Publications, from corporate memos to newsletters to electronic books to scholarly journal articles, must be considered first-class content on the Web, equal to the more common forms of Web pages available today.
This document describes the various use cases highlighting the problems users and publishers face when these publications are to be used in a digital, Web environment.
The requirements that come from those use cases provide the basis for the technical considerations in a companion document, currently entitled “Web Publications” [[pwp]].
This is work in progress. The final version of this document planned to be published as an
Interest Group Note.
The Web emerged in 1994, based on a model of individual pages loosely
joined by hyperlinks. Clustering within domains and with explicit
navigation elements built into them, webpages evolved into websites.
This model inherited very little from an existing, powerful
and much older page-based media: books.
Over centuries, “books” have assumed many forms: journals, magazines,
pamphlets of long-form articles and essays, newspapers, atlases, comics,
notebooks, albums of all sorts. We can define these different
manifestations as “publications”: bound editions of meaningful media,
Another form of publication that also has a long history in both the
printed as well as the digital world are documents. These are
publications that are written and distributed in a more ad-hoc manner,
such as legal briefs, corporate memos, and even the definitions of
standards, such as this content currently being read.
We believe there is great value in combining this older tradition
of portable, bounded publications with the pervasive accessibility,
addressability, and interconnectedness of the Open Web Platform (OWP). New
models of economic sustainability, innovative experiences of knowledge,
and invigorated socio-cultural engagement depend on this.
It is the task of the W3C
Digital Publishing Interest Group to
explore the uniqueness, desirability, and feasibility of bringing
these two great models of publishing together. This document explores
requirements based on examples of real world use cases and scenarios. Requirements
for publications on the Web are explored first, without referring
to any packaging aspect that would correspond to current practices like EPUB. This is
followed by requirements of those packaging aspects, as a structure on top of a
purely Web based distribution.
The complete list of requirements is also collected in a separate table in
- This document uses the term user agent, as used by the Web
community; see, for example, the WAI
glossary entry. The publishing community often uses the term
“reading system” for roughly the same notion; while there may be
subtle differences, it is better to stick
to a single term for the purposes of this document.
- A Web Publication (WP) is a collection of one or more constituent resources,
organized together in a uniquely identifiable grouping, and presented using
standard Open Web Platform technologies.
- A Packaged Web Publication (PWP) is a Web Publication whose
constituent resources are combined into a single distributable file, using some standard
- In this document, manifest refers to an abstract means to contain information necessary to the proper management, rendering, and so on, of a publication. This is opposed to metadata that contains information on the content of the publication like author, publication date, and so on.
The precise format of how such a manifest is stored is not considered in this document.
This section describes the use cases specific to Web Publications and the Open Web Platform, including associated publishing needs, and discoverability.
Open Web Platform
Web Publications should be able to make use of all
features offered by the OWP.
There is a remarkable development of tools and frameworks built
on top of OWP that make it possible to develop powerful interactive
layers on top of OWP. These include, for example, data visualization
systems (e.g., d3, built on top of SVG), possibilities to access
external services like Wolfram Alpha, or tools to create and store (possibly as part of the publication) annotations. These tools have been
traditionally developed around browsers, and provide possibilities that
publications should also benefit from. That requires that Web Publications become first class citizens on the Web platform.
- A large, multidisciplinary, Web-based journal relies on
traditional Web technologies like HTML and CSS for its
content. The journal, responding to the evolving
expectations of its audience, is increasingly using
additional media such as video, audio, animated graphics,
and very large images; the trend is to consider these as
integral parts of the scientific output. The journal as a
result needs access to the latest visualization and other
data management tools that the OWP-based tools can
- Educational publications are increasingly making use of OWP
features. They include interactive exams (possibly linked to
online evaluation facilities), visualization of data or of
algorithms, built-in interpreters for various languages (e.g.,
for courses on programming); in many respects, the borderline
between these publications and Web applications is becoming
- BigBoxCo, a large technology company
with extensive “in-house” documentation to support the
technical and/or user documentation for their various
products and administrative processes, develops all this
material in digital-only formats. The quantity of
documentation makes it impractical to produce these documents
in print. Instead, the company publishes them
on the company intranet, and/or provides them to their
employees and contractors via specialized mobile applications.
