entire composition.
Two-em dashes [——] can be created using U+2E3A TWO-EM DASH [⸺] or two adjacent U+2014 EM DASH [—] characters. Both alternatives should take 2 em.
乙式括号与破折号是占两个汉字空间的U+2E3A TWO-EM DASH [⸺] 或连续使用两个U+2014 EM DASH [—]。
乙式括號與破折號為佔二個漢字空間的U+2E3A TWO-EM DASH [⸺] 或連續使用兩個U+2014 EM DASH [—]。
When two U+2026 HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS […] or U+22EF MIDLINE HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS [⋯] characters are used together for ellipsis, they take up the space of two Hanzi characters, are horizontally and vertically centered within their character frames, and consist of six dots.
Digits and their Prefix and Suffix数字及其相应的前后缀单位符号數字及其相應的前後綴單位符號
Punctuation Width Adjustment标点符号的宽度调整標點符號的寬度調整
Punctuation marks between characters (except for two-em dash and horizontal ellipsis) usually occupy 1 em, making it easy to recognize and lay out. Some layout styles do not adjust the punctuation width at all. However, in order to make the the composition tighter and more readable, and when implementing [[[#prohibition_rules_for_line_start_end]]], the width of the punctuation marks needs to be adjusted. Whether to adjust depends on the judgment of the typesetting style. Many publications in Taiwan do not adjust punctuation width, while most publications in Mainland China and Hong Kong do adjust punctuation width. Punctuation width adjustment is usually divided into two situations: 1) when consecutive punctuation marks appear 2) when the punctuation mark appears at the beginning or end of a line. There are more than one style of width adjustment, and only the basic principles are explained below.
Punctuation marks are divided into two types: "unadjustable" and "adjustable", and "adjustable" is divided into six categories according to the position of the adjustable space: left of character face in horizontal writing mode, right of character face in horizontal writing mode, left and right of character face in horizontal writing modes; top of character face in vertical writing mode, bottom of character face in vertical writing mode, top and bottom of character face in vertical writing mode.
Unadjustable punctuations include: GB-style short connector marks, interpuncts, and solidi, because these punctuation points always take 1/2 em; exclamation marks and question marks in horizontal writing mode in Hong Kong and Taiwan, and colons, semicolons, question marks, exclamation marks in vertical writing mode in Chinese Mainland, Hong Kong, and Taiwan, because these punctuations always take 1 em.
Adjustment of adjacent punctuation marks连续标点符号的调整連續標點符號的調整
Regardless of the style of the text as a whole, adjustments should be made in principle when brackets appear next to other punctuations, or when brackets appear repeatedly (such as opening & opening, closing & closing, or closing & opening) to make the text more compact and easy to read.
The adjustment in principle should be: if any two adjacent punctuation marks take 2 em, they should be reduced to 1.5 em. Based on this principle, the typography style is allowed to be further adjusted so that the two punctuation marks take only 1 em.
Most Chinese publications do not use hanging punctuation at line end. According to the Japanese Layout Requirements document, hanging punctuation at the line end is a kind of extension of the prohibition rules at line start. This rule helps to avoid moving characters or punctuation marks between lines and avoids inconsistency of space between the characters in different lines.
In general, the punctuation marks that can be hung at the line end include slight-pause comma, comma and period. In Simplified Chinese, all the pause or stop punctuation marks overhang the line end since they are positioned at the starting point of the character frame.
If a punctuation mark (slight-pause comma, comma or period) is expected to be at the start of a line, it should be placed at the end of the previous line, to fit in the type area.
However, in Taiwan and Hong Kong, since punctuation marks are positioned in the vertical and horizontal center, hanging the punctuation marks might make an abrupt affect on the composition. Therefore, Traditional Chinese does not apply hanging punctuation in horizontal writing mode but only in vertical writing mode.
In the case of a succession of punctuation marks, punctuation hanging should not be applied.
Handling Interlinear Punctuation行间标点的处理行間標點的處理
Most punctuation marks in modern Chinese typesetting are interspersed between the text in a line, but the Proper Noun Mark (underline), the Book Title Mark (only for the type A wavy low line) and the Emphasis Dot need to be positioned between lines. These punctuation marks are known as “interlinear marks”. Of which, the Proper Noun Mark and the Book Title mark are known as interlinear lines.
Jùdòu (句读, old-style punctuation) for ancient Chinese texts were all interlinear marks. Although the typesetting of ancient Chinese texts is beyond the scope of this document, the guidance provided in this section can still serve as a reference for the basic principles of interlinear marks.
In vertical typesetting, the interlinear lines are positioned to the left of the text, while the Emphasis Dot is positioned to the right of the text. The situation where both these marks are applied at the same time is known as double-sided setting. In horizontal typesetting, both the interlinear lines and Emphasis Dot are positioned to the bottom of the text. This situation is known as a single-side setting. In principle, text typeset horizontally will not use double-sided setting.
Under normal circumstances, a line of text will use the same font size. For these instances, single-sided and double-sided setting will generally behave as follows:
Regardless of single-sided or double-sided setting, as well as for horizontal or vertical typesetting, the line gap must always be consistent. This is in accordance to what was stated in section 22.214.171.124. During the initial typesetting design, the positioning of the interlinear marks must be taken into account such that sufficient space is allocated for the line gap. Forcing extra spacing in a single line containing interlinear marks must be avoided as much as possible.
To ensure appropriate positioning of interlinear marks, the line gap for single-sided setting must not be smaller than half of the font size, while the line gap for double-sided setting must not be smaller than 5/8 (=1/2+1/8) of the font size.
Emphasis Dots shall be center-aligned with its corresponding character; interlinear lines must be correspond with the length and quantity of content they are marking out. As such, if there are multiple instances which need to be marked out with interlinear lines, multiple interlinear lines need to be used. Interlinear lines cannot be arbitrarily broken up. And a single interlinear line cannot be composed out of multiple fragments. For example, if there are two adjacent Proper Nouns, even if the text being marked out is set solid, both Proper Nouns must be clearly marked with two Proper Noun Marks that are distinguishable from one another. In this instance, a single Proper Noun Mark must not be used, because this would cause the two Proper Nouns to be misunderstood as a single Proper Noun.
Interlinear marks must be as close to the marked text as possible. The thickness and size of the interlinear lines and emphasis dots is determined by the font design and typesetting rendering engine, but even though there is no absolute limitation, the sizing of these interlinear marks must be harmonious with the font size and letter-spacing of the marked text.
For Loose Setting or Situations When Letter-Spacing Needs To Be Increased在疏排或行内调整需要拉开字距的情况在疏排或行內調整需要拉開字距的情況
If the letter-spacing of the marked text needs to be increased, the length of the interlinear line must be increased to match without being broken
In accordance to what was explained in the first general guidance, even after the letter-spacing is increased, Emphasis Dots must continue to be center-aligned with the text they are marking
根据上述通则 1. 拉开字距后，着重号依旧应与字符居中对齐而不能错位。
根據上述通則 1. 拉開字距後，著重號依舊應與字符居中對齊而不能錯位。
Special Situation for Single-Side Setting横排单面装特殊情况橫排單面裝特殊情況
By right, double-sided setting must not occur in horizontal writing mode. In cases where both a Proper Noun Mark or Book Title Mark is used together with Emphasis Dots, the guiding principle is "line first, followed by dot", such that the underline or wavy line is closer to the text, while the dot comes below.
