This document describes how Internet clients may negotiate for content provided by servers according to profiles. This is distinct from negotiating by Media Type or Language: the profile is expected to specify the content of information returned, which may be a subset of the information the responding server has about the requested resource, and may be structured in a specific way to meet interoperability requirements of a community of practice.

Overview of DXWG documents on profiles

This document is part of a set of documents on profiles, edited by the W3C Dataset Exchange Working Group (DXWG). Some of the documents are general while some are technology-specific:


Content delivered by dereferencing Internet identifiers can be negotiated for in different ways. When using the HTTP protocol [[RFC7230]], a client may set one or more headers:

However, clients have not had a defined way to negotiate for content based on its adherence to an information model - a standard, a specification or a profile - and this document addresses this functionality.

When online information about a resource adheres to one or more profiles, methods described here allow clients to list those profiles and request content according to one or more of them in order of preference. For example, information about an online book might adhere to the Dublin Core Terms [[DCTERMS]] metadata specification with each field of information, such as title, description, author etc., being defined and formatted according to various Dublin Core elements (dct:title, dct:description & dct:creator, respectively). Then, a request for the information about this book may ask for the list of profiles according to which the metadata is available, or it may ask specifically for a response adhering to the Dublin Core Terms. When no profile or an unsupported profile is requested, a server returns default content, that is, content conforming to the default profile supported by the server.

When selecting a content negotiation mechanism, an Internet client may use the HTTP protocol but it may also use other methods for providing instructions to a server, such as URI Query String Arguments (QSAs). QSAs are established as useful for humans and machines for situations where negotiation via HTTP is not practical, such as when manually entering requests into web browsers. This document also provides guidance for both HTTP and non-HTTP methods of content negotiation and ensures they all adhere to a single functional specification, ensuring their functional equivalency.

Guidance for the creation of profiles is provided in the [[DX-PROF-GUIDANCE]] document created by the Dataset Exchange Working Group (DXWG).

Describing the parts of profiles and their relation to other profiles is the function of the Profiles Vocabulary [[DX-PROF]], also produced by the DXWG.

For the purpose of compliance, the normative sections of this document are Section 3, Section 6, Section 7 and Section 8.



An act of identifying something precisely or of stating a precise requirement. - Oxford English Dictionary

One form of a specification is a standard which is a "basis for comparison; a reference point against which other things can be evaluated" - [[DCTERMS]]


A named set of constraints on one or more identified base specifications, including the identification of any implementing subclasses of datatypes, semantic interpretations, vocabularies, options and parameters of those base specifications necessary to accomplish a particular function.

This definition includes what are often called "application profiles", "metadata application profiles", or "metadata profiles".

Source: deliberations of the DXWG. See ProfileContext wiki page.

A program that establishes a connection to a server for the purpose of sending one or more HTTP requests [[RFC7230]]
A program that accepts connections in order to service HTTP requests by sending HTTP responses. [[RFC7230]]
The entity that is identified by a URI. Familiar examples include an electronic document, an image, a source of information with a consistent purpose. [[RFC3986]]
Information that is supplied about a resource [[RFC3986]]
A message sent over the Internet, from a client to a server, for a information about a resource [[RFC7230]]
A message sent over the Internet, from a server to a client answering a request for information about a resource [[RFC7230]]
A short name identifying something, in the context of this document a profile


In many cases, there are several ways to describe a resource within the scope of a single Media Type. For instance, XML documents, while conforming to the text/xml Media Type, may adhere to one of several DTDs or XML Schemas. RDF documents, with a choice of Media Type serializations such as text/turtle, application/rdf+xml and others, have a large number of vocabularies (classes and properties) available to use for their content's information model. When a client initiates a request for an Internet resource, such as an HTTP GET to retrieve a resource or an HTTP PUT to create or replace a resource, the client and server must have a standardized way to exchange information on how the transmitted resource will be structured according to DTDs, XML Schema, vocabularies or other standards, specifications or profiles. When using non-HTTP content negotiation, various methods such as URIs with Query String Arguments have been implemented previously, such as the OAI-PMH [[OAI-PMH]] and OGC's CSW [[CSW]] protocols.

This document describes content negotiation based on profiles using HTTP protocol. It introduces HTTP headers and non-HTTP methods, such as via QSAs, and defines a general QSA Application Programming Interface (API).

