Publications, from corporate memos to newsletters to electronic books to scholarly journal articles, must be
considered first-class content on the Web, equal to the more common forms of Web pages available today. This
document describes the various use cases highlighting the problems users and publishers face when these
publications are to be used in a digital, Web environment. The requirements that come from those use cases
provide the basis for the technical considerations in a companion document, currently entitled “Web
The Web emerged in 1994, based on a model of individual pages loosely joined by hyperlinks. Clustering within
domains and with explicit navigation elements built into them, webpages evolved into websites. Despite the
Web's strong connections to print media (e.g. web resources are “pages” and the in-memory model for Web
applications is the “Document Object Model”), this document argues that the web platform may still not be
meeting certain requirements from print media that users desire.
Over centuries, “books” have assumed many forms: journals, magazines, pamphlets of long-form articles and
essays, newspapers, atlases, comics, notebooks, albums of all sorts. We can define these different
manifestations as “publications”: bound editions of meaningful media, made public.
Another form of publication that also has a long history in both the printed as well as the digital world are
documents. These are publications that are written and distributed in a more ad-hoc manner, such as legal
briefs, corporate memos, and even the definitions of standards, such as this content currently being read.
We believe there is great value in combining this older tradition of portable, bounded publications with the
pervasive accessibility, addressability, and interconnectedness of the Open Web Platform (OWP). New models of
economic sustainability and innovative experiences of knowledge depend on this.
It is the task of the W3C Digital Publishing Interest Group to
explore the uniqueness, desirability, and feasibility of bringing these two great models of publishing
together. This document explores requirements based on examples of real world use cases and scenarios.
Requirements for publications on the Web are explored first, without referring to any packaging aspect that
would correspond to current practices like EPUB. This is followed by requirements of those packaging aspects,
as a structure on top of a purely Web based distribution. The complete list of requirements is also collected
in a separate table in .
This document uses the term user agent, as used by the Web community; see, for example, the
WAI glossary entry. The
publishing community often uses the term “reading system” for roughly the same notion; while there may be
subtle differences, it is better to stick to a single term for the purposes of this document.
A Web Publication (WP) is a collection of one or more constituent resources, organized together
in a uniquely identifiable grouping, and presented using standard Open Web Platform technologies.
A Packaged Web Publication (PWP) is a Web Publication whose constituent resources are
combined into a single distributable file, using some standard packaging format.
In this document, manifest refers to an abstract means to contain information necessary to the
proper management, rendering, and so on, of a publication. This is opposed to metadata that contains
information on the content of the publication like author, publication date, and so on. The precise format
of how such a manifest is stored is not considered in this document.
Open Web Platform
Web Publications should be able to make use of all features offered by the Open Web Platform (OWP).
There is a remarkable development of tools and frameworks built on top of OWP that make it possible to
develop powerful interactive layers on top of OWP. These include, for example, data visualization systems
(e.g., d3, built on top of SVG), possibilities to access external services like Wolfram Alpha, or tools to
create and store (possibly as part of the publication) annotations. These tools have been traditionally
developed around browsers, and provide possibilities that publications should also benefit from. That
requires that Web Publications become first class citizens on the Web
A large, multidisciplinary, Web-based journal relies on traditional Web technologies like HTML and CSS for
its content. The journal, responding to the evolving expectations of its audience, is increasingly using
additional media such as video, audio, animated graphics, and very large images; the trend is to consider
these as integral parts of the scientific output. The journal as a result needs access to the latest
visualization and other data management tools that the OWP-based tools can offer.
Educational publications are increasingly making use of OWP features. They include interactive exams
(possibly linked to online evaluation facilities), visualization of data or of algorithms, built-in
interpreters for various languages (e.g., for courses on programming); in many respects, the borderline
between these publications and Web applications is becoming fuzzy.
BigBoxCo, a large technology company with extensive “in-house” documentation to support the technical
and/or user documentation for their various products and administrative processes, develops all this
material in digital-only formats. The quantity of documentation makes it impractical to produce these
documents in print. Instead, the company publishes them on the company intranet, and/or provides them to
their employees and contractors via specialized mobile applications. These documents, as a type of
publication, require accessibility, portability of annotations, and the possible inclusion of complex
A Web Publication should conform to the requirements of all horizontal dependencies.