Composition of Chinese and Western Mixed Texts中、西文混排处理中、西文混排處理
Composition of Chinese and Western Mixed Text中文与西文的混排中文與西文的混排
There are many examples in Chinese text where Western characters, such as Latin letters, Greek letters, or European numerals, are found alongside Han characters. The following are just a few examples:
One Western letter used as a symbol for something, such as 'A' or 'B'.
A Western word is used in a Chinese context, such as 'editor'.
Acronyms, such as 'DTP' or 'GDP'.
Book titles or authors in references to Western books that use the original spelling.
European numerals used to express years or other numbers, such as '1999年'.
Western numeric characters are also used in itemized lists and numbered headings, or as symbols for chemical elements or mathematical formulae. It can be seen from these examples that it is an everyday occurrence to find Western characters mixed with Han characters in Chinese composition.
Western numerals, sometimes called arabic, or arabic-indic numerals, are referred to as European numerals in the context of this document, unless notes indicate otherwise.
Formerly, fullwidth ASCII characters were often used, either to make the presentation look orderly, or simply due to the poorly developed computer technologies available for text layout. Nowadays, typesetting engines allow for proportional or monospace fonts, as required, rather than forcing the user to resort to the old fullwidth blocks of Latin letters and European numerals.
When Western texts are mixed with Han characters, Chinese style punctuation and its common usage should be used in principle since the main text is Chinese. However, in the case of technical documents, if plenty of formulae are contained in the text, the full stop can be unified with the western-style period, U+002E FULL STOP [.], and the ellipsis can be unifed with the western-style ellipsis, U+2026 HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS […]. The way glyphs are positioned relative to the character frame follows the Western convention for both Simplified and Traditional text. Also in textbooks on the grammar of Western languages, which contain plenty of example sentences mixed with Chinese, the aforementioned western-style periods can be used.
中西混排中，由于正文是中文，原则上应该使用中文标点，遵守中文标点的习惯用法。但是，涉及公式较多的科学技术中文图书，句号可以统一使用西文句号U+002E FULL STOP [.]，省略号可以使用西文省略号U+2026 HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS […]，字面分布按西文习惯；又或西文例句较多且多与中文混排的中文版西文语法教材，亦可使用前述的西文句号。
中西混排中，由於正文是中文，原則上應該使用中文標點，遵守中文標點的習慣用法。但是，涉及公式較多的科學技術中文圖書，句號可以統一使用西文句號U+002E FULL STOP [.]，刪節號可以使用西文刪節號U+2026 HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS […]，字面分布按西文習慣；又或西文例句較多且多與中文混排的中文版西文語法教材，亦可使用前述的西文句號。
Mixed Text Composition in Horizontal Writing Mode横排的中、西文混排配置橫排的中、西文混排配置
In horizontal writing mode, the basic approach uses proportional fonts to represent Western text and uses proportional or monospace fonts for European numerals. In principle, there is tracking or spacing between an adjacent Han character and a Western character of up to 1/4 em, except at the line start or end.
Setting Western letters with Han character width monospace fonts. Letters or European numerals follow each other, one at a time, in the same direction and orientation as the Han characters. This arrangement is usually adopted where the text contains a single letter or digit, or an acronym (such as GDP).
Setting Western letters with proportional fonts, rotated 90 degrees clockwise. This approach is usually adopted where Latin letters compose a word or sentence. There is tracking or spacing between a Han character and an adjacent Western letter or European numeral, up to a width of 1/4 em, except at the line start or end.
Setting European numerals with proportional fonts in horizontal-in-vertical orientation. This style is usually adopted when dealing with a two to three digit number whose width is equal to the default line advance or slightly wider (within an acceptable range).
Han numerals are usually used in vertical writing mode, however, in recent years it is becoming more common to see fullwidth European numerals and proportional numerals set as horizontal-in-vertical.
Quotation marks are usually not used in vertical writing mode (corner brackets are used instead). However, when quoting Western text, quotation marks are sometimes used to match Western style. In this case, the orientation of the quotation marks must follow the quoted Western text (rotated 90° clockwise).
Handling Western Text in Chinese Text Using Proportional Western Fonts西文使用比例字体时的混排处理西文使用比例字體時的混排處理
The following provides composition rules for handling Western characters and European numerals in horizontal writing mode or for situations in vertical writing mode where the Western words/phrases or European numerals are rotated 90 degrees clockwise:
A sequence of Western characters in a Western word should not break across a line-break, except where hyphenation is allowed.
Tracking or spacing between a Han character and a Western letter or numeral is up to 1/4 em.
Justified text alignment is an important feature of Chinese composition. It is harder to align text as expected when a line contains Western characters. Typically, spacing or tracking is applied equally across the line, but such adjustments are only applied between Han characters or between Han and Western letters. The spacing is not equally distributed between characters in Western words and/or European numerals.
Tracking or spacing of Western letters or European numerals is not adjusted before or after Chinese commas or full stops, nor after Chinese opening and before Chinese closing brackets.
Handling of Grid Alignment in Chinese and Western Mixed Text Composition纵横对齐下的中西文混排处理縱橫對齊下的中西文混排處理
Due to the fact that each Han character is of the same width, not only should characters at the start and end of a line be aligned but it is also a requirement for characters within blocks of Han text to be aligned both vertically and horizontally, whether in vertical or horizontal writing mode. When Western text or European numerals are present, this principle is harder to achieve. Possible approaches are listed below:
Instead of 1/4-em spacing between Han and Western letters, it is possible to use flexible spacing of up to 1/2 em. This brings the space occupied by Western characters to a multiple of the width of a Han character. In this way, both the Han character before and after the Western language span snaps to the grid lines.
When a Western word appears at the line end and needs to be broken, rather than breaking the word at a syllable boundary per the Western convention, the word may be forced to break at the line end, in order to ensure correct alignment.
When using grid alignment, it is recommended to deal with line end punctuation marks by hanging the first of them outside the type area as mentioned in section [[[#hanging_punctuation_marks_at_line_end]]]. In situations that involve consecutive punctuation marks, the second and following punctuation marks are allowed to appear at the line start.
Grid alignment is adopted more often in Traditional Chinese typesetting, whereas use in Simplified Chinese is rare.
Usage of Interlinear Annotations行间注的用途行間注的用途
Chinese interlinear annotation, also known as ruby, refers to small, supplementary text attached to certain characters or words in the main text. Chinese interlinear annotation is usually set in the interlinear space and aligned to the corresponding base text which it annotates. In Chinese typesetting, Chinese interlinear annotation is mainly used to indicate pronunciation or meaning.
