This document describes requirements for general Japanese layout realized with technologies like CSS, SVG and XSL-FO. The document is mainly based on a standard for Japanese layout, JIS X 4051, however, it also addresses areas which are not covered by JIS X 4051. This second version of the document contains a significant amount of additional information related to hanmen design, such as handling headings, placement of illustrations and tables, handling of notes and reference marks, etc.

This is a second version of a document that describes requirements for general Japanese layout realized with technologies like CSS, SVG, XSL-FO and eBook standards. The document is mainly based on a standard for Japanese layout, JIS X 4051, however, it also addresses areas which are not covered by JIS X 4051. This second version of the document contains a significant amount of additional information related to hanmen design, such as handling headings, placement of illustrations and tables, handling of notes and reference marks, etc.

This document was developed by participants in the Japanese Layout Task Force, with input from four W3C Working Groups, CSS, Internationalization Core, SVG and XSL.

The document was originally authored in Japanese, then translated to English under the guidance of the Japanese authors. In order to reach the largest international audience, the W3C works in English, so this English version of the document is the authoritative version. However, the Japanese version of this document is also available.

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Introduction

Purpose of This Document

Each cultural community has its own language, script and writing system. In that sense, the transfer of each writing system into cyberspace is a task with very high importance for information and communication technology.

As one of the basic work items of this task force, this document describes issues of text composition in the Japanese writing system. The goal of the task force is not to propose actual solutions but describe important issues as basic information for actual implementations.

How This Document was Created

This document was created by the W3C Japanese Layout Task Force. The Task Force has discussed many issues and harmonized the requirements from user communities and solutions from technological experts. It includes the following participants:

  1. Japanese text composition experts (The editors of "JIS X 4051 : Formatting rules for Japanese documents").

  2. Internationalization and standardization experts in Japan (from Microsoft, Antenna House, JustSystems).

  3. Members of the W3C CSS, SVG, XSL and i18n Core, Working Groups.

This task force also constitutes an important innovation due to its bilingual work-flow. Discussion is mainly conducted in Japanese, because of the Japanese composition issues, but minutes and one mailing list were in English. To support development, the task force held face-to-face meetings with participating Working Groups.

The document itself was also developed bilingually, and is published bilingually. We carefully avoided using jargon for technical terms. Even if there were English words corresponding to the Japanese, we carefully studied any potential differences in the nuances of meaning, and if there were differences between corresponding concepts, we provided the Japanese jargon in romaji (Latin transliteration) for future discussion. Moreover, we prepared as many figures as possible, with clear and understandable English, to help non-Japanese readers.

Basic Principles for Development of This Document

Japanese composition exhibits several differences from Western composition. Major differences include:

  1. The use of not only horizontal writing mode but also vertical writing mode.

  2. In principle, all character frames of ideographic (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) characters used in Japanese composition are designed in a square box, and these characters are composed without intervening spaces (i.e. set solid). In this document, notations such as ideographic (cl-19) and hiragana (cl-15) characters indicate character classes (see 3.9 About Character Classes).

This document mainly explains the characteristics of Japanese composition along the lines of the following policy.

  1. It does not fully cover all issues of the Japanese composition system, but mainly discusses the differences from Western composition systems.

  2. It focuses on the requirements for the Japanese visual presentation form of text composition. Technology-specific interpretations of the requirements and/or how to implement them are out of scope for this document.

  3. It explicitly refers to JIS X 4051 "Formatting rules for Japanese documents" as much as possible. This document focuses on fundamental and important issues of Japanese layout as much as possible, and for more detail references the corresponding clause of JIS X 4051. The JIS X 4051 topics that are not described in this document, are only for exceptional, corner cases or to provide some specific line composition algorithms. On the other hand, some topics that are not described in JIS X 4051 are described in detail. Accordingly, this document is sufficient to implement Japanese layout processing for most parts of the Japanese market.

    In accordance with the stated policy, this document provides tutorial- or summary-like, supplementary explanations, related background, and additional descriptions for JIS X 4051 information. This document covers all the fundamental issues of Japanese text layout, but the reader will need to refer to JIS X 4051 for advanced discussion of exceptional topics.

