This document introduces the use cases and requirements of client, edge, cloud coordination mechanism and its standardization.

This is still a work in progress. The proposal is being incubated in the W3C Web & Networks Interest Group.


With the rapid development of cloud computing technology, the centralized cloud is evolving towards distributed "edge cloud" that allows developers to deploy their code as FaaS in the edge cloud which is close to the user's location. One of such service is Alibaba Cloud's EdgeRoutine service.

With the rapid adoption of new technologies such as machine learning, IoT ect in the client side's applications, the client side's application may also need to perform computing intensive work. For example, machine learning inference can also be done in client side. As one of such examples, Taobao mobile App leverages client side machine learning inference for user face detection etc. W3C is also working on WebNN standard that allow client side developers to leverage the machine learning acceleration hardwares that resides in the client side devices.

To improve the client side application's performance, there is a trend to offload computing intensive work to the edge cloud, such as cloud app, cloud gaming etc. However, current approach could be further optimized if there is a mechanism for Client-Edge-Cloud coordination. This document discusses the use cases and requirements of Client-Edge-Cloud coordination mechanism and its standardization.


This document uses the following terms with the specific meanings defined here. Where possible these meanings are consistent with common usage. However, note that common usage of some of these terms have multiple, ambiguous, or inconsistent meanings. The definition here will take precedence. When terms are used with the specific meanings defined here they will be capitalized. When possible reference to existing standards defining these terms is given.

The periphery of a network.
Function as a Service. A service provided by a Computing Resource that can execute a stateless computation.
A set of managed services that are designed to be interchangable, scalable, and location-independent.
Cloud Resources
A set of managed Computing Resources available in the Cloud.
Edge Cloud
A set of Edge Resources managed as an extension of the Cloud. Such resources use similar abstractions and management APIs as a cloud but typically will add mechanisms to manage location and latency, and will typically be deployed in a less centralized, more location and latency-sensitive manner than a typical Cloud.
Edge Resource
A Computing Resource located on the Edge, that is, near the periphery of a network. Note: this definition does not necessarily include "endpoints" such as IoT sensors. It refers specifically to computers that can make Computing Resources available to others on the network.
The ability to move a workload from one Computing Resources to another. See also Live Migration and Application-Directed Migration, which are subclasses.
Live Migration
The ability to transparently move a running workload from one Computing Resources to another. This includes transparent migration of state and updates to references, so that the application that invoked the resource does not need to manage the transition and does not need to be made aware of it. Such migration needs to be implemented with minimum impact on quality of service factors such as latency of responses. See also the more general defintion of Migration.
Application-Directed Migration
The ability to move a running workload from one Computing Resources to another under control of an application. In this version of Migration, the controlling application or the Workload itself needs to manage the orderly transfer of state from one Computing Resource to another, and may also have to explictly update references, and will have to explictly manage quality of service factors such as latency of response. See also the more general definition of Migration.
Computing Resource
Any computer which can be used to execute a Workload, and may include Edge, Cloud, or Client computers.
Client Computer
A Computing Resource used directly by an end user, such as a laptop or desktop. Such a Computing Resource may also act as an Edge Resource if it provides Computing Resources to other systems on the network.
Content Distribution Network. A specialized network and set of computers targetted at caching and delivering content with low latency. May also host Edge Resources.
Multi-access Edge Computing. A form of Edge Computing based on Computing Resources typically hosted within a cellular network's infrastructure.
A packaged definition of the compute work required to be executed on a Computing Resource. For example, a workload might be a container image, a script, or WASM.

Stakeholders and Business Models

Different stakeholders with an interest in edge computing will have different motivations and priorities. In this section we present an categorization of the different kinds of stakeholders and their business models. As we present use cases and discuss proposals we can then relate these to the motivating drivers of different stakeholders. Note that some stakeholders may belong to more than one category.

Abbv Category Business Model Motivation
BWSR Browser Vendor OSS - supported by other business (e.g. CSP, ads/search) More applications can use web
CSP Cloud Service Provider Usage or subscription, account based (service provider pays) Offer edge computing service.
CDN Content Distribution Network Usage or subscription, account based (service provider pays) Offer edge computing service
ISP Internet Service Provider Subscription/rental; HW sales in some cases Offer edge computing service
HW Hardware Vendor Sale or rental Desktops/servers as private edge computers
NET Mobile Network Provider (MEC) Usage or subscription, account based (user pays) Offer compute utility service
OS Operating System Vendor Sale or subscriptions to OS licenses; HW co-sales HW co-sales for edge computers
APPL Application Developer Sale or subscription to software licenses (or in some cases, ad supported) Avoid limitations of client and/or cloud platforms
SVC Web Service (API) Provider Usage or subscription, account based (user pays) Improved deployment options; increased usage
USER End User Direct payment, bundled cost, or private HW Improved performance, lower latency

Use Cases

The client side application could be generally classified into the following categories:

  • Render intensive application
  • Render intensive application refers to the client side applications whose main task is to fetch the content from the backend server then rendering the content in the front-end. For example, news,social media Web applications and mobile applications belongs to this category.