Web content has to be consumed under different circumstances: it must be available to the largest possible
audience in a secure manner, providing the necessary protection of the reader’s privacy. Publication content
must be able to answer to a number of principles like accessibility, internationalization, device
independence, security, and privacy. (These are usually referred to, in the W3C context, as “horizontal”
dependencies.) These principles are, in general terms:
People with disabilities should be able to access the content of a publication. They should be able to
perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with it, as well as contribute to it. Accessibility
encompasses all disabilities that affect access to the content, including visual, auditory, physical,
speech, cognitive, and neurological disabilities.
Publications should be well adapted to any language, writing systems, region, or culture. This includes
the usage, when appropriate, of left-to-right, right-to-left, horizontal or vertical writing; item
numbering, or interactive forms specific to local cultures; usage of the right character sets and of
local typographic conventions.
- Device Independence:
The content in a publication should be usable on a large number of devices with very different device
characteristics: different screen types and sizes, various input modalities, varying level of processing
power, etc. These different affordances should be automatic with no, or very little, user intervention.
Publications should be presented by a User Agent using a security model that is at least (if not more)
secure than the standard Web security model. Doing this will
prevent publications that contain malicious attacks, data theft, and other security incidents from
impacting users by jeopardizing the integrity of the underlying data or machine operations.
The content in a publication should maintain and support user privacy, in spite of the fact that the
evolution of online technologies has increased the possibility for the collection and processing of
personal, and possibly sensitive, data. However, since a publication may use any part
of the OWP, it may choose to use functionality such as the ability to track a user's activity
within the publication.
These principles correspond to technical requirements on the underlying technologies (i.e., OWP, and its
possible extension to Web Publications) insofar as the technologies must empower the authors (writers,
editors, publishers, etc.) to produce content that follow them. Whether authors use the possibilities of
these technologies or not is not addressed in this document.
All these constraints are formalized in the context of the usage on the Web and by extension Web
Publications. This means that they are valid for publications in general. In some cases, for example due to
legislative reasons, the demands on publications may be more stringent than for generic Web sites. The use
cases below provide some examples for the publication-specific situations. Note also that some aspect of
horizontal dependencies (e.g., accessibility or security), are also the subject of further use cases and
requirements elsewhere in this document.
(On Accessibility) Legal Publishing Ltd. publishes all the official texts as issued by the government of
its country. Per local legislation, the publication must be accessible, following W3C’s WCAG Level AA
requirements, to serve as official references in courts.
(On Privacy, Accessibility) EducationPublishing Ltd. publishes digital textbooks to cover BigUniversity’s
curriculae. These (digital) educational publications also include access to interactive tests via
specialized services on the Web that regularly access the student’s progress. The privacy and the
integrity of the student’s test data must be preserved. This, and the fact that digital textbooks must
also abide to WCAG Level AA requirement in terms of accessibility, are such that EducationPublishing may
be liable in case they are not fulfilled.
(On Internationalization) PublicationInternational SA. publishes literary work all over the world and in
many languages. In order to continue its business in Japan, it must be able to produce digital
publications with right-to-left and vertical writing, and following the Japanese typesetting traditions,
because that is the only way those publications are accepted by local customers.
(On Privacy) Thomas has written a pamphlet advocating a government overthrow. The government has decreed
that the author of the pamphlet as well as its readers of the pamphlet shall be jailed. Thomas needs to
distribute the pamphlet in ways that preserve his anonymity and allow the public to read without fear of
the government cyber-police.
(On Device Independence) Yoshio usually reads a book on his tablet when he is at home, but he does not
carry his tablet around while commuting on the train. Instead, he prefers to use his phone to continue
reading. Publications must be able to adapt to the consumption environment, so as to provide a good
reading experience regardless of the device.
(On Security) LocalLibrary receives publications from a variety of sources that they then make available
to their members. It is imperative that none of these publications can cause any damage to their own
systems or those of their members.
The information regarding the constituent resources of a Web Publication must be easily discovered and there
should be a way to differentiate between essential and non-essential resources.
A Web Publication will likely be composed of multiple Web documents and their resources. A more complicated
Web Publication may have many resources, some of which are essential and some of which are not. Because of
this complexity, extracting in advance all the references to some or all constituent resources may be
prohibitive. It is therefore necessary for the user agent to have an easy access to the list of constituent
resources and some of their characteristics such as whether they are essential, their media types, or their
In a publication, some content is essential to the user being able to consume it while other content could
be either absent or have a provided fallback for situations such as limited connectivity or storage. This
information, provided by the author or publisher of the Web Publication, would enable a user agent to
provide a better experience to the user. For example, the user agent can ensure that essential resources are
made available when offline (see ).