  4. It provides typical examples of actual use for key composition features, to enable better understanding of their usage.

  5. For non-Japanese readers, frequency of use is indicated for each requirement. These frequencies are not the outcome of any accurate research, but arise from the long experience of the authors. They are intuitive for ordinary Japanese text readers; however, for non-Japanese readers it may be difficult to imagine without explicit information. These frequencies are only rough information to prioritize the importance of issues.

    For example: "warichu (inline cutting note) is not frequently used, but is useful to simply annotate persons, things, and so on, at the place where the text appears, especially in classic texts or translations.", or "ruby is frequently used in modern documents, including newspapers."

  6. In consideration of non-Japanese readers of this document, figures are used for explanations wherever possible.

  7. Text layout rules and recommendations for readable design are different things, however these two issues are difficult to discuss independently. In this document, these two aspects are carefully separated. The aesthetic design recommendations are mainly described using notes.

  8. The main target of this document is common books. The authors' experiences are mainly related to common books, and the quality required for common books is the highest in the market. There are many kinds of books in the market, and the requirements are quite diverse. The task force has a lot of accumulated experience in requirements and solutions for Japanese text composition. Nonetheless, many issues, which have been discussed over a long period of time, are applicable for other kinds of publication.

    In terms of frequency of use, the importance of magazines, technical manuals, and Web documents rates alongside common books. However, there are several characteristics in these publications, which are different from common books. These issues should be treated more fully in future documents.

The Structure of This Document

This document consists of four parts:

2 Basics of Japanese Composition explains the characteristics of letters and symbols which are used in Japanese composition, their differences in vertical writing mode and horizontal writing mode, and the design and adaptation of the kihon-hanmen.

3 Line Composition explains line composition methods for ideographic (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15), katakana (cl-16) characters and punctuation marks, together with ruby (inter-line pronunciation information and annotation) and Japanese and Western mixed text composition, i.e. mixtures of Japanese characters and Western characters (cl-27).

4 Positioning of Headings, Notes, Illustrations, Tables and Paragraphs describes construction methods and composition methods for headings, notes, illustrations and tables.

In principle, characters in Japanese composition are designed in a square box and positioned without spaces, i.e. solid setting. This is taken as a basic premise for the design of the kihon-hanmen, the basis of book layout. Furthermore, to understand Japanese layout, it is important to understand the design of the kihon-hanmen and how to position illustrations, characters, symbols etc. in relation to it. Hence, 2 Basics of Japanese Composition describes in detail the design of the kihon-hanmen and its dependencies. In particular, 2.5 Page wise Arrangement of Kihon-hanmen Elements provides prototypical patterns for the three guidelines listed after this paragraph: what recommendations need to be strictly taken into account, and what exceptions are possible. (The goal of these explanations is an understanding of Japanese composition. Since detailed explanations of the various elements of the kihon-hanmen are given in 3 Line Composition and 4 Positioning of Headings, Notes, Illustrations, Tables and Paragraphs, some explanations are repeated.)

  1. Keep to the basic size and column numbers of multi-column format that were decided upon in setting up the kihon-hanmen, with some exceptions.

  2. Keep to the line positions that were decided upon in setting up the kihon-hanmen, with some exceptions.

  3. Keep to the letter positions that were decided upon in setting up the kihon-hanmen, with some exceptions.

Reference of Definition and Others

The definitions of technical terms are described in the Appendix G Terminology appendix. Terms are linked to corresponding places in the Terminology appendix only at first appearance and in important places. If there is no appropriate English terminology for Japanese terminology, or the English terminology may possibly cause misunderstanding, the Japanese terminology is only transliterated to Hepburn style romaji notation (except that "m", not "n", is used before "b", "m" and "p").

Also, the definitions of terminology in the Terminology appendix are basically the same as the definitions of JIS X 8125 or JIS X 4051, with respect to common Japanese usage of terminology.

Each character class has its own character class number in parentheses. Members of each character class are listed in Appendix A Character Classes, except for CJK Ideographs. Each character in this document is named and referred to using the character names of ISO/IEC 10646 (UCS).