These documents, as a type of publication, require
accessibility, portability of annotations, and
the possible inclusion of complex media.
A Web Publication should conform to the requirements of all horizontal dependencies.
Web content has to be consumed under different
circumstances: it must be available to the largest
possible audience in a secure manner, providing the
necessary protection of the reader’s privacy. Publication
content must be able to answer to a number of principles
like accessibility, internationalization, device
independence, security, and privacy. (These are usually
referred to, in the W3C context, as “horizontal”
dependencies.) These principles are, in general terms:
- People with disabilities should be able to access
the content of a publication. They should be able to perceive,
understand, navigate, and interact with it, as well
as contribute to it. Accessibility encompasses all
disabilities that affect access to the content,
including visual, auditory, physical, speech, cognitive,
and neurological disabilities.
- Publications should be well adapted to any language,
writing systems, region, or culture. This includes the
usage, when appropriate, of left-to-right, right-to-left,
horizontal or vertical writing; item numbering, or
interactive forms specific to local cultures; usage of
the right character sets and of local typographic conventions.
- Device Independence:
- The content in a publication should be usable on a large number of devices
with very different device characteristics: different
screen types and sizes, various input modalities, varying
level of processing power, etc. These different affordances
should be automatic with no, or very little, user intervention.
- Publications should be presented by a User Agent using a security model that is at least (if not more) secure than the standard Web security model. Doing this will prevent publications that contain malicious attacks,
data theft, and other security incidents from impacting users by jeopardizing the integrity of the underlying data or machine operations.
- The content in a publication should maintain and support user privacy,
in spite of the fact that the evolution of online
technologies has increased the possibility for the
collection and processing of personal, and possibly
sensitive, data. However, since a publication may use any part of the OWP, it may choose to use functionality such as the ability to
track a user's activity within the publication.
These principles correspond to technical requirements on
the underlying technologies (i.e., OWP, and its possible
extension to Web Publications) insofar as the technologies must
empower the authors (writers, editors, publishers,
etc.) to produce content that follow them. Whether
authors use the possibilities of these technologies or
not is not addressed in this document.
All these constraints are formalized in the
context of the usage on the Web and by extension Web Publications.
This means that they are valid
for publications in general.
In some cases, for example due to legislative reasons,
the demands on publications may be more stringent
than for generic Web sites. The use cases below provide
some examples for the publication-specific situations. Note also that
some aspect of horizontal dependencies (e.g., accessibility or security), are
also the subject of further use cases and requirements elsewhere in this document.
- (On Accessibility) Legal Publishing Ltd.
publishes all the official texts as issued by the
government of its country. Per local legislation, the
publication must be accessible, following W3C’s WCAG
Level AA requirements, to serve as official references
- (On Privacy, Accessibility) EducationPublishing
Ltd. publishes digital textbooks to cover BigUniversity’s
curriculae. These (digital) educational publications also
include access to interactive tests via specialized
services on the Web that regularly access the student’s
progress. The privacy and the integrity of the student’s
test data must be preserved. This, and the fact that
digital textbooks must also abide to WCAG Level AA
requirement in terms of accessibility, are such that
EducationPublishing may be liable in case they are not
- (On Internationalization) PublicationInternational
SA. publishes literary work all over the world and in
many languages. In order to continue its business in Japan,
it must be able to produce digital publications
with right-to-left and vertical writing, and following
the Japanese typesetting traditions, because that is
the only way those publications are accepted by local
- (On Privacy) Thomas has written a pamphlet advocating a government
overthrow. The government has decreed that the author of the pamphlet
as well as its readers of the pamphlet shall be jailed. Thomas needs
to distribute the pamphlet in ways that preserve his anonymity and
allow the public to read without fear of the government cyber-police.
