Intended audience: HTML coders (using editors or scripting), script developers (PHP, JSP, etc.), CSS coders, schema developers (DTDs, XML Schema, RelaxNG, etc.), XSLT developers, Web project managers, and anyone who wants to get a basic idea of how the Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm supports inline bidirectional content.
What does the Unicode Bidirectional (bidi) Algorithm do, basically?
In some older technologies, such as mainframe and iSeries systems, you may still come across text stored in visual order. For more information, see Visual vs. logical ordering of text.
It is important to understand from the outset that, in all major web browsers, the order of characters in memory (logical) is not the same as the order in which they are displayed (visual).
The set of rules applied by the browser to produce the correct order at the time of display are described by the Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm, or 'bidi algorithm' for short.
This page introduces basic concepts of the bidi algorithm. The goal is not to tell you how to manage bidi text in your application, format, etc. (see links at the bottom of the page for that), but to help you understand enough about how the bidirectional algorithm works, and where it needs help, to understand that information. We do, however, sometimes use examples from HTML to help those who are familiar with that language relate the ideas to practical applications.
We already know that a sequence of Latin characters is rendered (ie. displayed) one after the other from left to right (we can see that in the text you are currently reading). On the other hand, the bidi algorithm will render a sequence of Arabic or Hebrew characters one after the other from right to left.
How does your browser know whether this is a sequence of left-to-right or right-to-left characters? Because each character in Unicode has an associated directional property. Most letters are strongly typed as LTR (left-to-right). Letters from right-to-left scripts are strongly typed as RTL (right-to-left).
A sequence of strongly-typed RTL characters will be displayed from right to left. This is independent of the surrounding base direction.
When text with different directionality is mixed inline, the bidi algorithm produces a separate directional run out of each sequence of contiguous characters with the same directionality.
So in the following example there are three directional runs:
Note that you don't need any markup or styling to make this happen.
The order in which text is displayed depends on the base direction assigned to the phrase, paragraph or block that contains it. The base direction is a fundamentally important concept. It establishes a directional context that the bidi algorithm refers to at various points to decide how to handle the text.
In HTML the base direction is either set explicitly by the nearest parent element that uses the
dir attribute, or, in the absence of any such attribute, is inherited from the default direction of the document, which is left-to-right.
Here's the important bit: the order in which directional runs are displayed across the page depends on the prevailing base direction.
In the example above, which has an overall
context (ie. base direction) of
ltr, you would read 'bahrain', then 'مصر', then 'kuwait'.
If you change the directional context of the example above by specifying that the direction of the
html element or a parent element, such as a
span element, is
rtl, you will change the order of the directional runs.
The characters in both cases are stored in memory in exactly the same order, but the visual ordering of the directional runs, when displayed, is reversed.
Spaces and punctuation are not strongly typed as either LTR or RTL in Unicode, because they may be used in either type of script. They are therefore classed as neutral or weak characters.
Characters are usually classified as 'weak' when they are associated with numbers. A small number of punctuation characters are initially classed as weak, but in a non-numeric context are treated like neutrals. In consequence, in this article we will refer to all punctuation as neutral characters.
This is where things begin to get interesting. When the bidi algorithm encounters characters with neutral directional properties (such as spaces and punctuation) it works out how to handle them by looking at the surrounding characters.
A neutral character between two strongly typed characters that have the same directional type will also assume that directionality. So a neutral character between two RTL characters will be treated as a RTL character itself, and will have the effect of extending the directional run. This is why the three arabic words in the following example are read from right to left as a single directional run – including the two intervening spaces, which as neutrals take on the direction of the surrounding characters. (The arrows show the reading order.)
Even if there are several neutral characters between the two strongly typed characters, they will all be treated in the same way.
Note that you still don't need any markup or styling for this. And that there are still only three directional runs here.
But what happens when a space or punctuation falls between two strongly typed characters that have different directionality, ie. at the boundary between directional runs? In such a case the neutral character (or characters) will be treated as if they have the same directionality as the prevailing base direction.
So, for example, if we add a comma after the last Arabic character in the example above it will be regarded as LTR (the direction of the base direction) and will therefore be displayed to the right of the Arabic text, ie. as part of the right-hand directional run.
So far, so good, but this does not always work to our advantage, however, as we shall see next.