Indicating the Pronunciation for Han characters为汉字标注读音為漢字標注讀音
In Chinese, interlinear annotation is most commonly used to indicate the pronunciation of Han characters. Presenting the pronunciation alongside the characters is a great help to beginners, especially to children who are native speakers, or to foreigners intending to study Chinese. Therefore, it is rare to annotate isolated Han characters. Instead, phonetic annotations tend to cover the full text. Also, it is not regular practice in Chinese layout to use interlinear annotation for pronunciation outside these educational contexts, even for the pronunciation of rarely used characters, although sometimes pronunciation is provided inline, possibly within brackets.
There are two major annotation systems for indicating Chinese pronunciation: Zhuyin and Romanization.
Mandarin Phonetic Symbols (國語注音符號) or Taiwanese Dialect Phonetic Symbols (台灣方音符號), hereinafter referred to as ‘Zhuyin’, are systems for phonetic annotation mainly used in Taiwan, although other areas may also include Zhuyin in certain dictionaries or textbooks. In most cases, Zhuyin appears on the right side of its corresponding base text. Exceptions are very rare.
Hanyu Pinyin (汉语拼音), now the official standard in Mainland China, uses the Latin alphabet to transcribe the Modern Standard Chinese (Mandarin) pronunciations of Han characters. The most common use case in Mainland China is to indicate the pronunciation for all characters of the full text with Hanyu Pinyin. In Taiwan and areas that use Chinese dialects in China, the arrangement of the Taiwanese Romanization System for Minnan (台灣閩南語羅馬字), or romanization systems of other Chinese dialects are similar to those of Hanyu Pinyin.
Due to the characteristics of the Latin alphabet, such annotations appear in horizontal writing mode only. Texts for children who are native speakers usually provide reading assistance for each individual character, while texts for those who are learning Chinese as a second language mainly indicate pronunciation for whole words, but occasionally, both of them are set almost the same. There is space between the base text when whole words are annotated, and the interlinear annotation characters will have unique requirements such as sentence case, or punctuation marks corresponding to base characters. The composition of early publications using pinyin was quite variable and not consistent. In general, both character-based and word-based annotations were quite common. No further description of the early pinyin will be found in this document.
Indicating Meaning or Other Additional Information标注释义等非语音信息標注釋義等非語音信息
Bilingual annotations aim to provide a Chinese translation of text in foreign languages or acronyms, or to offer the original text for words that have been translated into Chinese. This is mainly used for proper nouns, titles or those terms whose concepts are difficult to convey after translation. It is commonly found in translated works, mainly in light novels.
Interlinear comments are ways to annotate the meaning of text fragments or a single word, and are so named for their interlinear positioning. They usually lie in the interlinear space and co-exist with the body text. Compared to other annotation methods, i.e. headnotes or footnotes, interlinear comments are more compact and stick better to the body. These kinds of comments are often found in ancient books, such as Rouge Inkstone, an early commentary of the novel Dream of the Red Chamber.
Overview of Interlinear Annotation Positioning行间注排版概述行間注排版概述
In vertical writing mode, Zhuyin, Romanization or bilingual annotations are usually placed on the right side of the base text (Han characters), while interlinear comments are often placed on the left side. In horizontal writing mode, Zhuyin can be placed above the base text, but in most cases they are still set to the right side of the base text. On the other hand, Romanization and bilingual annotations can appear both above or below the base text, and the interlinear comments are usually placed at the bottom of the base text.
In principle, Zhuyin Phonetic Symbols are of the same size, and the number of Zhuyin symbols for one Han character is never more than three, which is quite easily manageable. Romanization, however, uses Latin letters whose sizes are proportional, their composed lengths are varied and there should be spaces between the words. Thus, these two kinds of phonetic annotations differ greatly in positioning.
Annotating with both Romanization and Zhuyin is a practical way to indicate the reading to readers who know only one of these systems, as well as helping study of or enquiries about the other one. Normally, when Romanization and Zhuyin are both provided, the Zhuyin are placed on the right side of the Han character while Romanization is set at the bottom of the Han character in horizontal writing mode and to the left side in vertical writing mode.
Positioning of Zhuyin Interlinear Annotations注音符号标音的排版注音符號標音的排版
Positioning of Zhuyin Symbols注音符号的位置注音符號的位置
According to the Handbook of Mandarin Phonetic Symbols (國語注音符號手冊) released by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan, there are two standard ways of positioning Zhuyin: above the corresponding Han character (horizontal Zhuyin), or on the right side of the corresponding Han character (vertical Zhuyin). The use cases for putting Zhuyin above the base characters are rarely found in today's textbooks or other publications, and it is rarely used by the public at large. Therefore, it's always better practice to place Zhuyin annotations on the right side of their corresponding Han character, whether in horizontal or vertical writing mode.
Choice of Size and Ratio for Zhuyin Symbols注音符号的比例与大小注音符號的比例與大小
The size of Zhuyin annotation marks, including the phonetic symbols and their tones, should not exceed the size of the corresponding base characters. When Zhuyin annotation marks are placed above or to the right side of the base characters, the width of the Zhuyin annotation marks should not exceed the size of the corresponding base characters.
When Zhuyin annotations are placed to the right side of base characters, in principle they should take half of the space of the corresponding base characters. The space should include the phonetic symbols as well as the tone marks. Zhuyin annotations without tone marks, such as the level tone in Mandarin, should take the same amount of space as annotations with tone marks.
In vertical writing mode, when Zhuyin annotations are placed to the right side of the base characters (vertical Zhuyin), the line gap of the paragraph, where the Zhuyin annotations should be placed, needs more than 1.5 times that of the base characters. The type area should be designed to allow the proper space for the line gap. If the line gap is more than 1.5 times that of the height of the base character, the line gap should not be affected, whether there are Zhuyin annotations between the lines or not.
In horizontal writing mode, when Zhuyin annotations are placed to the right side of the base characters (vertical Zhuyin), the spaces between the base characters, where the Zhuyin annotations are placed, should be at least half of the width of those characters. To achieve grid alignment, the characters without Zhuyin annotations, such as punctuation marks, Western words and indented space should keep the same space as well.
In principle, the size of Zhuyin annotations (including the phonetic symbols and the tone marks) to that of base characters ratio should be 3:10. In vertical Zhuyin, Zhuyin annotations should be vertically center-aligned to the base character, while in horizontal Zhuyin, Zhuyin annotations should be center-aligned over the base character beneath them.
In vertical Zhuyin, the width of the space taken by the neutral tone mark does not change but the height ratio to the base character should be 1:15. In horizontal Zhuyin, the height of the space taken by the neutral tone mark does not change but the width ratio to the base character should be 1:15.
When annotating Zhuyin for paragraphs with characters in larger sizes, the size of the Zhuyin annotations can be adjusted accordingly.