The formal title of the frequently mentioned Japanese Industrial Standard JIS X 4051 is as follows:

JIS X 4051 : 2004 Formatting rules for Japanese documents

JIS X 4051 is available from the Japan Standards Association (http://www.jsa.or.jp/), but a PDF version is not available from JSA. The PDF version is accessible from the Japanese Industrial Standards Committee site (http://www.jisc.go.jp/), however it is not possible to download it.

Basics of Japanese Composition

Characters and the Principles of Setting them for Japanese Composition

Characters Used for Japanese Composition

Japanese letters used for composing Japanese text mainly consist of ideographic (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) characters (see ).

Kanji, hiragana and katakana.
Kanji, hiragana and katakana.

In addition to ideographic (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) characters, various punctuation marks (see ) as well as Western characters (cl-27), such as European numerals, Latin letters and/or Greek letters, may be used in Japanese text. In this document these characters are classified into character classes, for which explanations are given describing their behavior in type-setting.

Examples of punctuation marks.
Examples of punctuation marks.

The details of character classes used in this document will be explained in 3.9 About Character Classes, as well as in Appendix A Character Classes. Also, in "Spacing between Characters" all non-Kanji characters included in ISO/IEC 10646 (UCS) Annex A collection 285 (Basic Japanese character set) and collection 286 (Extended non-Kanji character set) are explicitly classified by character class.

Kanji, Hiragana and Katakana

Ideographic (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) characters are the same size, and have square character frames of equal dimensions. Aligned with the vertical and horizontal center of the character frame, there is a smaller box called the letter face, which contains the actual symbol. Character size is measured by the size of the character frame (see ). "Character advance" is a term used to describe the advance width of the character frame of a character. By definition, it is equal to the "width" of a character in horizontal writing mode, whereas it is the height of a character in vertical writing mode (see ).

The size of kanji and hiragana, and the character frames.
The size of kanji and hiragana, and the character frames.

In vertical writing mode, the letter face of small kana (cl-11) characters (ぁぃぅァィゥ etc.) is placed at the vertical center and to the right of the horizontal center of the character frame; in horizontal writing mode, it is placed at the horizontal center and below the vertical center (see ). Also there are punctuation marks with letter faces that are not placed at the vertical and horizontal center of the character frame.

Small kana and the position of their letter face in the character frame.
Small kana and the position of their letter face in the character frame.

Principles of Arrangement of Kanji and Kana Characters

In principle, when composing a line with ideographic (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) characters no extra space appears between their character frame. This is called solid setting (see ).

Example of solid setting in horizontal writing mode.
Example of solid setting in horizontal writing mode.

In the letterpress printing era ideographic (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) characters were designed so that they were easy to read in solid setting, regardless of text direction. However, unlike the letterpress printing era, when several sizes of the original pattern of a letter were required to create matrices, in today's digital era the same original pattern is used for any size simply by enlargement or reduction. Because of this, it might be necessary to adjust the inter-character space when composing lines at large character sizes. When composing lines at small character sizes, hinting data is used to ensure that the width of the strokes that make up a character look correct.

Depending on the context, there are several setting methods used in addition to solid setting, as shown below.

  1. Fixed inter-character spacing: Text set with a fixed size space between each character frame (see ).

    Examples of fixed inter-character spacing in horizontal writing mode.
    Examples of fixed inter-character spacing in horizontal writing mode.

    Fixed inter-character spacing is used in books for the following cases: (Fixed inter-character spacing, including also even tsumegumi, is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 4.18.1 b.)

    1. To achieve a balance between running heads with few and with many characters. Fixed inter-character spacing is used for the running heads with few characters. Examples of fixed inter-character spacing for running heads are given in JIS X 4051, annex 5.

    2. To achieve a balance between headings with few and with many characters. Fixed inter-character spacing is used for the headings with few characters. Examples of fixed inter-character spacing for headings are given in JIS X 4051, annex 6.

    3. For captions of illustrations and tables, which only have a few characters. Fixed inter-character spacing is used to balance with the size of the illustration or table.

    4. In some cases, fixed inter-character spacing is used for Chinese and Japanese poetry where one line has only a few characters.

  2. Even inter-character spacing: Text set with equal inter-character spacing between characters on a given line, so that each line is aligned to the same line head and line end (see ).