  • Computing intensive application
  • Computing intensive application refers to the client side applications whose main task is to do computing intensive work in the client side. For example, mobile gaming applications need to calculate certain object's location and other complex parameters based on user interaction then rendering in the client side.

  • Hybrid application
  • Hybrid application refers to the application whose main task includes both rendering intensive work and computing intensive work. For example, morden e-commerce mobile application leverage machine learning inference in the client side for AR tpye user experience. At the same time, the e-commerce mobile application needs to fetch dynamic content based on uesr preference.

  • Mobile/static client
  • Some client side applications remain static most of the time. For example, a camera for traffic monitorning and analysis do not require mobility support. On the other hands, some client side application will change its location continuously. For example, for applications running on a connected vehicle or self driving vehicle, it will change its location rapidly with the vehicle.

    Cloud App

    Cloud App is a new form of AIoT application which utilizing cloud computing technology to move native mobile application to the cloud. The user interaction happens in the client device side and the computing and rendering process happens in the edge cloud side. This can lower the client's hardware requirement and reduce the cost.

    As one examples of cloud App, Alibaba's Tmall Genie smart speaker leverage edge cloud to offload the computing intensive work from the client side to the edge cloud.

    The client, the central cloud, the edge cloud works together in a coordinated way for Cloud App. Typically, the control and orchestration function is located in the central cloud. The computing intensive function is located in edge cloud. The user intercation and display function is located in the client.

    The advantage of Cloud App is that it can reduce the hardware cost of the client side device.

    Cloud App Architecture


    VR/AR devices such as VR/AR glasses normally has limited hardware resources, so it is preferred to offload the computing intensive task to the edge for acceleration and reducing delay since the edge server is deployed near the location of the user.

    Note: this could be generalized to "low-latency tasks". Some other examples might include game physics simulation or CAD tools (in a business environment). The latter might add confidentiality constraints (a business user may want to offload to on-premises computers). We may also want to clarify that this pattern is for local communication to/from the client. See also "Streaming Acceleration", where the communication is in-line with an existing network connection.

    Cloud Gaming

    Cloud gaming is a game mode based on cloud computing. Under the operation mode of cloud game, all games are running on the cloud side, and the game images are compressed and transmitted to users by video stream through the network after rendering. The cloud gaming user can receive the game video stream and send control commands to the cloud to control the game.

    Taking Click-and-Play scenario for example, since all the rendering and control commands are offloaded to the edge, the cloud game user don't need to install the game locally, just click the game and then play with it smoothly.

    By offloading native games to the edge and making full use of the computing power and low-latency network, the cloud gaming can provide more smoother experience.

    Professional Web-based Media Production

    Processing and rendering media is a complex task. For example, a video editing application needs to do image processing, video editing, audio editing, etc. So it has high performance requirements.

    Professional Web-based media production relies on web-based media editing tools heavily which can be used to do AI Cutting, AI Editing, AI Transcoding and publish videos to the cloud. Since the edge cloud has more powerful computing power and close to user's location, by offloading the expensive rendering process to the edge, the web apps can render media more quickly and provide better user experience.

    Web-based media production

    Online Video Conference

    For online video conference application, the online video conference system provides realtime translation and subtitles service. This will use AI technology and it is computing intensive. Also, the real time translation service is very delay sensitive.

    The online video conference application could be installed on PC terminals or mobile terminals. For PC terminals, there is enough computing resources and enough disk storage to allow the installation of online video conference application. In this case, the computing intensive work could be done in the PC terminal and providing ultra-low latency user experience.

    For mobile terminals, there is limited disk storage and limited computing capability, it is not possbile to run the computing intensive task on the mobile terminals. In this case, the computing intensive task could be offloaded to the edge and then providing ultra-low latency user experience.

    It is preferred that in this use case the online video conference application can offload the computing intensive task according to the terminal capability and edge resources availability. The online video conference service provider can provide consistent user experience on different terminals.

    Streaming Acceleration

    In the case of video acceleration, we may want to offload work to a location with both compute performance that is already on the network path. Specifically, consider a low-performance client that wants to compress video or do background removal as part of a teleconference. It could connect over a local high-performance wireless network to a local edge computer (perhaps an enhanced ISP gateway box) that would then perform the video processing and forward the processed video to the network.

    We may also want to clarify that this pattern is for communication in-line with an existing network. See also "VR/AR" (should be generalized), where the communication is to/from the offload target.