Nick is reading a long-form narrative on a device with limited storage: a publication filled with text,
images, sounds, and multimedia files. Nick also rides the subway, where he loses Internet connectivity
frequently and without warning for long stretches of time. During offline or low-storage situations, there
are still critical parts of the publication that are consumable, mainly the text (and possibly images).
Having a reasonable fallback for video, such as a poster image or placeholder image, would allow Nick to
read the content while offline or on a device with limited storage.
Gösta is reading a treatise on the theory of functions. A mathematical font is essential for the proper
display of the mathematical formula in this publication, so the author has marked the font as essential so
it is made available offline.
While reading an article on a new spam analysis algorithm, Lars is primarily interested in the findings of
the research. Since the research was funded by a government agency, the dataset, consisting of millions of
anonymized log files, is also available. Because of its size, the researchers have marked the dataset as
non-essential for conveying the results of the paper and therefore indicates it can be skipped when
reading the publication offline.
Sarah is reading a publication about the stock exchange. The current value of the stock is fetched (from a
remote resource) when she opens the publication. However, when she is on the train (without a connection)
one week later and opens the stock exchange publication, she will continue to see the value of the stock
as it was the last time she opened the publication. It should be possible for either the content itself or
the user agent to provide some user experience that notifies her that the currently presented data is a
Risha publishes an article which includes an interactive component that accesses a database, exposed to
cannot be included in a packaged publication and the interactive module is of no use without such data.
Risha therefore marks the Web Publication component relative to the interactive module as not relevant
The notion of a Web Publication should enable specific publications like audio books, graphics books, and
All concepts and structures related to a Web Publication should enable the creation and/or production of
alternative renderings for visual and auditory content.
Faye, a busy mother of five, wants to access audio books while commuting, jogging, doing dishes, or
otherwise not able to use her eyes or hands.
Khoudia, a librarian focusing on the children's section of her local library, is looking exclusively for
material rich in audio and video components so as to reach a wider age bracket.
James, a musician, requires that the musical score within a publication come preformatted in braille music
notation in order to read it, as he uses freely available assistive technology which does not have braille
music translations built in.
Web Publications should be able to include data as resources, just as
it does with text, images, etc.
Rosa has submitted an article to EsteemedJournal and provided her research data in CSV format. She and
EsteemedJournal provide users access to the CSVs when accessing her article in any situation by including
the Web Publication.
There must be a way to uniquely identify a Web Publication.
The unique identification of a specific Web Publication is essential. If not expressed as a URL, there
should be a way to map this unique identification onto a Web Address.
Scholarly references demand a unique identification of the publication and, possibly, its internal
structure. That unique identification must be available as a Web link, to make it possible for other
publications and other sites (e.g., the authors’ institutional sites) to unambiguously link to the
publication. These features are essential in the scholarly community to make, for example, the assessment
of individual researchers possible.
User agents must treat a Web Publication as a single logical resource with its own URL, beyond the
references to individual, constituent resources.
Marwin wants to search for a term on the publication. As a reader, he does not know the internal structure
of the book, i.e., whether the content is one or several HTML files; he wants to search to be executed on
the whole (logical) content, regardless of its internal representation.
Svetlana sets her preferences in terms of font selection and size, background color, etc, for a particular
book. She wants those to be in effect on all chapters of the book automatically.
User agents that support value counters (page counters, section numbering, footnotes, endnotes), should do
so across the entire Web Publication (as opposed to individual components being numbered separately)
Assistive Technology such as screen readers or voice dictation control needs to have the Web Publication
presented to it as if it was a single unit.
All constituent resources, and their contents, should be uniquely identifiable.
The requirement that a Web Publication be uniquely identifiable can be easily extended to the constituents
of a Web Publication, as well as the fragments, parts, sections, etc, of those resources. Those
idenfications should be stable, resilient to changes and new iterations of the publication.
Markus refers to a specific mathematical theorem in a publication. That reference must be unique, stable
and retrievable on the Web, and it should not depend on whether the publisher issues a new iteration of
the target publication (thereby possibly change the section numbering).