Positioning of the Tones in Zhuyin Symbols注音符号的声调号位置注音符號的聲調號位置
Mandarin non-neutral tones and dialectal non-checked tones, are placed outside the upper right corner of the last phonetic symbol. In vertical Zhuyin, half the space taken by a tone mark will be above the top of the adjacent phonetic character; in horizontal Zhuyin, half the space taken by a tone mark will appear to the right of the phonetic character. As seen in [[[#zhuyin-regular-tone]]].
The dialectal checked tones are set outside the lower right corner of the phonetic symbols. As seen in [[[#zhuyin-checked-tone]]].
The Mandarin neutral tone comes before the phonetic symbols. In vertical Zhuyin, the height of the tone mark is 10% of that of its base character, while its width is the same as that of the phonetic characters. In horizontal Zhuyin, the width of the tone mark is 10% of that of its base characters, while its height is the same as that of the phonetic characters. As seen in [[[#zhuyin-neutral-tone]]].
At the beginning of the formulation of Zhuyin phonetic symbol ㄧ (U+3127 BOPOMOFO LETTER I), the typesetting rule was that one horizontal line should be used in vertical writing mode, and one vertical line should be used in horizontal writing mode. This usage appears in the documents of the Republican Era, as well as in the Xinhua Dictionary in Mainland China. However, when the Zhuyin phonetic symbols are used in the Chinese language teaching in Taiwan, regardless of whether it is in vertical or horizontal writing mode, a horizontal line should be used.
注音符号ㄧ（U+3127 BOPOMOFO LETTER I）于制定初期，排版规定直排时为一横、横排时为一竖。此用法出现在民国时期的文献，以及中国大陆的新华字典上。但注音符号系统应用于台湾的国语文教学，无论直横排列，都以横画为原则。
注音符號ㄧ（U+3127 BOPOMOFO LETTER I）於制定初期，排版規定直排時為一橫、橫排時為一豎。此用法出現在民國時期的文獻，以及中國大陸的新華字典上。但注音符號系統應用於台灣的國語文教學，無論直橫排列，都以橫畫為原則。
Therefore, the glyph in the Unicode Code Chart is a horizontal line. In terms of font technologies, the OpenType font feature 'hist', which stands for the historical form, can be used to replace the vertical line for presenting historical documents or special needs.
Like the line prohibition rules for punctuation, vertical Zhuyin annotations should stick to their base characters in horizontal writing mode. They must not appear in the line head, and must be placed on the right side of their corresponding Han character.
Positioning of Romanized Interlinear Annotations罗马拼音标音的排版羅馬拼音標音的排版
Romanization is only available in horizontal writing mode. These phonetic annotations are usually placed on top of the base text. Regardless of the length of the base text and the phonetic annotations, the annotations should set solid and center-aligned with the basic text.
In special cases where Romanization is needed in vertical writing mode, the annotations are usually set to the right side of their corresponding base text, but it is difficult to read anyway.
If a Romanized annotation is longer than its base text and is at the line head or end, both the annotation and the base text can be aligned with line head or end.
The space between two adjacent annotations should not be smaller than the size of a normal Western-language space, which is about 1/4 em. Due to the limitation of typesetting technologies, there is usually no space between the rather long phonetic annotations in many printed publications. Luckily, this is not likely to lead to ambiguity because each Han character contains one syllable and most Pinyin fragments are easy to tell apart. However, these annotations can be misleading sometimes. For example, character-based phonetic annotations may result in the false impression that they are word-based. Also, the accidentally concatenated annotations may disrupt word boundaries, which alters the semantic meanings of the words.
Annotations are allowed to extend over the top of the adjacent base text as long as the minimum spacing is ensured.
As most target readers are beginners to Chinese, the body text is usually in larger sizes and in the Kai typeface.
Due to the fact that Latin letters are proportional (width unknown) and that the advance widths in different typefaces deviate greatly from one another, the relationship between the sizes of annotations and their base text is somewhat undetermined. Under the influence of the typesetting of Japanese furigana, however, annotations are usually of half size of the base text.
Annotations usually use a sans-serif typeface which is rather thin and plump. It is generally the opinion in publishing and in education that Hanyu Pinyin must use those typefaces in which ‘a’ and ‘g’ are single story and the second tone mark is thick on the lower part and thin on the upper, as in the handwritten style of the stroke. Actually there have never been any national standards specifying the typefaces and the glyphs for Hanyu Pinyin.
The General Association of Chinese Culture in Taiwan once wrote to the Ministry of Education in Mainland China about the rules for the glyphs of Hanyu Pinyin, and received the response that the glyphs of the letter ‘a’ and ‘g’ correspond to those of Latin. There is no requirement demanding the handwritten glyphs.
What follows is a detailed description of the difference between two typical use cases.
Characters as the Basic Units for Annotating Pronunciation单字标音單字標音
The base text is a single Han character. Only Han characters are annotated: European numerals or punctuation marks are excluded.
The phonetic annotations are always on the top.
As the phonetic annotations are often wider than their base text, the tracking of the body text should be larger, to allow annotations to expand and to avoid irregular adjustments within the base text.
Annotations sometimes appear below the Han characters.
Both the phonetic annotations and the base text are separated at word boundaries. The adjacent annotations are separated by an approximately 1/2-em wide space, while the tracking inside the base text is usually normal.
Many word-based annotations indicate the logic of the whole sentence, rather than merely the pronunciation: these phonetic annotations have capitalized sentences and capitalized proper names. Punctuation may also be included in these annotations, but is kept with a preceding annotation, as shown in [[[#group-ruby]]], and doesn't appear over the punctuation in the base text.
Atypical Cases for Han character Phonetic Annotations汉字标音的非典型情况漢字標音的非典型情況
Erhuayin, also known as rhotacization of syllable finals, is a special phonetic phenomenon in Modern Standard Chinese (Mandarin). Due to the limitations of annotating single Han characters, the Zhuyin annotations fail to indicate the continuity of Erhuayin and the change of the final sound, while Romanization shows the features of Erhuayin effectively.
Positioning of Bilingual Annotations中外文对照的排版中外文對照的排版
Typesetting of bilingual annotations is actually quite similar to that of Romanization. Annotations are usually placed to the right of the base text in vertical writing mode, or above the base text in horizontal writing mode.
When the length of an annotation is shorter than that of its base text, the annotation can be center-aligned (in the case of Western script) or use larger tracking (in the case of Han characters). There are two methods to satisfy the latter, one is to equally distribute the spacing while the other is to align justified.
When the length of an annotation is longer than that of its base text, the base text can be center-aligned (in the case of Western script) or use a larger tracking (in the case of Han characters).
Positioning of Interlinear Comments行间批语的排版行間批語的排版
Interlinear comments can have very varied layouts and lengths. They are usually placed at the foot side of the annotated text — to the left side of the base text in vertical writing mode or below the base text in horizontal writing mode. Sometimes the interlinear comments are in other colors to help the reader tell the difference from the body text.
Interlinear comments are also used to explain the context and details of a longer text fragment. In such cases, due to the ambiguity of the base text, the annotation can find a suitable place as an anchor and flow down. There's no strict requirement for its length, and sometimes it can be longer than one line.