    Image Processing

    For some mobile image processing applications, it is required to use AI algorithm for the image analysis and processing. It is normally need NPU chipset on the terminals for better performance. For the terminals that without NPU chipset, it is preferred to offload the AI computing intensive task to the edge and this will provide a consistent user experience on different terminals.

    Automatic License Plate Recognition

    For automatic license plate recognition applications, offline processing can provide 90% recognition rate. Online processing on the edge will improve the recognition rate to 99%. It is preferred to offload the license plate recognition computing intensive task to edge when the network connection is stable and if the network condition is not stable or broken, the offloaded computing intensive task could move back to the terminals to guarantee the availability of the service.

    Machine Learning

    Machine learning inference can be done in the client side to reduce latency. W3C is working on WebNN standard that allows client side developers to leverage the machine learning acceleration hardwares reside in the client side devices.

    The client side devices have different hardware capabilities. For example, some mobile phone have very limited hardware resource and do not have GPU. It is very difficult for this kind of client devices to run machine learning code on it. So in this scenario, it is preferred to offload machine learning code to the edge cloud. The user experience is greatly improved in this case.

    Robot Navigation Acceleration

    Consider a robot navigating in a home using Visual SLAM. In this case the robot has limited performance due to cost and power constraints. So it wishes to offload the video processing work to another computer. However, the video is sensitive private data so the user would prefer that it does not leave the user's premises, and would like to offload the processing to an existing desktop computer or an enhanced gateway. Latency may also be a concern (the robot needs the results immediately to make navigation decisions, for example to avoid a wire or other obstacle on the floor).

    Note: in general, there are other opportunities for IoT devices to want to offload work to another computer. Video processing however is of special interest because of its high data and processing requirements and privacy constraints.

    Persistent tasks

    In some cases it may be desireable to a task from a browser that continues to run even when the browser application is not active. This could be used to monitor a condition for example and send a notification when that condition is met. As a sub-category of this use case, the offloaded task might be used to monitor IoT devices and instead of or in addition to sending a notification, it might be used for automation. Such an offloaded task might also be used to execute long-running computational tasks such as machine learning or data indexing.

    Persistent tasks require a mechanism to manage their lifetime using expiry dates or explicit controls. In the case of applying this to IoT orchestration, there is also the issue of granting access rights to such offloaded tasks, for example access to a LAN, to specific IoT devices on that LAN, and to the data they generate.

    High Availability Application

    For the applications which offload some parts of its functionalities to the edge cloud, if the edge cloud is not available due to UE mobility or other reasons, it is preferred that the functionalities could be handed over back to the client. More complex rules could be designed to improve the robustness of the application.

    Gap Analysis

    Common approaches for offloading

    Currently, there are two common approaches for offloading. One is to send the codes in the request from the client to the edge server, the other is to fetch the codes from inner file repositories on edge and execute them. They all work fine, but both approaches have some downsides.

  • Sending codes from client to edge
  • In this approach, the client sends the local codes to the edge and execute the codes on the edge side. The downside is obvious, since more data is transferred and it may cause network latency.Handling more data will also put more strain on the resource-restricted end device. Meanwhile, some codes are sensitive, data security is also an big issue.

  • Fetching codes from file repositories and executing on edge
  • EdgeFetch
    Fetching codes from inner file repositories

    In this approach, The client leverages user-defined offloading library to send proper params to the offloading server and the server will fetch specified codes from inner repositories and then execute the codes.

    The downside of this approach is that additional file repositories are needed and the developers have to upload the codes to the repository and make sure the local and the edge side have the same version codes.

    Meanwhile, since the offloading library plays an import role in offloading, developers should be reliable for creating a robust offloading policy to discovery and connect with edge nodes, decide which parts of the codes can be offloaded and the time to offload. This will put more strain on the developer and affect the overall programming experience and the productivity.


    The two approaches discussed above are mostly similar. The main difference is the way the codes are sent to the edge. However, except for those downsides mentioned, some common issues or pain points are still remained and needed to be addressed.

    There is no W3C standard currently available to address the above gaps. To achieve the interoperability between different vendors, standardization is needed.


    The requirements that was derived from the use cases are listed bellow.