Judit uses an annotation tool to comment on a publication authored by Pablo. She puts an annotation
against a sentence in a particular paragraph, anchoring that annotation to the sentence using a reliable
way of identifying it. That identification should not be invalidated by a subsequent change of the
document by Pablo (unless he, e.g., removes that sentence).
This section is under construction!
Whereas a “scrolling” view is the dominating approach on the Web in browsers, a user or author may wish to
view their publications in a paginated view. As such, it should be possible for an individual publication or
user agent to provide the ability to switch to pagination view. This pagination may automatically adapt page
sizes to the device’s or the browser’s viewport, and may contain separate headers, footers, and/or page
This is distinct from the need to retain original page numbering (often from the print edition) which must
be available on demand and must be usable to discover specific locations in the publication.
For more detailed requirements on pagination, see here.
Ann reads War and Peace which, when printed, is over 1200 pages. In order to have a better sense of her
progress in the book and to make navigation within the book easier (i.e., to support usability) she
decides to switch her reading environment to paged view.
Susan uses a flexible CSS layout, that includes images, to create a rich, interactive publication on the
history of a city. Each major historical milestone is defined as a standalone unit that would be a single
page when printed, with a timeline with the main events in the footer area of the page.
IndyPublisher wants to provide transition effects between pages, both within and across content documents.
Mr. Oayia, a classroom teacher, says, “turn to page 137 of your textbook.” Regardless of layout and font
size, students reading digital editions need to find the same location in the textbook as one another and
as students reading the print edition.
It should be possible to create and distribute a Web Publication as a single
unit over different protocols or physical media. This can done through the usage of
Packaged Web Publications.
HA, Ltd, a publisher of legal briefs, needs to distribute content in a consumable format to its clients via
Dalia, a patent lawyer, wants to consume content on a multitude of devices, some of which may not always have
connectivity. In order to meet her expectations, it is necessary to have all required content grouped in a
logical structure that can be easily transferred between devices.
Andreas is working on his first collaborative research paper with a fellow student. He wants to share a
relevant publication that includes content, diagrams, and data sets with his writing partner. He does not have
time to learn how to share each component so that his partner can access it all without much effort; he
expects to be able to share this material as a single unit via the chatting system that they use to
Dave is reading Moby Dick on his tablet (at home with network connectivity). He then jumps on a plane with his
good friend Tzviya. After having finished reading the book, he wants to lend it to Tzviya, so that she can
start reading on her own tablet. They are both offline, but can exchange data with SD cards or Bluetooth.
See also Archiving.
A Packaged Web Publication (PWP) should include means to map the identification of a constituent resource
between the Web and its equivalent in a package.
In order to allow a Web Publication to be packaged without any changes to the content, it may be necessary to
provide a mapping from the (absolute) URLs present in the publication to URLs that point to the constituent
resources inside the package.
An archival service wants to harvest (spider) a Web Publication and not have to modify the OWP content
during the process. In order to achive that goal, its manifest would incorporate a mapping from the URIs
present in the OWP content to their new location inside the archive.
The distribution of a Packaged Web Publication should not affect its iterations.
Simply distributing or sharing a Packaged Web Publication to multiple destinations and devices should not
result in (technically) different iterations of the Web Publication unless they contain modifications that
make them different Web Publications.
Publisher Corp. Inc. publishes a new Packaged Web Publication and sends it to its distributors and customers.
This Packaged Web Publication is downloaded to devices or made available to a customer-specific cloud.
Customers can access this file from different retailers, through different applications, either directly or
downloaded from a private cloud. Thus, the Web Publication is duplicated many times, resulting in a huge
number of copies. There remains a single source manifestation, and therefore one
canonical identifier for all of the items spread across devices and buyers.
Mary creates a Packaged Web Publication and sends it to Dave and Kristin. Kristin simply sends it along to
two other friends, but Dave adds some comments first to his copy before sending to two friends. By doing so,
Dave has created a new Web Publication with its own canonical identifier
while the version used by Mary, Kristen and her friends remains the same as the original.
Slicendice Publishing publishes many Packaged Web Publications, some of which are different iterations or
subsets or combinations of others. Slicendice needs not only to be able to uniquely identify each unique Web
Publication but also to identify each “copy” or “delivery” (“item”) of each of those Web Publications so
that it can track “what” has been sold and “how many” of each one have been sold.