A paragraph, a section of a document which consists of one or more sentences to indicate a distinct idea, usually begins on a new line. For the related first-line indents, the following methods are available.
For Chinese publications, a first-line indent usually uses 2-em spaces. Publications like magazines, with multi-column content and less text in each column, might apply 1-em first-line indents as well.
First-line indents are applied to all paragraphs. Nearly all books and magazines make use of this method.
First-line indents do not apply to the first paragraph but to the rest of the paragraphs. This method is mostly seen in Western publications.
No first-line indent is applied to any paragraph. A certain amount of space is inserted between the paragraphs so as to indicate the distinction between different paragraphs. In some books and magazines this method is applied.
In principle, some unfinished paragraphs should be broken rather than apply the first-line indents for the following paragraph. Dialogs, quotations or subtitles that the editor inserted might appear before the unfinished paragraph.
In principle, there is no extra space between paragraphs in Chinese books. The space between the last line of the previous paragraph and the first line of the next paragraph stays the same as the space between the rest of the lines in the paragraph. If a blank line is inserted after a paragraph, usually it indicates the end of the section or chapter. If there is no indent but extra space is added among the lines as an indication of separation, no blank line should be inserted to indicate the end of the section or chapter.
Alongside the case of applying indents to the beginning of all lines, there is also the method that indents the second and following lines of the paragraph, called tupai [凸排] or itemization, used in cases such as dramatic script lines and lines starting with the name of a person. Numbered lists of items, questions and answers (Q&A), and legal provisions utilise this method as well. Though called tupai [凸排] or itemization, the beginning of the line should not go beyond the type area.
When the tupai [凸排] or itemization method is used, the indent of the second line and the rest usually takes a fixed amount of space such as three characters plus one colon which takes four-character space. When the name of a person is less than three characters, a certain amount of space should be inserted between the characters so as to keep the same width as four.
The paragraph indent is the indentation of the line head by a fixed amount, starting from the line head side of the type area (in the case of one column) or of the column area (in the case of several columns). This method is usually applied for quotations, poetry or subtitles in a paragraph or between the paragraphs.
Generally speaking, the characters in the paragraphs which apply paragraph indent should be the same as the characters in the body content. Sometimes, due to the different typefaces, the size of characters in the paragraphs which apply paragraph indent differ from the characters in the body content. In this case, a certain amount of space might be added before and after the indent paragraph so as to make a clear distinction from other paragraphs. The space added is usually an integer times the height of paragraphs in the body content
Line alignment method is a process for setting the alignment of each line of text so that the actual position of the text can be matched with their preset position. "Single line alignment" is a process for setting alignment for a run of text that is shorter than a given line length. This method is frequently used for items, headings, and poems. The following methods are available.
The space between adjacent characters is, in principle, set solid, but the Han-Western spacing and the spacing around brackets can be adjusted according to the typesetting style. The center of the character sequence is unified with the center of the line, and the amount of spacing at the line head and line end is made equal.
The space between adjacent characters is, in principle, set solid, but the Han-Western spacing and the spacing around brackets can be adjusted according to the typesetting style. The start of the character sequence is unified with the line head, and if the line is not full, the line end is kept empty.
The space between adjacent characters is, in principle, set solid, but the Han-Western spacing and the spacing around brackets can be adjusted according to the typesetting style. The end of the character sequence is unified with the line end, and if the line is not full, the line head is kept empty.
Even inter-character spacing
The space between adjacent characters is, in principle, set solid, but the Han-Western spacing and the spacing around brackets can be adjusted according to the typesetting style. Using the spacing made available during line adjustment processing, equal character spacing is applied where possible. The start of the character sequence is aligned to the position of the line head, and the end of the character sequence to the position of the line end.
A frequently seen case of even inter-character spacing is that, after applying the punctuation prohibition rules to each line, some lines will have more than one character space left, so in order to align the beginning and ending with the rest of the lines, this line should apply even inter-character spacing.
Even inter-character spacing is often used for listing names of people or objects. The last line of a paragraph or a paragraph with only one line can have even inter-character spacing applied as well.
Handling of Widows and Orphans孤行与孤字处理孤行與孤字處理
In the tradition of Chinese composition, an orphan does not make a line, nor does a widow make a page. The principles are as described below.
If there is only one character or one character with a punctuation mark left in the last line of a paragraph, this character is called an orphan. An orphan can be processed using the following methods, so that more than two characters can be positioned in the last line of a paragraph.
Similar to the handling for the prohibition rule that punctuation marks should not appear at the line start, the last character of the previous line can be moved to the next line, and the previous line should apply even inter-character spacing.
There is only one line in a page and the line consists of one character and a punctuation mark, which makes the text an orphan and widow at the same time.
There are multiple paragraphs in a page but the first line is a widow and the first line consists of one character and a punctuation mark, which makes the orphan and widow appear together.
There is only one line in a page, which makes the line a widow.
There are multiple paragraphs in a page but the first line is a widow.
There are multiple paragraphs in a page but one of the lines consists of one character only, which make the only character an orphan.
There are different viewpoints on how the orphans and widows should be handled in the cases above due to differences between publishers. Case (a) and case (b) have a bigger affect on typesetting while case (c) affects it less. Cases (d) and (e) are rarely seen.
There are numerous reasons, e.g. [[[#prohibition_rules_for_line_start_end]]], that result in line lengths being uneven. Under such circumstances, line adjustment is required. With the exception of [[[#prohibition_rules_for_unbreakable_marks]]], a run of text may be broken at the specified line length, allowing the text to be arranged into even rows. Other than the last line of a paragraph, the start and end of a line must be placed at the specified line start and line end position respectively. The last line of the paragraph will be adjusted accordingly to the overall flow of the text with adjustments made to the width of its punctuation. It is not necessary for the end of the last line to be aligned with the rest of the text. Please refer to [[[#adjustments_of_orphans_and_widows]]]. If the text only comprises of 1 line, please refer to [[[#ways_of_alignments]]].
In contrast to Western typesetting, the body text in Chinese books are rarely left-aligned, and instead should be justified. Justification of Western texts hinges on the adjustment of space between the words on a line, whereas there are more options for line justification when it comes to Chinese typesetting.
Reduction and Expansion of Inter-Character Spacing挤压处理和拉伸处理擠壓處理和拉伸處理
Line adjustments are predicated upon the amount of available space, for example, spacing between Western words, [[[#h-punctuation_adjustment_space]]], and so on. There are two methods for line adjustment:
Reduction of Inter-Character Spacing:
Inter-character spacing like those between Western words, mixed texts, or as described in [[[#h-punctuation_adjustment_space]]], should be reduced in accordance to the prevailing typesetting style.
Expansion of Inter-Character Spacing:
Inter-character spacing like those between Western words, mixed texts or scenarios that are not limited by prohibition rules should be added in accordance to the prevailing typesetting style.
In order to make the composition tighter and more readable, the guiding principle is to attempt to implement space reduction first. In the event that is insufficient, then space can be added where acceptable to achieve justification.