Related Work

The standardization of the content-negotiation HTTP headers is the purview of the IETF. A first proposal for an Internet Draft for Negotiating Profiles in HTTP [[DX-PROF-IETF]] is available but has not yet been submitted to the IETF. The current version of the IETF draft (-00) is expected to be completely re-written in parallel work with this document and should not be seen as anything but work-in-progress.

The Internet-Draft for the registration of Accept-Profile and Content-Profile is currently work-in progress. When that work is completed, the above text will be adjusted accordingly or deleted.

Previous uses of Accept-* headers or other HTTP headers for this use will be listed and discussed here.

Abstract Model

This section describes an abstract conceptual model for content negotiation by profile, independent of any realizations of it within a specific environment.


All content negotiation takes place between a client and a server over the Internet with the former requesting a representation of a resource or a resource's metadata through a request and receiving it via a response. In some cases, a server may have to make a request of a client and receive a response.

An Internet resource may have many aspects over which a client/server pair of agents might negotiate for content. These aspects are to be treated independently so content negotiation for a resource involving negotiation by profile and any other aspects of a resource will not affect each other. For this reason, other than a directive to maintain independence, no further discussion of negotiation by profile and the relations to other forms of negotiation are given. Specific realizations might require special handling of profile and other forms of negotiation.

A client requesting the representation of a resource conforming to a profile MUST identify the resource by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) [[RFC3986]] and MUST identify a profile either by a URI or a token that unambiguously identifies the profile for the server within that request/response session.

In this abstract model, we don't assume any specifics about client, server, resource, metadata, request or response.

Requests and Responses

There are two main types of request that a client might make of a server regarding content negotiation by profile. A client wishing to negotiate for content via a profile adhering to this specification MUST be able to implement these two request types.

  1. list profiles
    a client requests the list of URIs of profiles for which a server is able to deliver conformant resources
  2. get resource by profile
    a client requests a representation of the requested resource represented conforming to a particular profile

A third request type is given that is expected not to apply to all realizations of this abstract model and not all clients adhering to this specification need implement it.

  1. list profiles tokens
    a client requests the list of tokens that the server uses for profiles and for which the server is able to deliver resource representations that conform to the profile. The server also provides a mapping from tokens to profile URIs

A server adhering to this specification MUST respond to each request with the following responses. The first two types are required, handling the third depends on the realization environment.

  1. list profiles
    a server responds to a client with the list of profile URIs for the profiles for which it is able to deliver conformant resource representations
  2. get resource by profile
    a server responds with either a specific profile for a resource conforming to a requested profile identified by the client or it responds with a default profile
  3. list profiles tokens
    a server responds with the list of profile tokens for which it is able to deliver conformant resource representations and the mapping of the tokens to profile URIs.

More detailed descriptions of these requests and their responses are given next.

list profiles

A client wishes to know for which profiles a server is able to deliver conformant representations of a resource. The content of the list can be known either before a request for a particular resource representation is made or it is known after an initial request for a resource representation is made.

The list profiles request MUST be either an independent request or part of another realization's request.

The list profiles request MAY result in a response in one of a number of structures or formats provided that the profiles representations conforming to the request are unambiguously identified either by URI or a token mappable to a URI.

A server MUST NOT list profiles that resource representations conform to if it is unable to deliver those representations when presented with a get resource by profile request.

get resource by profile

The most basic request of content negotiation by profile is for a client to request a representation of a resource that is claimed to conform to a profile.

A client executing a get resource by profile request MUST identify the profile with either a URI or a token mappable to a URI.

A client executing a get resource by profile MAY request a resource representation conforming to one of any number of profiles with its preference expressed in a some form of list ordering.

list profiles tokens

A client/server pair of agents MAY refer to profiles by identifiers other than URIs, token, as long as both the client and server are able to deterministically map that token to a profile's URI. This is due to the known requirement for profiles to be able to be referred to within other URIs, such as those of resources and other situations where referring to the profile itself by a URI is not possible.

A server responding to a list profiles tokens request MUST provide token/URI mappings that list tokens and URIs, either of which can be used for get resource by profile requests within the same realization.


This section describes realizations of the abstract model in multiple implementation domains.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol Headers

A realization of the Abstract Model using Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) headers is presented here. This implementation is based on HTTP content negotiation and uses two new HTTP headers, Accept-Profile and Content-Profile that are to be defined in an upcoming Internet-Draft [[DX-PROF-IETF]].

list profiles

Listing profiles for a resource using HTTP can be done in two ways.


The use of HTTP OPTIONS is discouraged since the responses are not cacheable.