- (On Device Independence) Yoshio usually reads a book on his
tablet when he is at home, but he does not carry his tablet
around while commuting on the train. Instead, he prefers to use
his phone to continue reading. Publications must be able to
adapt to the consumption environment, so as to provide a good
reading experience regardless of the device.
- (On Security) LocalLibrary receives publications from a variety of sources
that they then make available to their members. It is imperative that none
of these publications can cause any damage to their own systems or those
of their members.
Time-based Media and Text
A Web Publication needs to support both time-based media and text.
A Web Publication needs to support time-based media, such as synchronized video, audio, captions or transcript, or sign language interpretation.
A Web Publication must also be able to enable a synchronized media experience
while navigating through the publication, with sufficient level
- Illyés has a cognitive disability and uses accommodated texts in
the classroom, to help learn the content while improving his reading.
His assistive technology uses combined audio and highlighted text, which it obtained from the UA through the information provided in the Web Publication, to turn the page
for him while reading along in sync with the page currently open.
Inclusion of Data
Web Publications should be able to include data as resources, just as it does with text, images, etc.
- Rosa has submitted an article to EsteemedJournal and provided her
research data in CSV format. She and EsteemedJournal provide users
access to the CSVs when accessing her article in any situation by including the
friendly form, as part of the Web Publication.
A Web Publication should also be available offline.
The same content of the Web Publication should be accessible
offline, if circumstances so dictate, without the necessity
for the user to take any particular, technical actions.
- Omo, a student in a remote Nigerian village, is taking
classes online. Connectivity to the village is unreliable and
intermittent. Omo needs to have his textbooks available
regardless of actual connectivity.
- Heather, a frequent international traveller, enjoys
reading books and tour guides on her portable device,
regardless of her physical location on any given day. Due
to the high mobile network access roaming charges on her mobile
network, she tends to download as much of her reading material as
possible where she can avoid those additional charges.
- Gemma, a private collector of digital publications,
is building a private collections of
publications that she expects to be
available to her whether online or offline,
over the public Internet, or within a private local
area network (LAN).
- “In house” documents may
have to be accessed both online and offline, depending
on the access point. While online access might be
beneficial when done from the work floor (e.g., at an
airplane production line), the same documents may need
reliable offline access (e.g., in the cockpit).
- Gyöngyi, selected as a peer reviewer for the Journal of
Scholarly Publications, only has time to review her assigned
publication while commuting on the train to her university,
where she does not have connectivity. Since her review process includes the
creation of annotations, notes, highlights, and possibly
changes on the content itself, it is important that these changes
must be smoothly transferred back to the server of the
journal when she is back online.
User agents must treat a Web Publication as a single
logical resource with its own URL, beyond the references to individual, constituent resources.
- Marwin wants to search for a term on the publication. As a reader, he does not know the
internal structure of the book, i.e., whether the content is one or several HTML files; he
wants to search to be executed on the whole (logical) content, regardless of its internal
- Svetlana sets her preferences in terms of font selection and size, background color, etc, for a particular book. She wants those to be in effect on all chapters of the book automatically.
- User agents that support value counters (page
counters, section numbering, footnotes, endnotes), should do so across
the entire Web Publication (as opposed to individual components being
- Assistive Technology such as screen readers or voice
dictation control needs to have the Web Publication presented to it
as if it was a single unit.
Uniquely Identify a Web Publication
There should be a way to
uniquely identify a Web Publication.
A unique identification of a specific Web Publication, is
essential. If not expressed as a URL, there should be a way to
map this unique identification onto a Web Address.
- Scholarly references demand a unique identification
of the publication and, possibly, its internal structure.
That unique identification must be available as a Web link,
to make it possible for other publications and other
sites (e.g., the authors’ institutional sites) to
unambiguously link to the publication. These features
are essential in the scholarly community to make, for
example, the assessment of individual researchers
Uniquely Identify the Constituent Resources
All constitutent resources, and their contents, should be uniquely identifiable.