The word spacing in Western texts described here only pertains to situations which involve compositions of mixed Western and Han characters. The expected behaviour is different from that for purely Western texts, which will take into account the typeface, font size and letter spacing when doing text justification. In general, Western texts will add to word spacing and rarely uses space reduction.
Procedures for Inter-Character Spacing Reduction挤压处理的优先顺序擠壓處理的優先順序
Inter-character spacing reduction should be processed according to the following steps, in order of precedence:
At the end of a line: adjusted to fixed 1/2 em.
Spacing between Western texts: for lines with numerous instances of Western text, their spacing should be processed at the same time, with equal treatment. The minimum space between each Western text should be 1/4 em.
Interpuncts: space reduction must take place equally on both sides of the character. The minimum space is 0, whereby the interpunct ends up being 1/2 em.
Brackets: space reduction can take place before the opening bracket and after the closing bracket. If multiple brackets occur within the same line, their space reduction should be processed at the same time, with equal treatment. Space can be reduced until the bracket is 1/2 em.
Commas, secondary commas and semi-colons: space reduction should follow [[[#h-punctuation_adjustment_space]]]. Spacing can be reduced at the end of the punctuation mark or equally on either side. If multiple of such punctuations occur within the same line, their space reduction should be processed at the same time, with equal treatment. Space can be reduced until the punctuation mark is 1/2 em.
Spacing between Han characters and Western texts: if there are numerous instances of mixed texts, space reduction should be processed at the same time, with equal treatment, with the minimum space being 1/8 em.
Periods, question marks and exclamation marks: in accordance to [[[#h-punctuation_adjustment_space]]], if there is available space, spacing can be reduced up until the minimum size of 1/2 em.
Procedures for Inter-Character Space Expansion拉伸处理的优先顺序拉伸處理的優先順序
Inter-character space expansion should be processed according to the following steps, in order of precedence:
Word spacing between Western texts: for lines with several Western word spaces, these should be processed at the same time, with equal treatment. Each word space can be expanded to a maximum of 1/2 em.
Space between Han characters and Western texts can be expanded from the default width (e.g., 1/4 em). They should be processed at the same time, with equal treatment.
If all the aforementioned adjustments are not applicable, or the desired line length cannot be achieved, only the remaining inter-character spacing may be expanded at the same time, with equal treatment, to achieve text justification. However, there are two exceptions:
Avoid adding spacing to connector marks, solidi, and the characters immediately before and after these marks.
Positioning of Headings, Notes, Illustrations, Tables and Expressions标题、注释与图片、表格的排版处理標題、注釋與圖片、表格的排版處理
Headings & Page Breaks标题处理（包含换页处理）標題處理（包含換頁處理）
Types of Headings标题的种类標題的種類
In terms of text composition, there are three types of headings.
Due to the composition requirements, magazines usually handle headings in a variety of ways, while most books have their headings set up in a simpler way. Methods for handling of headings for magazines will not be described in this document.
Whole page headings are used when there is a need to separate sections in a book, usually on a separate page with the following page left blank. Sometimes subheadings, selected sentences, names of the authors or selected paragraphs will also appear with the heading. The back side of the heading page is not necessarily always blank, for example, consider the Han-tobira in Japanese books, whose following even page is not blank, and is used for the main text.
A block heading is the heading occupying a whole, independent line. The main text is set on the very next line. Top level headings and medium level headings are of this type.
Headings are subtitles, which separate and indicate sub-parts with one coherent set of content. Headings are usually classified into several levels such as top level headings, medium level headings and low level headings.
The sequence of headings on a page should be the name of the book, the section heading, the top level heading, the medium level heading followed by the low level heading.
The structure of a heading depends on the detailed context of the book. It is suggested not to set too many levels for headings.
In a multi-column format, block headings sometimes span multiple columns. These are called cross-column headings.
A run-in heading is a heading immediately followed by main text without a line break, and is usually used as a low level heading. Note that a low level heading can also appear as a block heading.
Font Selection and Heading Font Size突显标题的方式突顯標題的方式
Since they aim to indicate the structural level, most of the time headings have some special way to indicate their level. Here are some rules for the headings:
Character size for the heading: The character size of headings should be selected in accordance with the level of headings. For example, when the character size of main text is 9 point, the small headings are usually set in 10 points, medium headings are usually set in 12 points and large headings are usually set in 14 points.
The character size of headings is usually larger than that of the main text. When this rule is applied, the characters in the heading should be 10% to 20% larger. And the character size of higher level headings is larger than the size of smaller size headings.
Type faces for headings: Both Hei or bold Song are usually used. Other type face designs like Yuan and Kai are sometimes used as well.
In letterpress printing, when Song is used as the type face of the heading, it is always designed with a larger size; while in digital printing, due to its special typography, simply increasing the font size is not enough, the characters usually use bold style to indicate emphasis.
When Hei is used as the type face of low level headings, the font-weight should be increased to emphasize the heading.
Alignment of headings (inline direction): In the case of horizontal writing mode, large headings and medium headings are in most cases center-aligned. In the case of vertical writing mode, headings are usually aligned to the line head with some indent.
The number of characters of line head indent for a heading depends on the heading level. If the heading level is higher, the indent character number is less, if the heading level is lower, the number of indent characters is more. The character size is based on the main text of the type area. The difference in character numbers is usually around two characters.
Whether to decorate with solid lines, images, or give a symbol on the top of the heading.
How to Handle Headings with New Recto and Page Break单页起、换页处理單頁起、換頁處理
A large heading sometimes starts with a new page following a page break, to clearly demarcate the separation between sections, in which case the process below should be followed:
Always begin with odd pages, i.e. new recto.
Vertical writing mode and books bound on the right-hand side begin with a left page, horizontal writing mode and books bound on the left-hand side begin with a right page after a new recto.
Always begin with new pages, regardless of even pages or odd pages, i.e. page breaking. Used for large headings.
When medium headings or small headings appear on the last line of a page and there is no space left for the following paragraphs, the medium headings or small headings should be moved to the next page.
Handling of Spaces just before the New Recto, Page Breaks and New Edges单页起、换页处理时，前一页的处理單頁起、換頁處理時，前一頁的處理
Spaces just before new rectos, page breaks and new columns are treated as follows (the last pages are treated as the same):
In the case of single column typesetting, the spaces just before the new rectos and page breaks are left as they are.
In the case of multiple columns, the remaining space of preceding columns is left as it is.
In the case of vertical writing mode, columns are filled with text lines from upper right to lower left. There is no need to align line numbers of the upper column and lower column, and remaining spaces are left as they are.
In horizontal writing mode and multi-column format, the number of lines for each column is set to be the same, but where the result of the total number of lines divided by the column number chosen for the type area results in an odd number, the last column may have a smaller number of lines and may be followed by a blank space.
Processing of Run-in Headings同行标题的处理方式同行標題的處理方式
Run-in headings are usually used for low level headings. The following are some examples of run-in headings. Inter-character space between the run-in heading and following main text is usually a one character space of the base character size decided for the type area. Note that the run-in heading may be set at the last line of the page, or of the column in multi column style.