BigRetailer receives a Web Publication from EsteemedPublisher that it intends to add to its catalogue.
BigRetailer wants to adds it own “teaser” via an alternative reading order. To achieve that, BigRetailer
provides its own version of the publication’s manifest, that the user agent will use instead of the
The distribution of Packaged Web Publications should respect the existing processes and expectations of
professional publishing channels as well as ad-hoc methods of distribution (eg. email).
Ahmed acquires a Packaged Web Publications on an e-commerce platform. He expects to be able to receive the
Web Publication as a file (rather than only having access to it) and to be able to load it onto its
different reading devices.
Alice acquires a Packaged Web Publication through a subscription service and downloads it. When, later on,
she decides to unsubscribe from the service, this Web Publication becomes unavailable to her.
Leila has just written a report for school as a Web Publication, but she is required to email it to her
teacher. She takes advantage of the fact that it is possible to package up a publication and then sends it
We take for granted the relative durability of print artifacts, many of which have survived with little more
than benign neglect. In contrast, digital documents are unlikely to persist without more active interventions,
such as making copies, monitoring software dependencies, and validating integrity. Since future consumers of
publications represent the most open-ended user group, it is desirable that digital documents be instilled
with more of the inherent durability that characterizes print artifacts. Packaged Web Publications offer this
potential, by making it easier for archiving services to locate, harvest, update, and describe digital
publications. Long-term preservation of digital publications ensures that they may continue to be accessible,
beyond the tenure of individual authors, file formats, publishers, or publishing platforms.
Fundamental use cases and requirements already help aid our archiving requirements. For example:
However, archival raises an additional requirements:
There should be a way to indicate whether one or more Packaged Web Publication components contain (embedded)
An archiving service needs a reliable way to determine which, if any, Web Publication components contain
descriptive metadata, such as that described in metadata and resources.
Without such a mechanism, the archiving service will have to develop and maintain publisher- and/or
platform-specific heuristics for locating or parsing out descriptive metadata, making archiving more
expensive and decreasing the reliability of reporting.
An archiving service sets out to conduct an initial harvest of an article. Along with the images, markup,
scripts, and style and layout instructions that constitute the object, it is able to locate a file
containing descriptive metadata. The archiving service retrieves these resources and packages them into a
logical archival unit for ingest into a preservation repository. A related process identifies and parses
the descriptive metadata and saves its contents into an associated management database.
There should be a way to discover that one or more new components have been added to or deleted from a Web
An archiving service needs a reliable way to learn that one or more Packaged Web Publication components have
been added to or removed from a Packaged Web Publication in order to be able to update the associated
archive of the publication.
An archiving service regularly polls for changes to an article that it has already archived. One such poll
indicates that several resources have been added to the object. The archiving service retrieves these
resources and store them as incremental updates to the appropriate archival unit in a preservation
A publisher issues a retraction for a published article, resulting in the addition of new resources to the
object (i.e., the retraction notice) and the removal of others (i.e., the article content). An archiving
service regularly polls for changes to this article, which it has already archived, and discovers the
retraction. The archiving service retrieves the new resources and record those that are no longer
accessible, carrying over the cumulative updates to a preservation repository.
A copyright dispute results in the takedown of a published book. An archiving service regularly polls for
changes to this book, which it has already archived, and discovers that it has been taken down. It records
that the resources that constitute the object are no longer accessible and propagates this update to a
The publisher should be able to provide information in a Portable Web Publication that can be used to check
the origin of the publication and its authenticity.
Michael, who is a lawyer, and uses the publications of LegalPublisher Ltd., must be 100% sure that the
publication he uses for his case has indeed been published by LegalPublisher Ltd., and not by a possible
third party. This can be done because LegalPublisher Ltd. adds the necessary cryptographic information to
the Web Publication proving its own identity.
The publisher should be able to provide information in a Portable Web Publication proving that the
publication has not been tampered with during delivery.
LegalPublisher Ltd. regularly publishes the official legal texts and regulation as decided by the local
government. Michael, who is a lawyer, has access to these documents via his law firm, and uses them for
his cases; to do so, he must be 100% sure that the publication he accesses faithfully reproduces the
latest governmental decisions. This can be done because LegalPublisher Ltd. adds the necessary
cryptographic information to the Web Publication that becomes invalid if any resource of the Web
A Web Publication should be able to express the access control and write protections of the publication.