The requirement on identification already states that there should be a way to uniquely identify a publication (see ). This requirement can be easily extended to constituents of a Web Publication, as well as the fragments, parts, sections, etc, of those resources. Those idenfications should be stable, resilient to changes and new iterations of the publication.
- Markus refers to a specific mathematical theorem
in a publication. That reference must be unique, stable and
retrievable on the Web, and it should not depend on whether
the publisher issues a new iteration of the target publication (thereby
possibly change the section numbering).
- Judit uses an annotation tool to comment on a publication authored by Pablo.
She puts an annotation against a sentence in a particular paragraph, anchoring
that annotation to the sentence using a reliable way of identifying it. That identification should
not be invalidated by a subsequent change of the document by Pablo (unless he, e.g., removes that sentence).
The user must have the possibility to
personalize his or her reading experience. This may include, for example,
controlling such features as font size, choice of fonts, background and
foreground color, tone of audio, etc.
- Olga, a dyslexic student, downloads a textbook and proceeds to personalize
the material with larger and/or a specialized dyslexic font, as well as
different contrast that, for her particular case, makes the text easier
- When reading a book in the sun, Mia adjusts the
background color to allow for a stronger contrast so that she can see the
- While reading a book on computer programming, Ransheed
wants to change the font into a local font. However, the
code samples within the text should remain in a fixed-width font.
- Buffy is Deafblind. Every morning she downloads her daily
newspaper. Like most news sites, it provides many rich
multimedia presentations. As a high-quality, accessible news
site, it's multimedia presentations come with captions and
transcripts. Buffy does not want to waste her data plan on the useless-to-her audio and video content, so she instructs her user agents to ignore them.
Publishers’ and Authors’ Needs
Default Reading Order
There should be a means to
indicate the author’s preferred navigation structure among the resources
of a Web Publication.
A user agent needs to know the sequence in which to present
components of a Web Publication to the user, including the starting point.
- Moby Dick contains 136 chapters. Each chapter is a
separate HTML document, with a logical order for reading them.
It should be possible for the publication to inform the user agent
that the proper order for consumption of the HTML documents is sequentially, starting by the first chapter.
- The Encyclopedia of Stuff includes 1348 articles, each
one in a unique HTML document. The publication must be able to indicate
to the user agent that the standard way to consume the articles is
alphabetical order, by title.
Random Access to Content
Authors of a Web Publication should
be able to provide the user agent with information to
access random parts of the publication.
It should be possible for the author to convey several potential reading orders that may go beyond the
“default” for the content of the publication. This alternative reading order
may only includes specific parts of the publication rather than the full
content of the Web Publication.
A user agent should be able to access the resources of the publication in whatever order it chooses—beyond the order provided by the publication itself.
- EsteemedJournalPublisher would like to offer the users of the
EsteemedJournal of Chemistry App the opportunity to read only the
abstracts of the journals in the app. The publication would therefore provide the
user a list (table of contents) of abstracts (disjoint objects in the
package with semantic information or metadata informing the package of
the nature of the object).
- A publisher wants to provide “teasers” for a book by providing a
series of extracts that are meant to give an overview of the book
without the necessity to read the whole publication. This can be
typically used by a reseller allowing for a prospective client to
access part of the publication free of charge.
- EducationalPublisher publishes a complex textbook. The textbook
is created is such a way that it could be used both for beginner and
advanced level. The default reading order corresponds to beginners,
but the goal is that advanced students can follow a different path
through the material, corresponding to their level of knowledge.
EducationPublisher adds, therefore, alternative reading orders to
the publication that advanced users can follow
- Acme Publishing has published a book on wines that
can be read from A-Z, or
personalized to only read about red wines or wines
from a specific region.
- A specialized user agent wishes to find all images in a
publication that do not already have alternative text and
automatically provide it using an image identification
service such as LabelMe.