The run-in heading is set with the same character size as the main text and in Hei or Kai.
Set the run-in heading in a character size not smaller than the main text and use Hei or Kai.
The space that the run-in headings take is not an integer times larger than the characters in the body content, and the space between the run-in headings and body content can be adjusted so as to align the body content as well as the line start and line end.
Set the run-in heading with the same character size and typeface as the main text, but add heading numbers or Western characters in front of the heading.
Punctuation marks in Chinese中文标点符号表中文標點符號表
Pause or stop punctuation marks点号點號
IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP
FULLWIDTH FULL STOP
FULLWIDTH EXCLAMATION MARK
Three exclamation marks used sequentially should take space of two characters.
DOUBLE EXCLAMATION MARK
Takes 1 em.
FULLWIDTH QUESTION MARK
Three exclamation marks used sequentially should take space of two characters.
DOUBLE QUESTION MARK
Takes 1 em.
Although pause or stop punctuation marks may be positioned differently within the character square in vertical writing mode and horizontal writing mode, neither need to be rotated. Refer to the main text for details on the differences between them.
Takes space of two characters, in the shape of a single line without a break.
Takes space of two characters, in the shape of a single line without a break, center-aligned both vertically and horizontally.
MIDLINE HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS
KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT
From Big5 encoding.
Mainly used in Mainland China.
Mainly used in Traditional Chinese.
Two-em dashes, ellipses, and connector marks need to be rotated 90 degrees clockwise in vertical writing mode.
Bracket indication punctuation marks夹注符号夾注符號
LEFT CORNER BRACKET
Mainly used in Traditional Chinese.
RIGHT CORNER BRACKET
LEFT WHITE CORNER BRACKET
RIGHT WHITE CORNER BRACKET
LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK
Takes space of one character, and usually used in Simplified Chinese. Corner brackets (『』「」) are usually used in vertical writing mode.
RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK
LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK
RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK
FULLWIDTH LEFT PARENTHESIS
FULLWIDTH RIGHT PARENTHESIS
LEFT DOUBLE ANGLE BRACKET
RIGHT DOUBLE ANGLE BRACKET
LEFT ANGLE BRACKET
RIGHT ANGLE BRACKET
LEFT BLACK LENTICULAR BRACKET
RIGHT BLACK LENTICULAR BRACKET
LEFT WHITE LENTICULAR BRACKET
RIGHT WHITE LENTICULAR BRACKET
LEFT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET
RIGHT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET
FULLWIDTH LEFT SQUARE BRACKET
FULLWIDTH RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET
FULLWIDTH LEFT CURLY BRACKET
FULLWIDTH RIGHT CURLY BRACKET
Brackets need to be rotated 90 degrees clockwise in vertical writing mode.
Interlinear indication punctuation marks行间标号行間標號
WAVY LOW LINE
Interlinear indication punctuation marks need to be rotated 90 degrees clockwise in vertical writing mode.
Table of punctuation marks标点符号全表標點符號全表
Rotated 90° clockwise in vertical writing mode直排时右旋90°直排時右旋90°
IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP
FULLWIDTH FULL STOP
FULLWIDTH EXCLAMATION MARK
DOUBLE EXCLAMATION MARK
FULLWIDTH QUESTION MARK
DOUBLE QUESTION MARK
MIDLINE HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS
KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT
LEFT CORNER BRACKET
RIGHT CORNER BRACKET
LEFT WHITE CORNER BRACKET
RIGHT WHITE CORNER BRACKET
LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK
RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK
LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK
RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK
FULLWIDTH LEFT PARENTHESIS
FULLWIDTH RIGHT PARENTHESIS
LEFT DOUBLE ANGLE BRACKET
RIGHT DOUBLE ANGLE BRACKET
LEFT ANGLE BRACKET
RIGHT ANGLE BRACKET
LEFT BLACK LENTICULAR BRACKET
RIGHT BLACK LENTICULAR BRACKET
LEFT WHITE LENTICULAR BRACKET
RIGHT WHITE LENTICULAR BRACKET
LEFT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET
RIGHT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET
FULLWIDTH LEFT SQUARE BRACKET
FULLWIDTH RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET
FULLWIDTH LEFT CURLY BRACKET
FULLWIDTH RIGHT CURLY BRACKET
WAVY LOW LINE
European numerals/Arabic numerals/Hindu–Arabic numerals/European digits (in Unicode)
A general name of Hindu–Arabic numeral system. Hindu–Arabic numerals,
also called Arabic numerals or European digits (in Unicode) are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,
based on the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world today.
[Definition from Wikipedia]
The area, usually in the center of a printed page but without bleed and images,
works as the main area for content printing.
印刷成品版面中的图文印刷区域（不含出血图像）(GB 9851.2-2008, 3.3)。
印刷成品版面中的圖文印刷區域（不含出血圖像）(GB 9851.2-2008, 3.3)。
A relative index for the length which is equal to 1/2 of a given character size.
A square character frame that has a character advance of 1/2 character size.
The marks that aid texts to record language, and are an organic part of the written language. They are used to indicate pause, mood and special nature and functions of some parts (mainly words) in a sentence. (GB/T 15834—2011)
The way to indicate the pronunciation of the Han characters, e.g. interlinear annotations.
A proportional typeface contains glyphs of varying widths
in order to make the glyphs properly related in size.
It is widely used in Latin characters.
The part of graphics that goes beyond the edge of final page that will be trimmed off.
超出成品幅面范围而被裁切掉的图像。(GB 9851.2-2008, 3.8)
超出成品幅面範圍而被裁切掉的圖像。(GB 9851.2-2008, 3.8)
Big-5 or Big5 is a Chinese character encoding method used in Taiwan,
Hong Kong, and Macau for Traditional Chinese characters.
A total of 13060 Traditional Chinese characters are encoded with Big5.
[Definition from Wikipedia]
The bottom margin between the edge of a trimmed page and the type area.
版心下沿至成品幅面下沿之间的空白区域。(GB 9851.2-2008, 3.5)。
版心下沿至成品幅面下沿之間的空白區域。(GB 9851.2-2008, 3.5)。
In typography, the point is the smallest unit of measure, used for measuring font size, leading, and other items on a printed page.
The DTP point (desktop publishing point) as the de facto standard point is
defined as 1⁄72 of an international inch (about 0.35146 mm) and,
as with earlier American point sizes, is considered to be 1⁄12 of a pica.
[Definition from Wikipedia]
pause or stop punctuation marks
Punctuation marks for breaking, mainly for pause and mood, including marks at end-sentence and in-sentence.
The closing side of the content in a type area. Usually, for vertical writing,
it is on the left side while for horizontal writing, it is in the bottom.
The beginning side of the content in a type area.
Usually, for vertical writing, it is on the right side while for horizontal writing, it is in the upper side.