The first one is to issue an OPTIONS request against the resource. In this case a server implementing content negotiation by profile SHOULD return a Content-Profile header listing all profiles the requested resource conforms to. If the server accepts HTTP PUT, POST or PATCH commands against the specified resource, it also SHOULD also return a Accept-Profile header specifying which profiles are acceptable when sending data to that resource. Both the Accept-Profile and the Content-Profile headers MAY specify q-values for each profile.

OPTIONS /some/resource HTTP/1.1


HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Profile: urn:example:profile:1;q=0.8,http://example.org/profiles/2;q=0.5
Accept-Profile: urn:example:profile:1;q=0.8,http://example.org/profiles/2;q=0.5
[More headers for this resource]

get resource by profile

Getting a resource representation conforming to a specific profile is done by issuing an HTTP GET request against the resource and specifying the desired profile URI in an Accept-Profile header. It is possible to specify a range of acceptable profile URIs and also to indicate preferences by using quality indicators (q-values).

GET /a/resource HTTP/1.1
Accept: text/turtle;q=0.8, application/xml;q=0.5
Accept-Profile: urn:example:profile:1;q=1.0,urn:example:profile:2;q=0.6
[more request headers]


HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: text/turtle
Content-Profile: urn:example:profile:1
[more response headers]

Having performed content negotiation and returned a resource representation, it is RECOMMENDED that the server also include a Link header indicating the availability of alternate resources encoded in other media types and conforming to other profiles, as described above.

list profiles tokens

Currently, there is no proposed way to implement this function using HTTP.

URI Query String Arguments

There is a question within the working group regarding the advisability of specifying an alternative method of content negotiation conducted via query strings rather than HTTP headers. We have a requirement to show how datasets with different profiles can be made discoverable by humans, but there is disagreement whether this requirement extends to implementing the same negotiation scheme used in HTTP headers.

A Query String Argument (QSA) realization of the Abstract Model is presented here. Unlike the HTTP realization, which is the subject of an independent document [[DX-PROF-IETF]], this realization is fully specified here and this document is considered normative for the QSA realization. This realization does not preclude other QSA specifications for profile and content negotiation.

A query string is a part of a URI which assigns values to specified parameters. QSAs are commonly used within web browsers by humans and in other client/server situations to deliver extra information to a server.

Key naming

When content negotiation by profile is to take place using QSAs, the requests and responses of the Abstract Model MUST be implemented. However there is some flexibility in how this may be done: QSA key/value pairs must be implemented but the specific key terms may be changed. In this realization, _profile and _mediatype are used to indicate a single profile or a list of preference-ordered profiles or Media types respectively with profiles or Media Types indicated by either URI or token.

Currently, the convention in HTTP content negotiation by media type uses tokens for Media Types, such as text/html or application/ld+json with the tokens registered at IANA's Media Types list.

There is no proposal yet to create a central register of profiles as this is thought by the authors to be un-sustainable in the long-term, given the likely numbers of profiles to be established.

For this reason, the QSA realization allows either URIs or tokens for profiles to be used and it is expected, though not mandated here, that QSA realizations will also allow URIs or tokens for Media Types and other content negotiation dimensions, such as language. There are already several initiatives that have created URIs for Media Types based on the IANA register's tokens.

Resource URI

Resource URIs for which QSA-based profile negotiation is taking place MUST NOT themselves be QSA values of other resource URIs in any QSA-based realization. Such mechanics may be used but must be transparent to the realization's client applications.

For the representation of Resource X, according to Profile Y, in Media Type Z:

GET /single/endpoint?resource=http://example.org/resource/X&_profile=Y&_mediatype=Z HTTP/1.1

GET /resource/X?_profile=Y&_mediatype=Z HTTP/1.1

list profiles

A QSA with a fixed value MUST be supported by a server to allow a client to make a list profiles request.

The QSA key/value pair _profile=list SHOULD be used however the server MAY make available an equivalent pair as long as this is discoverable. This is to cater for APIs that alreadly implement a similar function using QSA key/value pairs such as _view=alternates.