If, in the previous example, the title in Arabic actually ended with an exclamation mark, then we would expect it to appear at the left edge of the Arabic text.
Unfortunately, it won't look like that by default. The exclamation mark will be treated just like the comma, and will end up in the same location, ie. to the right of the Arabic title.
To correct this, we need to define the base direction of the Arabic text plus the exclamation mark to be right-to-left. Then the exclamation mark will assume a right-to-left direction and be treated as a continuation of the Arabic text.
The markup language or application you are working with should provide mechanisms that allow you to do that (for example using the
dir attribute on a
q element in HTML). We discuss this a little more in Beyond the bidi algorithm below.
Not only is changing the base direction essential in some cases for handling punctuation on the boundary of a directional run, but it is also important to ensure the correct order of directional runs in embedded bidirectional text. Take, for instance, the following example where the top line shows the expected rendering, but the second line shows the default treatment using just the bidi algorithm.
Don't worry too much about the meaning at this point: the issue is that on the bottom line, without a change of the base direction for the quote, the directional runs inside the quote are ordered from left to right. Again, the way to solve the problem is to redefine the base direction for the quotation.
A quick word about numbers. Numbers in RTL scripts run left-to-right within the right-to-left flow, but they are handled by the bidi algorithm a little differently than words. They are said to have weak directionality. The two examples in the picture illustrate this difference.
The first example uses European digits, '1234', the second expresses the same number using Arabic-Indic digits, ١٢٣٤. In both cases, the digits in the number are read left-to-right.
Because it is weakly typed, the number is seen as part of the preceding Arabic text, so the two Arabic words that surround the number are treated as part of the same directional run - even though the sequence of digits runs LTR on screen.
Note also that, alongside a number, certain otherwise neutral characters, such as currency symbols, will be treated as part of the number rather than a neutral. There are some other slight differences in the way numbers are handled that we don't need to discuss in detail here.
You will also find that certain characters have mirror-imaged shapes, depending on the direction of the text where they are found.
The example below uses the same angle bracket character in all cases, but you see that it points to the right in a left-to-right context, and to the left in a right-to-left context.
There are a number of such characters, including many that appear in pairs, such as parentheses and brackets, but also some that appear on their own. Nothing special is required to produce this behavior.
It becomes clear from the examples above that it is necessary to use additional markup, metadata or special approaches to establish the correct base direction for a range of text.
This is not only important for embedded text, as shown in the examples above, but it is necessary to establish the base direction for any piece of text in order to display it as needed. Most applications treat text by default as left-to-right, and a specific effort is required to say that the base direction should be right-to-left.
Here are some examples of plain text strings that do not display correctly unless information is available to indicate that the base direction is right-to-left.
Any string that mixes text in more than one direction needs access to information about what the base direction should be set to. In this example, the
W3C must appear to the left of the text. With a left-to-right default base direction it would appear to the right of the Hebrew, with the potential to significantly change the meaning, if not cause significant confusion.
Any right-to-left text with trailing or initial punctuation marks also needs to have the base direction specified. In the above example the exclamation mark should occur to the left of right-to-left text.
In addition to correctly displaying the components of the string, it is usually necessary to right-align right-to-left text, and sometimes to mirror the direction of the surrounding information. Cues for this are also provided by the base direction setting.
In certain instances it is necessary to isolate adjacent ranges of text in order to produce the desired ordering. For example, consider the second restaurant rating below.
The problem with the second restaurant name arises because the browser thinks that the – 5 is part of the Hebrew text. This is what the Unicode Bidi Algorithm tells it to do, and usually it is correct. Not here though. We need to find a way to say that the name and the number are separate things, ie. to isolate the inserted name from the number.
In the following example, the reason for the failure is that, with a strongly typed right-to-left (RTL) character on either side, the bidirectional algorithm sees the neutral comma as part of the Arabic text. It is interpreting the first two Arabic words and the comma as a single directional run in Arabic. In fact it is part of the English text, and should mark the boundary between the two separate right-to-left directional runs in Arabic.
Some intervention is necessary to isolate the two Arabic words from each other. The bidi algorithm can't figure this out on its own.
The article Inline markup and bidirectional text in HTML provides information about how to manage inline direction in HTML, and contains worked examples. Its companion document, Structural markup and right-to-left text in HTML tells you how to set direction for paragraphs, blocks, forms and whole pages.