A paragraph is a self-contained unit of a discourse in writing dealing
with a particular point or idea. A paragraph consists of more than one sentence.
[Definition from Wikipedia]
In typesetting and page layout,
alignment or range is the setting of text flow or image placement relative to a page,
column (measure), table cell, or tab. The type alignment setting is sometimes referred to as text alignment,
text justification, or type justification.
[Definition from Wikipedia]
rhotacization of syllable finals
In standard Chinese and certain dialects, some words have rhotacized endings that result
in phonetic changes to how the word sounds.
The writing system of Chinese using characters that are relatively more complex in structure and stroke count. Known as Traditional Chinese because of its long history of use. Cf. Simplified Chinese.
words as the base units
The usage of words as the segmentation unit for the romanisation of Chinese.
characters as the base units
The usage of characters as the segmentation unit for the romanisation of Chinese.
fúhào fēnlí jìnzé
prohibition rules for unbreakable punctuation
The rules for certain punctuation marks that do not allow any spaces between them.
Literally "orphan line", the paragraph-ending line that falls at the beginning of a new page or column, or the paragraph-opening line that appears by itself at the end of a page or column; both separated from the rest of the text.
Literally "orphan character", the paragraph-ending single character, with or without punctuation, became the last line of a paragraph.
The height of a single line. Western scripts refer to this as the vertical distance between lines of text measured from base line to base line.
Comments included between lines, generally free-form with no restrictions on line length. These can exceed the length of a single line.
Annotations between lines used to indicate the pronounciation of a word or an explanation of a word.
A method of aligning both edges of all lines (except the last line) in paragraph to be the same given length by removing or adding pre-defined adjustable spacing.
hángshǒu hángwěi jìnzé
prohibition rules for line start/end
Due to the varied nature of the different punctuation marks, punctuation rules for the start of a line differ from that for the end of a line.
hángwěi diǎnhào xuánguà
hanging punctuation marks for line end
Typesetting punctuation for line endings outside the margin of alignment, also known as hanging punctuation or exdentation.
Hanyu Pinyin provides a method of using Latin characters with diacritics to indicate tone. It is often used to teach Standard Chinese and encourage its use as a common language for communication.
Characters that form the basis of the Chinese language.
horizontal writing mode
The process or the result of arranging characters on a line from left to right, of lines on a page from top to bottom, and/or of columns on a page from left to right.
The traditional printing method using movable type.
The writing system of Chinese using characters that are relatively simpler in structure and stroke count, mainly refer to Jianhuazi (Simplified Character) published and revised in 1960s in Mainland China. Cf. Traditional Chinese.
General term for a pair of punctuation marks that isolate a segment of text from its surroundings and include additional information for clarification or for emphasis.
jiéshù jiázhù fúhào
The ending character of the paired brackets, which includes quotation marks, parentheses, book title marks etc.
The semivowel between initial and main vowel in Chinese syllable.
reduced inter-character spacing
Adjustment of inter-character spacing by making the distance between the character face of adjacent characters shorter than that produced by solid setting.
Text to be annotated by ruby, ornament characters, or emphasis dots.
kāishǐ jiázhù fúhào
The opening character of the paired brackets, which includes quotation marks, parentheses, book title marks etc.
The letters of Latin alphabet.
A partition on a page in multi-column format.
Amount of space between columns on a page.
The conversion system of writing from Chinese pronunciation into Roman/Latin script.
To arrange characters with no inter-character space between adjacent character frames.
The ending point of a line, meaning the bottom side in vertical writing mode, or the right side in horizontal writing mode.
The layout and presentation of a page with text, graphics and other elements for a publication such as a book.
A kind of special tone phenomenon in modern standard Chinese, with no fixed tone.
The alignment method to align on both the left and right ends of each line of one paragraph text.
A relative index for the length which is equal to a given character size.
A square character frame that has a character advance of character size.
One of four tones in Historical Chinese phonology, which has short and brief pitch.
The pitch contours in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning in one syllable. There are 4 tones, e.g. Ping (level), Shang (rising), Qu (departing), Ru (entering) in Historical Chinese phonology.
The initial consonant of a Chinese syllable.
The text or character that is near the beginning of the line. Normally, when the text is in vertical writing mode, the starting point is on the top; in horizontal writing mode, the starting point is on the left.
Text setting with extra even inter-character spacing in addition to the default spacing between characters, achieved by applying positive tracking to the text.
The top margin between the top edge of a trimmed page and the type area.
版心上沿至成品幅面上沿之间的空白区域 (GB/T 9851.2-2008, 3.4)
版心上沿至成品幅面上沿之間的空白區域 (GB/T 9851.2-2008, 3.4)
The art and technique of arranging type to make written language legible, readable, and appealing when displayed. [Definition from Wikipedia]
Rectangular area occupied by a character when it is set solid.
Writing systems derived from Greek and Latin.
yǐ liánzìfú duànháng
Use of the hyphen to join words and to separate syllables of a single word.
The part in a Chinese syllable without initial and tone.
Characters with the feature of tabulation.
vertical writing mode
The process or the result of arranging characters on a line from top to bottom, of lines on a page from right to left, and/or of columns on a page from top to bottom.
To prompt a Chinese term with its original or translation in the form of annotation text or base text, an instance of interlinear annotation.
Zhōng-Xīwén hùnpái chǔlǐ
Chinese and Western mixed text composition
The process of interleaving Chinese text with Western text.
Interlinear text run indicating pronunciation or definitions.
The general name of Mandarin Phonetic Symbols and Taiwanese Phonetic Symbols.
Size of a character frame in the inline direction.
Dimensions of a character.
区别单个字符大小的表示方法。(GB 9851.2-2008, 3.3)
區別單個字符大小的表示方法。(GB 9851.2-2008, 3.3)
The space between characters.
Area in which glyph is drawn.
A set of letters, characters or symbols, which are designed to have coherent patterns to be used for printing or rendering to a computer screen.
A set of glyphs with the same design, often referred to as typeface nowadays.
具有相同基本设计的字形图像集合(GB/T 16964.1-1997, 3.6)，现多与字体混用。
具有相同基本設計的字形圖像集合(GB/T 16964.1-1997, 3.6)，現多與字體混用。
A symbol of identifiable abstraction, depending on no specific design.
The process, under the premise of justification, of arranging characters within grids to make sure that they are aligned in both horizontal and vertical axes.
To typeset a (small) group of characters horizontally within a vertical line of main text.
《重訂標點符號手冊》（2008年修訂版）— The Revised Handbook of Punctuation (2008 edition)
《标点符号用法》— General Rules for Punctuation (GB/T 15834—2011)
《出版物上数字用法》— General Rules for writing numerals in public texts (GB/T 15835—2011)
《國語注音符號手冊》— The Handbook of Mandarin Phonetic Symbols
《汉语拼音正词法基本规则》— Basic Rules for Chinese Phonetic Alphabet Orthography (GB/T 16159—2012)
《党政机关公文格式》— Layout key for official document of Party and government organs (GB/T 9704—2012)