    Example of even inter-character space setting in horizontal writing mode.
    Example of even inter-character space setting in horizontal writing mode.

    Even inter-character space setting is used in books for unifying the length of table headings with Japanese text (see ). There are also examples (e.g. lists of names) in which parts of a person names receive inter-character spacing. (Even inter-character spacing, including processing of jidori, is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 4.18.1.)

    Example of a table with inter-character spacing.
    Example of a table with inter-character spacing.
  3. Tsumegumi (kerning / tracking): Text is set with negative inter-character space by arranging characters so that a portion of two character frames overlap each other. This is divided further into two types, depending on the methods used for inter-character space reduction. One method involves reducing by the same amount of inter-character space (even tsumegumi or tracking, see ) and the other involves determining the amount of space to reduce based on the distance between the two letter faces of adjacent characters (face tsumegumi or letter face kerning, see ).

    Example of even tsumegumi in horizontal writing mode. (The 1st line is the same text with solid setting, for comparison.)
    Example of even tsumegumi in horizontal writing mode. (The 1st line is the same text with solid setting, for comparison.)
    Example of face tsumegumi in horizontal writing mode. (The 1st line is the same text with solid setting, for comparison.)
    Example of face tsumegumi in horizontal writing mode. (The 1st line is the same text with solid setting, for comparison.)

    In the main text of books, the most reader-friendly approach is to use solid setting. However, if the character size is larger, the distance between characters may become unbalanced, and tsumegumi will be applied. For example, there are books where tsumegumi is used with headings set in large character sizes. These methods are rarely used in books, since ease of reading is very important, but in magazines or advertisements there are many more examples of tsumegumi. Magazines tend to use type to differentiate themselves from others, and so devices like this are sometimes used for that purpose.

Page Formats for Japanese Documents

Specification of Page Formats

The page format of a Japanese document is specified by:

  • Firstly, preparing a template of the page format, which determines the basic appearance of pages of the document;

  • Then, specifying the details of actual page elements based on the templates.

Basic Templates of Page Formats

Generally, books use only one template for page format, whereas magazines often use several templates.

Although in books, as will be mentioned in c of , there tends to be one template for the page format, the basic pattern is typically adapted. For example, the table of contents may contain small modifications. Furthermore, there are many examples of indexes with a different page format than the basic page format, and vertically set books often have indexes in horizontal writing mode and sometimes multiple columns. This still holds true where the goal is to make the size of the hanmen for indexes close to the size of hanmen in the basic page format.

Magazines gather articles of different kinds. Often the page format will differ depending on the content of the article. For example, one part may have 9 point character size and 3 columns, and another part 8 point character size and 4 columns.

Elements of Page Formats

Example of a page format in vertical writing mode.
Example of a page format in vertical writing mode.

The following are the basic elements of a page format. illustrates an example of a page format in vertical writing mode).

  1. Trim size and binding side (vertically set Japanese documents are bound on the right-hand side, and horizontally set documents are bound on the left-hand side. See .)

  2. Principal text direction (vertical writing mode or horizontal writing mode).

  3. Appearance of the kihon-hanmen and its position relative to the trim size.

  4. Appearance of running heads and page numbers, and their positions relative to the trim size and kihon-hanmen.

Binding-side (bound on the right-hand side and bound on the left-hand side).
Binding-side (bound on the right-hand side and bound on the left-hand side).

Elements of Kihon-hanmen

The kihon-hanmen is the hanmen style designed as the basis of a book. The following are the basic elements of the kihon-hanmen (see ).

  1. Character size and typeface name

  2. Text direction (vertical writing mode or horizontal writing mode)

  3. Number of columns and column gap when using multi-column format

  4. Length of a line

  5. Number of lines per page (number of lines per column when using multi-column format)

  6. Line gap

Elements of kihon-hanmen. (Example in vertical writing mode.)
Elements of kihon-hanmen. (Example in vertical writing mode.)

To understand the characteristics of Japanese composition, it is important to understand how the various elements of the kihon-hanmen are applied to a real page. The details will be explained in 2.5 Page wise Arrangement of Kihon-hanmen Elements.

The normative definition of kihon-hanmen is provided in JIS X 4051, sec. 7.5.