The complete request for the profiles to which a resource's representations conform can be communicated in a single URI like thus:

GET /a/resource?_profile=list HTTP/1.1

where /a/resource is the URI of the resource for which the list of available profiles is requested

A client making this request MAY negotiate for particular formats of the response by using a QSA equivalent to the HTTP Accept header to indicate a Media Type. A server SHOULD implement a _mediatype QSA for this but MAY implement an alternative, such as _format as long as this is dicoverable,

An example profile listing for a resource in HTML would look like:

GET /a/resource?_profile=list&_mediatype=text/html HTTP/1.1

get resource by profile

Expressing profile preference

A server implementing profile listing for resources SHOULD allow the requester to indicate preferences. This SHOULD be done by allowing the QSA indicating the desired profile, usually _profile, to have a comma-separated list as its value so, for a client desiring representations of /a/resource according to profiles with tokens aaa, bbb & ccc we have:

  GET /a/resource?_profile=aaa,bbb,ccc HTTP/1.1

Servers MAY support any combination of profile URIs or tokens for this (e.g. aaa,http://example.org/profile-x,bbb). However, in this situation, profile URIs containing commas must escape them.

Similarly, a server implementing multiple Media Type return formats for profile listing SHOULD allow a client to specify a preference order for Media Types and also for other dimensions of content negotiation, such as language. When using a QSA-only API, Media Type preferences (and language and others in a similar fashion) MAY be specified in a comma-separated list form, most preferred to least such that a client requesting profil

list profiles tokens

Test Suites

This section includes links to software tools to be used for testing the adherence of implementations to the realizations given in this document.

Apache JMeter

An Apache JMeter implementation of a test suite is maintained at: https://github.com/CSIRO-enviro-informatics/prof-conneg-jmeter-test-suite


This section includes implementations of the realizations given in this document and their conformance test results. The tools used for conformance testing are listed in the section above.

Security and Privacy

The use of HTTP to negotiate and transport implies that all privacy and security issues that are relevant for that protocol are also relevant for profile negotiation. E. g., information such as user agent, accept-headers, IP address etc. can potentially be used as identifying information, and particularly, the IP address adds information about geolocation and institutional membership. Apart from that, there are no known security or privacy impacts of this feature.

For a more complete view of those issues, cf. the Privacy and Security Questionnaire for this deliverable.



This section lists, and then addresses, individual requirements that the Dataset Exchange Working Group considered important for content negotiation by profile.

Responses to individual requirement Issues listed here are, at the time of the First Public Working Draft of this document, for demonstration only; to indicate the logic of answers to individual requirements.

These requirement responses may not survive in their current form in later drafts of this document nor may individual listings of requirements; they may be subsumed into the flowing txt of the document.



This requirement is addressed by suggesting how an Internet resource in general, rather than specifically a dcat:Dataset or dcat:Distribution should list profiles it implements. A DCAT- specific solution should not be any different from the general case.

Profile definition and constraints on properties are not addressed here. See [[DX-PROF-GUIDANCE]].

This requirement is taken to mean "create a way to list the profiles implemented by a Internet resource for humans and machines to use". For the former (humans), the options are:

  • discovery via HTML representation
    • see [[DX-PROF-GUIDANCE]]
    • an approach suggested is to provide an alternate view resource for the original resource located at RESOURCE_URI + ?_view=alternates which lists, at a minimum, the profiles, media types (formats) & languages available, as per the alternate views guidance.

For the latter (machines):

  • discovery via HTTP
    • see [[DX-PROF-IETF]]
    • HTTP mechanics are described that allow clients to negotiate with servers for profile listings
  • discovery via RDF graph
    • see [[DX-PROF]]


This requirement is the focus of the IETF RFC in the DXWG Family of Documents [[DX-PROF-IETF]].

In summary, a series of new HTTP headers are added to the HTTP specification allowing for HTTP negotiation via profile in a manner similar to negotiation via Media Type or Language.





The IETF submission in the DXWG Family of Documents [[DX-PROF-IETF]] does not address content negotiaiton by profile query param patterns: it is limited to HTTP specification-based negotiation only.

Recommendations for content negotiation by profile via query param patterns (Query String Arguments) are given in the Profile Guidance [[DX-PROF-GUIDANCE]] document where an API for this is defined.



This requirement is met by [[DX-PROF-IETF]].




(assuming wording of "a profile must have an identifier")

Profiles must be identified by an HTTP URI.

Short codes (tokens) for profiles that map to HTTP URIs for them may be used in systems that ensure the tokens map deterministically. This allows for the use of simple strings in places where URIs are impractical yet preserves the guarantee that every profile has an HTTP URI.




This requirement is met by [[DX-PROF]].


This requirement is met by [[DX-PROF-IETF]].


Additional Issues

This section will be removed in a later version of this document.

Additional Issues related to this document and not yet placed within it are listed at the: