Summarized test results:
CSS3 Text, Cursive joining

Intended audience: users, HTML coders, script developers, CSS coders, Web project managers, and anyone who wants to know whether browsers shape Arabic and other cursive text as described in the CSS Text module.

These tests check whether user agents correctly join or separate cursive characters according to style changes applied to them, as indicated by the CSS Text spec.

To see the test, click on the link in the left-most column. To see detailed results for a single test, click on a row and look just above the table. The detailed results show the date(s) the test result was recorded, and the version of the browser tested.

Any dependencies are shown in notes above the table, and notes below the table will usually provide any additional useful information, including an explanation of why a result was marked as 'partially successful'.


pass fail partially successful

Basic tests

Tests in this section check whether joining is broken or not for simple cases concerning ordinary adjacent letters when one letter is in markup to which styling may apply. Most of the tests use Arabic.

Just markup

This test puts markup around a letter, but applies no styling change, so joins must not be broken.

Style doesn't affect letters

These tests create no effective change in the formatting for the affected letters, so joins must not be broken.

Acceptable style change

These tests do create a change in the formatting, but joining should not be broken.

Breaking boundaries

These tests are for features that must break the joining behaviour.


  1. shaping-012 only works if the the browser supports bdi and dir=auto.

Other languages

In this section we run basic tests against languages that use other cursive writing systems, as a quick check that the same results apply.

Intervening diacritics

This section runs the same tests as before, but the span element is around a diacritic that appears between the to joining letters. Since styling of the diacritic doesn't affect the joining letters, the same behaviour should apply as for the tests in the previous section.

Ligated form

These tests are exploratory. They look at the behaviour produced when the letter with markup around it is displayed as part of a ligated sequence. In theory, this is what the spec refers to as a situation where it is impossible to join across boundaries. We would expect all the tests to break the join.


  1. shaping_lig-012 only works if the the browser support bdi and dir=auto.