Format examples (including running heads and page numbers) and composition examples for kihon-hanmen in different trim sizes are available in JIS X 4051, annexes 3 and 4.

Depending on the application, character sizes can be specified in multiple ways. For books, character size is mainly specified using points or Q/q. Points are used for letterpress printing. In JIS Z 8305 (size units of printing type), one point is determined to be 0.3514mm. This is the size that is usually used. However, some commonly used applications adopt one point as 1/72 inch, ca. 0.3528mm. Q was used for photo typesetting. One Q is 0.25mm. It is very difficult to unify the unit sizes for character size specifications, because actual users prefer the unit to which they are accustomed. In some companies, multiple types of unit are used together.

Kihon-hanmen and Examples of Real Page Format

Below are several examples of how the basic page format is created, and how then various elements are placed on a real text page. (This and other aspects of how the various elements of the kihon-hanmen are arranged on each page are explained in .)

  1. Realm and position of headings

    To set a heading, first establish a rectangular space based on a number of lines in the kihon-hanmen. For example, a '3 line space' means (3 * the size of the character frame used for the kihon-hanmen + 2 * the line gap in the kihon-hanmen). (Details of this processing are defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 8.3.3.d). The heading text is usually set in the centre of the rectangular space in the block direction, and indented from the line head. The size of the indent is usually specified as a number of characters in the kihon-hanmen. For example, a '4 character indent' means (4 * the size of the character frames used for establishing the kihon-hanmen). (See the example at .)

    Layout example of a heading based on the line positions established by the kihon-hanmen.
    Layout example of a heading based on the line positions established by the kihon-hanmen.

    Details of the different types of heading, creation of headings, methods for placing headings, etc. is explained in 4.1 Handling of Headings (including Page Breaks).

  2. Size of illustrations

    In horizontal writing mode with two columns, for example, the width of illustrations should, if at all possible, be either the width of one kihon-hanmen column or the width of the kihon-hanmen (see ). The illustrations are usually set at the head or the foot of the page (see ).

    Example of illustrations in two columns, horizontal writing mode.
    Example of illustrations in two columns, horizontal writing mode.

    Also, in vertical writing mode, for example with three columns, the height of illustrations should, if at all possible, be either the height of one kihon-hanmen column or the height of the kihon-hanmen (see ). The illustrations are usually set at the right side or left side of the kihon-hanmen (see ).

    Example of illustrations in three columns, vertical writing mode.
    Example of illustrations in three columns, vertical writing mode.

    Details of illustration positioning is explained in .

  3. Hanmen size for the table of contents

    The hanmen size for the table of contents of books is based on the size of the kihon-hanmen. There are many examples of tables of contents in vertical writing mode where the left-to-right size is identical to that of the kihon-hanmen, but the top-to-bottom size is a little bit smaller (see ).

    Example of the design of the table of contents (TOC) in vertical writing mode.
    Example of the design of the table of contents (TOC) in vertical writing mode.

    There are cases when a different hanmen than the kihon-hanmen is used for positioning of running heads and page numbers. This will be discussed in (see ).

Vertical Writing Mode and Horizontal Writing Mode

Directional Factors in Japanese Composition

Japanese composition has two text directions. One is vertical direction (vertical writing mode), the other is horizontal direction (horizontal writing mode).

Vertical writing mode and horizontal writing mode. (The arrows show the reading direction.)
Vertical writing mode and horizontal writing mode. (The arrows show the reading direction.)
Example of horizontal writing mode in parts of vertically set books.
Example of horizontal writing mode in parts of vertically set books.

Major Differences between Vertical Writing Mode and Horizontal Writing Mode

The following are major differences between vertical writing mode and horizontal writing mode.

  1. Arrangement of characters, lines, columns and pages; direction of page progression.

    1. Vertical writing mode. See for an example of vertical writing mode with two columns per page.

      Direction of arrangement of characters in vertical writing mode.
      Direction of arrangement of characters in vertical writing mode.
      1. Characters are arranged from top to bottom, lines are arranged from right to left.

      2. Columns are arranged from top to bottom. A book starts with the left (recto) side and progresses from right to left (see ).