Information on Constituent Resources
The information regarding the
constituent resources of a Web Publication must be easily discovered
and there should be a way to differentiate between essential and
A Web Publication will likely be composed of multiple Web documents and their
resources. A more complicated Web Publication may have many resources, some of
which are essential and some of which are not. Because of this
complexity, extracting in advance all the references to some or all
constituent resources may be prohibitive. It is therefore necessary
for the user agent to have an easy access to the list of constituent
resources and some of their characteristics such as whether they are
essential, their media types, or their sizes.
In a publication, some content is essential to the user being
able to consume it while other content could be either absent or
have a provided fallback for situations such as limited connectivity
or storage. This information, provided by the author or publisher of
the Web Publication, would enable a user agent to provide a better
experience to the user. For example, the user agent can ensure that
essential resources are made available when offline (see ).
- Nick is reading a long-form narrative on a device with limited storage: a publication
filled with text, images, sounds, and multimedia files.
Nick also rides the subway, where
he loses Internet connectivity frequently and without
warning for long stretches of time. During offline or
low-storage situations, there are still critical parts of the
publication that are consumable, mainly the text (and
possibly images). Having a reasonable fallback for video,
such as a poster image or placeholder image, would allow Nick
to read the content while offline or on a device with
- Gösta is reading a treatise on the theory of functions.
A mathematical font is essential for the proper display
of the mathematical formula in this publication, so the author
has marked the font as essential so it is made available offline.
- While reading an article on a new spam analysis algorithm,
Lars is primarily interested in the findings of the research.
Since the research was funded by a government agency, the
dataset, consisting of millions of anonymized log files, is also
available. Because of its size, the researchers have marked the
dataset as non-essential for conveying the results of the paper and therefore
indicates it can be skipped when reading the publication
- Sarah is reading a publication about the stock exchange. The
current value of the stock is fetched (from a remote resource) when she opens the
publication. However, when she is on the train (without a connection) one week later
and opens the stock exchange publication, she will continue to see the value of the
stock as it was the last time she opened the
publication. It should be possible for either the content itself or the user agent to
provide some user experience that notifies her that the currently presented data is a
- Risha publishes an article which includes an interactive component
that accesses a database, exposed to the Web via a RESTful API. The
cannot be included in a packaged publication and the interactive module is
of no use without such data. Risha therefore marks the Web Publication component
relative to the interactive module as not relevant when offline.
Access Control and Write Protections
A Web Publication should be able to express the access control and write protections of the publication.
- A library may loan the publication for two weeks or a university may make a textbook available for its students for the course of the year. A Web Publication
should provide a means to inform user agents about the availability period to enable the UA to control access accordingly.
- Alice is working on potentially Nobel prize winning
research, and has drafted her paper describing her
discoveries. She asks Bob to review the paper, but
needs to make sure that the Web Publication retains specific
protections on what Bob is able to do with the publication and its content.
Packaged Web Publications
It should be possible to create and distribute a Web Publication as a single unit over different protocols or physical media. This can done
through the usage of Packaged Web Publications.
- HA, Ltd, a publisher of legal briefs, needs to
distribute content in a consumable format to its clients via secure email.
- Dalia, a patent lawyer, wants to consume content on
a multitude of devices, some of which may not always have
connectivity. In order to meet her expectations, it is necessary to have
all required content grouped in a logical structure that can be easily
transferred between devices.
- Andreas is working on his first collaborative research paper with a
fellow student. He wants to share a relevant publication that includes
content, diagrams, and data sets with his writing partner. He does not
have time to learn how to share each component so that his partner can
access it all without much effort; he expects to be able to share this
material as a single unit via the chatting system that they use to collaborate.
- Dave is reading Moby Dick on his tablet (at home with network connectivity).
He then jumps on a plane with his good friend Tzviya. After having finished
reading the book, he wants to lend it to Tzviya, so that she can start reading
on her own tablet. They are both offline, but can exchange data with SD
cards or Bluetooth.
See also Archiving.
Distribution and Iteration
The distribution of a Packaged Web Publication should
not affect its iterations.