A library may loan the publication for two weeks or a university may make a textbook available for its
students for the course of the year. A Web Publication should provide a means to inform user agents about
the availability period to enable the UA to control access accordingly.
Alice is working on potentially Nobel prize winning research, and has drafted her paper describing her
discoveries. She asks Bob to review the paper, but needs to make sure that the Web Publication retains
specific protections on what Bob is able to do with the publication and its content.
A Web Publication should also be available offline.
The same content of the Web Publication should be accessible offline, if circumstances so dictate, without
the necessity for the user to take any particular, technical actions.
Omo, a student in a remote Nigerian village, is taking classes online. Connectivity to the village is
unreliable and intermittent. Omo needs to have his textbooks available regardless of actual connectivity.
Heather, a frequent international traveller, enjoys reading books and tour guides on her portable device,
regardless of her physical location on any given day. Due to the high mobile network access roaming
charges on her mobile network, she tends to download as much of her reading material as possible where she
can avoid those additional charges.
Gemma, a private collector of digital publications, is building a private collections of publications that
she expects to be available to her whether online or offline, over the public Internet, or within a
private local area network (LAN).
“In house” documents may have to be accessed both online and offline,
depending on the access point. While online access might be beneficial when done from the work floor (e.g.,
at an airplane production line), the same documents may need reliable offline access (e.g., in the cockpit).
Gyöngyi, selected as a peer reviewer for the Journal of Scholarly Publications, only has time to review
her assigned publication while commuting on the train to her university, where she does not have
connectivity. Since her review process includes the creation of annotations, notes, highlights, and
possibly changes on the content itself, it is important that these changes must be smoothly transferred
back to the server of the journal when she is back online.
The user must have the possibility to personalize his or her reading
experience. This may include, for example, controlling such features as font size, choice of fonts,
background and foreground color, tone of audio, etc.
Olga, a dyslexic student, downloads a textbook and proceeds to personalize the material with larger and/or
a specialized dyslexic font, as well as different contrast that, for her particular case, makes the text
easier to consume.
When reading a book in the sun, Mia adjusts the background color to allow for a stronger contrast so that
she can see the text.
While reading a book on computer programming, Ransheed wants to change the font into a local font. However,
the code samples within the text should remain in a fixed-width font.
Buffy is Deafblind. Every morning she downloads her daily newspaper. Like most news sites, it provides
many rich multimedia presentations. As a high-quality, accessible news site, it's multimedia presentations
come with captions and transcripts. Buffy does not want to waste her data plan on the useless-to-her audio
and video content, so she instructs her user agents to ignore them.
The user must have the ability to quickly browse to a corresponding
pointer as identified in a physical book. A user must quickly be able to locate the position of
content that is identified within a print book.
Beatrix is teaching a thermodynamics class. Some of her students use a physical textbook while others are
using the web publication. She needs them all to be able to find the same content so they can follow
Zoya borrowed a book from her library but must return it. She has decided to buy a WP version of the same
text and would like to continue reading where she left off.
Mateusz runs a Dungeons and Dragons campaign. He would like to be able to mark off specific sections of
different rulebooks and share those bookmarks so that players in his game can quickly reference the
Aika is reading a novel on her 9 inch tablet, but later switches to her 5 inch phone. She would like to
be able to resume reading from the same point where she left off, given that she may not be using the same
user agent on each device that contains some mechanism that would sync the content position.
User agents may provide a method for escalating trust for a
specific publication. Some publications may require additional capabilities (for example, access to
camera or geolocation) that a user agent might normally not enable. Today, some platform and UA vendors offer
methods for otherwise untrusted local scripts to become trusted and regain API privileges, a similar ability
needs to exist for publications as well.
Luke has written another book, this time using all of the capabilities of the Open Web Platform that he can
think of including using the readers location to adapt the content. He submits the book for review to a Web
Publication retail platform, where the book is signed by the publisher. When purchased, the UA detects that
the book came from a trusted source and has not been modified, therefore allowing it to use the full
capabilities of the web platform.
List of Requirements
|Number and reference
Ensuring accessibillity is a strong requirement for publishers. Instead of dealing with accessibility features
as separate requirements and use cases, this document provides use cases for requirements whenever appropriate.
This table lists those requirements, and also the use case number(s) within that section that are related to
|Number and reference