        Progression of pages for a vertically set books.
        Progression of pages for a vertically set books.
    2. Horizontal composition. See for an example of horizontal text layout with two-columns per page.

      Direction of arrangement of characters in horizontal writing mode.
      Direction of arrangement of characters in horizontal writing mode.
      1. Characters are arranged from left to right, and lines are arranged from top to bottom.

      2. Columns are arranged from left to right. A book starts with the right (recto) side and progresses from left to right (see ).

        Progression of pages for a horizontally set book.
        Progression of pages for a horizontally set book.
  2. Orientation of Latin alphanumeric characters in a line.

    1. There are three ways to arrange Latin alphanumerics in vertical writing mode:

      1. One by one with the same normal orientation as that of Japanese characters. This is usually applied to one-letter alphanumerics or capitalized abbreviations (see ).

        Arrangement of alphanumerics in vertical writing mode - normal orientation.
        Arrangement of alphanumerics in vertical writing mode - normal orientation.
      2. Rotated 90 degrees clockwise. This is usually applied to English words or sentences (see ).

        Arrangement of alphanumerics in vertical writing mode - rotated 90 degrees clockwise.
        Arrangement of alphanumerics in vertical writing mode - rotated 90 degrees clockwise.
      3. Set horizontally without changing orientation (called tate-chu-yoko, which means horizontal-in-vertical composition) (see ). This is usually applied to two-digit numbers (see JIS X 4051, sec. 4.8 for the definition).

        Arrangement of alphanumerics in vertical writing mode - tate-chu-yoko.
        Arrangement of alphanumerics in vertical writing mode - tate-chu-yoko.
    2. In horizontal writing mode there is only one way of arranging alphanumerics, i.e. normal orientation.

  3. Arrangement of tables and/or illustrations rotated 90 degrees clockwise or counter-clockwise for reasons of size. (This processing is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 7.3.).

    1. In vertical writing mode, align the top of tables/illustrations to the right of the page (see ).

      Example of arrangement of a table rotated 90 degrees clockwise in vertical writing mode.
      Example of arrangement of a table rotated 90 degrees clockwise in vertical writing mode.
    2. In horizontal writing mode, align the top of tables/illustrations to the left of the page (see ).

      Example of arrangement of a table rotated 90 degrees counterclockwise in horizontal writing mode.
      Example of arrangement of a table rotated 90 degrees counterclockwise in horizontal writing mode.
  4. Arrangement of an incomplete number of lines on a multi-column format page due to new recto, page break or other reasons. (The processing of new recto and page break is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 8.1.1.).

    1. In vertical writing mode, just finish the line where it ends ("nariyuki"). The number of lines in each column is not uniform (see ).

      How to process incomplete number of lines on a multi-column format page (vertically set book).
      How to process incomplete number of lines on a multi-column format page (vertically set book).
    2. In horizontal writing mode, re-arrange columns so that each column has the same number of lines. In case the number of lines is not divisible by the number of columns, add the smallest number to make it divisible and re-arrange columns using the quotient as the number of lines so that only the last column shall have the incomplete number of lines (see ).

      How to process incomplete number of lines on a multi-column format page (horizontally set book).
      How to process incomplete number of lines on a multi-column format page (horizontally set book).

Specifying the Kihon-hanmen

Procedure for Defining the Kihon-hanmen

In Japanese composition, first the size of the kihon-hanmen is defined, using the square character frames of characters in solid setting. Taking this as a base, the position of the kihon-hanmen with regards to the trim size is then specified. The following are procedures for determining the size and position of the kihon-hanmen (see ).

  1. Specifying the dimensions of the kihon-hanmen.

    1. For a document with a single column per page, specify the character size, the line length (the number of characters per line), the number of lines per page, and the line gap.

    2. For a document with multiple columns per page, specify the character size, the line length (the number of characters per line), the number of lines per column, the line-gap, and the number of columns and the column gap.

      Procedures to determine the size and position of the kihon-hanmen, step 1.
      Procedures to determine the size and position of the kihon-hanmen, step 1.
  2. Determining the position of the kihon-hanmen relative to the trim size.