Simply distributing or sharing a Packaged Web Publication to multiple destinations
and devices should not result in (technically) different iterations of the Web Publication
unless they contain modifications that make them different Web Publications.
- Publisher Corp. Inc. publishes a new Packaged Web Publication and sends it to its
distributors and customers. This Packaged Web Publication is downloaded to devices or
made available to a customer-specific cloud.
Customers can access this file from different retailers, through different
applications, either directly or downloaded from a private cloud. Thus,
the Web Publication is duplicated many times, resulting in a huge number of copies.
There remains a single source manifestation, and therefore
one canonical identifier for
all of the items spread across devices and buyers.
- Mary creates a Packaged Web Publication and sends it to Dave and Kristin. Kristin
simply sends it along to two other friends, but Dave adds some comments first
to his copy before sending to two friends. By doing so, Dave has created a
new Web Publication with its own canonical identifier
while the version used by Mary, Kristen and her friends remains the same as
- Slicendice Publishing publishes many Packaged Web Publications, some of which are
different iterations or subsets or combinations of others. Slicendice needs
not only to be able to uniquely identify each unique Web Publication but also to
identify each “copy” or “delivery” (“item”) of each of those Web Publications so that
it can track “what” has been sold and “how many” of each one have been
- BigRetailer receives a Web Publication from EsteemedPublisher that it intends to add to its catalogue. BigRetailer wants to adds it own “teaser” via an alternative reading order. To achieve that, BigRetailer provides its own version of the publication’s manifest, that the user agent will use instead of the publisher’s manifest.
The distribution of Packaged Web Publications should
respect the existing processes and expectations of professional publishing
channels as well as ad-hoc methods of distribution (eg. email).
- Ahmed acquires a Packaged Web Publications on an e-commerce platform.
He expects to be able
to receive the Web Publication as a file (rather than only having access to it) and
to be able to load it onto its different reading devices.
- Alice acquires a Packaged Web Publication through a subscription service and downloads it.
When, later on, she decides to unsubscribe from the service, this Web Publication
becomes unavailable to her.
Leila has just written a report for school as a Web Publication, but she is required to email it to her teacher. She takes advantage of the fact that it is possible to package up a publication and then sends it off.
We take for granted the relative durability of print artifacts, many of
which have survived with little more than benign neglect. In contrast, digital
documents are unlikely to persist without more active interventions, such as
making copies, monitoring software dependencies, and validating integrity.
Since future consumers of publications represent the most open-ended user
group, it is desirable that digital documents be instilled with more of the
inherent durability that characterizes print artifacts. Packaged Web Publications offer this
potential, by making it easier for archiving services to locate, harvest,
update, and describe digital publications. Long-term preservation of digital
publications ensures that they may continue to be accessible, beyond the
tenure of individual authors, file formats, publishers, or publishing
Fundamental use cases and requirements already help aid our archiving requirements.
However, archival raises an additional requirements:
New or Removed Components
There should be a way to discover that one or more new components have been added to or deleted from a Web Publication.
An archiving service needs a reliable way to learn that one or more
Packaged Web Publication components have been added to or removed from a
Packaged Web Publication in order to be able to update the associated
archive of the publication.
- An archiving service regularly polls for changes to an article that it
has already archived. One such poll indicates that several resources have
been added to the object. The archiving service retrieves these resources
and store them as incremental updates to the appropriate archival unit in
a preservation repository.
- A publisher issues a retraction for a published article, resulting in
the addition of new resources to the object (i.e., the retraction notice)
and the removal of others (i.e., the article content). An archiving
service regularly polls for changes to this article, which it has already
archived, and discovers the retraction. The archiving service retrieves
the new resources and record those that are no longer accessible, carrying
over the cumulative updates to a preservation repository.
- A copyright dispute results in the takedown of a published book. An
archiving service regularly polls for changes to this book, which it has
already archived, and discovers that it has been taken down. It records
that the resources that constitute the object are no longer accessible and
propagates this update to a preservation repository.