    Requirements Related Use Cases
    R1: Client Offload. Client should be able to offload computing intensive work to an edge resource. Use case 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13;
    R2a: Application-Directed Migration. The application should be able to explictly manage migration of work between computing resources. This may include temporarily running a workload on multiple computing resources to hide transfer latency. Use case (refs TBD) ;
    R2b: Live Migration. The edge cloud should be able to transparently migrate live work between computing resources. This includes between edge resources, cloud resources, and back to the client, as necessary. If the workload is stateful, this includes state capture and transfer. Use case 2.1,2.2, 2.5;
    R3: Discovery. A client should be able to dynamically enumerate available edge resources. Use case (refs TBD);
    R4: Selection. A client should be able to select between available resources, including making a decision about whether offload is appropriate (e.g. running on the client may be the best choice). This selection may be automatic or application-directed, and may require metadata or measurements of the performance and latency of edge resources, and may be static or dynamic. To do: perhaps break variants down into separate sub-requirements. Use case (refs TBD);
    R5: Packaging. A workload should be packaged so it can be executed on available edge resources. Note: this means either platform independence OR a means to negotiate which workloads can run where. Use case (refs TBD);
    R6: Persistence. It should be possible for a workload to be run "in the background", possibly event-driven, even if the client is not active. This also implies lifetime management (cleaning up workloads under some conditions, such as if the client has not connected for a certain amount of time, etc.) Use case (refs TBD);
    R7: Security and Privacy. The client should be able to control and protect the data used by an offloaded workload. Note: this may result in constraints upon the selection of offload targets, but it also means data needs to be protected in transit, at rest, etc. Use case (refs TBD);
    R8: Resource Management. The client should be able to control the use of resources by an offloaded workload on a per-application basis. Note: If an edge resource has a usage charge, for example, a client may want to set quotas on offload, and some applications may need more resources than others. This may also require a negotiation, e.g. a workload may have minimum requirements, making offload mandatory on limited clients. Use case (refs TBD);

    Architecture Proposals

    This document proposes different architectures that address the needs identified above.

    Seamless code sharing across client/edge/cloud

    This architecture allows the client, edge and the central cloud share a common code running environment which allows the task running in either client, edge, cloud or both in a coordinated way.

    The proposed high level architectures is shown in the following figure:

    Proposed High Level Architecture

    Standardization Proposals

    WebAssembly as unified runtime

    This proposal proposes to extend WebAssembly runtime and use it in both client side and edge cloud side as unified runtime.

    WebAssembly As Unified Runtime Architecure

    The proposed solution includes the following parts:

  • Load wasm code
  • The client load the WebAssembly code by invoking a standard API. This API should indicate that the wasm code could be offloaded to Edge cloud when certain condition is meet. This API should also set the destination Edge cloud's location identifier.

  • Offload wasm code to Edge Cloud
  • The client side's WebAssembly runtime excutes the wasm code and when certain condition is meet, it offload the wasm code to the Edge cloud.

  • Run wasm code on Edge cloud
  • The wasm code runs on the Edge cloud, and return the result back to the client side.

  • Dispatch back to the client
  • When certain condition is meet, the wasm code is dispatched back to the client side and continue to run.

    Potential Standards

  • API to load wasm code
  • This API is used to load wasm code to the client's WebAssembly runtime, and it indicates this wasm code could be offloaded to the Edge cloud when certain condition is meet. The standardization of this API is required since different WebAssembly runtime implementation should implement this API in the same way to make sure that the developers have the same user experience.

  • Communication mechanism and protocol between client and Edge cloud WebAssembly runtime
  • The communication mechanism, the communication protocol and the interface between the client side WebAssembly runtime and the Edge cloud side WebAssembly runtime should be standardized to enable the interoperability of different WebAssembly runtime vendors.

  • Edge cloud availability and network condition discovery
  • The wasm code should only be offloaded when certain condition is meet. The condition may includes Edge cloud availability and network condition etc. Whether this part should be standardized is TBD.

  • Offloading policy
  • This proposal recommend that offloading policy is not standardized to allow the flexibility implementation of different vendors.

    Conclusion & Recommendations for the Way Forward

    As analysed in the gap analysis section and in the potential standards section, the proposed potential standards work is to specify a standardized common mechanism to offload code to the edge cloud. There may be mulitple potential solutions and some of them may be related to WebAssembly and some may be related to webplatform APIs.

    There are basically two different approaches for the standardization:

  • Option 1: Divide the standardization work into different relevant W3C working groups.
  • Option 2: Establish a new working group that focus on the standardization of this problem.
  • The disadvantage of option 1 is that if divided the work to different related working groups in W3C, it would be very difficult to maintain a unified architecture.

    The advantage of option 2 is that it would be easier to maintain a unified architeture in one working group. Considering this, it is preferred to establish a new working group (Option 2) to focus on the standardized solution development. The proposed new working group could develop the standard solution architecture firstly. If the standard solution architecture require extension of current W3C standards, the new working group could work together with the related working group(for example,WebAssembly Working Group etc.) to develop the extensions.

    The proposed next step is to draft the charter which is used to establish the proposed new working group.


    Feiwei Lei, Alibaba Group

    Jingyu Yang, Alibaba Group

    Wenming Wang, ByteDance

    Dian Peng, ByteDance

    Lei Zhao, China Mobile