    There are various alternative methods for specifying the position of the kihon-hanmen relative to the trim size:

    1. Position vertically by centering the kihon-hanmen. Position horizontally by centering the kihon-hanmen.

    2. Position vertically by specifying the space size at the head (for horizontal writing mode) or the space at the foot (for vertical writing mode). Position horizontally by centering the kihon-hanmen.

    3. Position vertically by centering the kihon-hanmen. Position horizontally by specifying the space size of the gutter.

    4. Position vertically by specifying the space at the head (for horizontal writing mode) or the space at the foot (for vertical writing mode). Position horizontally by specifying the space size of the gutter.

    Procedures to determine the size and position of the kihon-hanmen, step 2.
    Procedures to determine the size and position of the kihon-hanmen, step 2.

Considerations in Designing the Kihon-hanmen

The following are considerations to take into account when designing the kihon-hanmen. (This topic is not about processing, but rather an explanation of design preferences. The definition of kihon-hanmen is given in JIS X 4051, sec. 7.4.1.)

  1. Trim size and margins. It would be best if the shape of the kihon-hanmen could be made similar to that of the trim size.

  2. Character size. Generally 9 point (about 3.2mm) type is common. Except for specialized publications such as dictionaries, the minimum size of type is 8 point (about 2.8mm).

  3. Line length should be multiples of the character size (see ).

    Line length should be multiples of the character size.
    Line length should be multiples of the character size.
  4. Use the same amount of line gap throughout the book, except for special cases. The size of the kihon-hanmen in the block direction is specified using the number of lines and the size of the line-gap.

    Inserting ruby or other items between lines.
    Inserting ruby or other items between lines.
    Example of inter-line processing with warichu between lines.
    Example of inter-line processing with warichu between lines.
    Specifying kihon-hanmen with line feed.
    Specifying kihon-hanmen with line feed.

The size of the kihon-hanmen in this case can be calculated by following method:

  • Vertical writing mode with one column

    Width of kihon-hanmen = character size × number of lines per page + line gap × (number of lines per page − 1)

    298 point = 9 point × 18 lines + 8 point × (18 lines − 1)

    Height of kihon-hanmen = character size × number of characters per line

    468 point = 9 point × 52 characters

  • Vertical writing mode with multi columns

    Width of kihon-hanmen = character size × number of lines per column + line gap × (number of lines per column − 1)

    309 point = 9 point × 21 lines + 6 point × (21 lines − 1)

    Height of kihon-hanmen = character size × number of characters per line × number of columns + column gap × (number of columns − 1)

    468 point = 9 point × 25 characters × 2 columns + 18 point × (2 columns − 1)

  • Horizontal writing mode with one column

    Width of kihon-hanmen = character size × number of characters per line

    315 point = 9 point × 35 characters

    Height of kihon-hanmen = character size × number of lines per page + line gap × (number of lines per page − 1)

    468 point = 9 point × 28 lines + 8 point × (28 lines − 1)

  • Horizontal writing mode with multi columns

    Width of kihon-hanmen = character size × number of characters per line × number of columns + column gap × (number of columns − 1)

    320 point = 8 point × 19 characters × 2 columns + 16 point × (2 columns − 1)

    Height of kihon-hanmen = character size × number of lines per column + line gap × (number of lines per column − 1)

    476 point = 8 point × 40 lines + 4 point × (40 lines − 1)

Page wise Arrangement of Kihon-hanmen Elements

Examples of Items Jutting Out of the Kihon-hanmen

The various elements of a page should remain inside the boundaries of the kihon-hanmen. However, there are exceptions such as the following:

  1. Ruby or emphasis marks (bousen, emphasis dots, etc.) at the before edge of the hanmen, are placed outside the hanmen (see ). The same applies in cases where ruby, underline, etc. appear beyond the after edge of the hanmen. Like the handling of exceptions mentioned below, the purpose here is to preserve the line positions established for the kihon-hanmen. This technique can also be used for reference marks associated with lines of text.