A PWP should include means to map the identification of a constituent resource between the Web and its equivalent in a package
In order to allow a Web Publication to be packaged without any changes to the content, it may be necessary to provide a mapping from the (absolute) URLs present in the publication to URLs that point to the constituent resources inside the package.
- An archival service wants to harvest (spider) a Web Publication and not have to modify the OWP content during the process. In order to achive that goal, its manifest would incorporate a mapping from the URIs present in the OWP content to their new location inside the archive.
Integrity and Authenticity
Integrity of a Publication
The publisher should be able to provide information in a Portable Web Publication proving that the publication has not been tampered with during delivery.
- LegalPublisher Ltd. regularly publishes the official legal texts and
regulation as decided by the local government. Michael, who is a lawyer, has
access to these documents via his law firm, and uses them for his cases; to do so,
he must be 100% sure that the publication he accesses faithfully reproduces the
latest governmental decisions. This can be done because LegalPublisher Ltd.
adds the necessary cryptographic information to the Web Publication that becomes
invalid if any resource of the Web Publication changes.
Authenticity—Origin of a Publication
The publisher should be able to provide information in a Portable Web Publication that can be used to check the origin of the publication and its authenticity.
- Michael, who is a lawyer, and uses the publications of LegalPublisher Ltd.,
must be 100% sure that the publication he uses for his case has indeed been
published by LegalPublisher Ltd., and not by a possible third party. This
can be done because LegalPublisher Ltd. adds the necessary cryptographic
information to the Web Publication proving its own identity.
User agents may provide a method for escalating trust for a specific publication.
Some publications may require additional capabilities (for example, access to camera or geolocation) that a user agent might normally not enable. Today, some platform and UA vendors offer methods for otherwise untrusted local scripts to become trusted and regain API privileges, a similar ability needs to exist for publications as well.
- Luke has written another book, this time using all of the capabilities of the Open Web Platform that he can think of including using the readers location to adapt the content. He submits the book for review to a Web Publication retail platform, where the book is signed by the publisher. When purchased, the UA detects that the book came from a trusted source and has not been modified, therefore allowing it to use the full capabilities of the web platform.
List of Requirements
Number and reference
Ensuring accessibillity is a strong requirement for publishers. Instead of
dealing with accessibility features as separate requirements and use cases,
this document provides use cases for requirements whenever appropriate.
This table lists those requirements, and also the use case number(s) within
that section that are related to accessibility.
|Number and reference
The following people have been instrumental in providing thoughts, feedback, reviews, content, criticism, and input in the creation of this document:
Boris Anthony (Rebus Foundation), Luc Audrain (Hachette Livre), Nick Barreto (Canelo, Invited Expert), Baldur Bjarnason (Rebus Foundation), Marcos Caceres (Mozilla), Timothy Cole (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Garth Conboy (Google), Dave Cramer (Hachette Livre), Romain Deltour (DAISY Consortium), Brady Duga (Google), Heather Flanagan (IETF, Invited Expert), Hadrien Gardeur (Feedbooks), (Markus Gylling (IDPF), Eric Hellman, Ivan Herman (W3C), Deborah Kaplan (Invited Expert), Bill Kasdorf (BISG), George Kerscher (DAISY Consortium), Peter Krautzberger (MathJax, Invited Expert), Charles LaPierre (Benetech), Laurent Le Meur (EDRLab), Vladimir Levantovsky (Monotype), Mia Lipner (Pearson), Christofer Maden (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Shane McCarron (Spec-Ops), William McCoy (IDPF), Hugh McGuire (Rebus Foundation), Ben De Meester (iMinds), Liam Quin (W3C), Leonard Rosenthol (Adobe), Nicholas Ruffilo (Ingram, Invited Expert), Rob Sanderson (Stanford University), Avneesh Singh (DAISY Consortium), Mike Smith (W3C), Alan Stearns (Adobe), Ayla Stein (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Tzviya Siegman (Wiley), Nicholas Taylor (Stanford University), Daniel Weck (DAISY Consortium), and Benjamin Young (Wiley).