    Example of ruby annotation placed outside of the kihon-hanmen.
    Example of ruby annotation placed outside of the kihon-hanmen.
  2. When there are inline elements whose dimensions extend beyond the before edge and the after edge of a line of characters as determined by the kihon-hanmen, and when those elements appear in the first or last line of the hanmen, the parts that jut out beyond the regular line of characters also jut out of the hanmen area. For example, this is the case when the width of a sequence of characters which are set to tate-chu-yoko is wider than the characters set for the kihon-hanmen. In addition, warichu (inline cutting note) or subscript and superscript (ornament characters) are handled in the same way. (The processing rules for this item and the previous item are defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 12.1.1.)

  3. Line adjustment by hanging punctuation is only necessary for full stops (cl-06) and commas (cl-07) when they would otherwise need to be wrapped to the line head. The character is placed so that it touches the hanmen at the line end (see ). (Hanging punctuation is not defined in JIS X 4051, but there is an explanation in sec. 8.1, c.)

    Example of IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA and IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP placed below the kihon-hanmen.
    Example of IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA and IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP placed below the kihon-hanmen.
  4. Illustrations and tables are normally placed inside the area defined by the kihon-hanmen. However, there may also be cases in which a particular illustration or table juts outside the kihon-hanmen.

    1. Cases in which it is necessary to make the illustration or table larger than the kihon-hanmen, because reducing its size would make it unreadable.

    2. For the sake of visual effect, the illustration may bleed into the complete paper area. This is not often used in books, but is often used in magazines (see ).

      Example of bleeds.
      Example of bleeds.
  5. Magazines may place the captions of illustrations outside the column area or in the column gap. (Some people regard this as bad style.)

Line Positioning based on the Kihon-hanmen Design

In principle, pagewise positioning of lines relies on the line positions established for the kihon-hanmen. This holds for lines with ruby or emphasis dots as shown in . Even when lines contain characters that are smaller than the character size used for the kihon-hanmen (as shown in ), the line positions used for the kihon-hanmen continue to be used as the basic guide lines. This is so that following lines with normal-sized characters still naturally fall into the line positions established for the kihon-hanmen.

Positioning of lines with a smaller size of text.
Positioning of lines with a smaller size of text.

The following are exceptions when handling line position:

  1. When inserting more than one illustration or table item in horizontal writing mode, assuming that there is no text to the left or right of the items, the items may either slip off the lines established for the kihon-hanmen (see ), or stick to the lines (see ). The former approach is used, whenever possible, to achieve inter-character spacing before and after illustrations or tables constant. (This method is often used in books.) (This processing method is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 10.3.2., d.)

    Positioning of lines with multiple illustrations - 1.
    Positioning of lines with multiple illustrations - 1.
    Positioning of lines with multiple illustrations - 2.
    Positioning of lines with multiple illustrations - 2.
  2. The size of characters in endnotes inserted between paragraphs or those in footnotes at the bottom of the page (in horizontal writing mode) is smaller than the character size established for the kihon-hanmen. As a result, the character size and line gap are also smaller, and so the line positions are no longer identical to those established for the kihon-hanmen. As an example, shows the position of an endnote between paragraphs in vertical writing mode. (The processing of endnotes is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 9.3, and the processing of footnotes in sec. 9.4.)

    Positioning of an endnote in vertical writing mode.
    Positioning of an endnote in vertical writing mode.
  3. As mentioned above, the position of a heading may not be identical to the lines established for the kihon-hanmen. Nevertheless, in the block direction, headings base their alignment on the line positions established for the kihon-hanmen (see ).

Character Positioning based on Kihon-hanmen Design

In principle, the characters in each line follow the solid setting positions of characters established for the kihon-hanmen. However, as already shown in some of the previous figures, there are examples where this is not the case. Such cases are rather common, and here we will show some prototypical examples (details will be given in ).

  1. When 9pt is the character size used to establish the kihon-hanmen, characters smaller than 9pt may be inserted in part of a line (see ). In such cases, the parts set at 9pt and any parts set at a smaller, say, 8pt size both use solid setting, with character frames at the respective sizes for each part.

  2. In cases where proportional Latin letters are rotated 90 degrees clockwise (see ), the proportional letters are placed according to their proportional widths. Hence, they do not fit to the character positions established for the kihon-hanmen (see ). Japanese letters following the Latin letters consequently slip away from the default positions as well.

    Positioning of a mixture of Western and Japanese letters in a line.
    Positioning of a mixture of Western and Japanese letters in a line.
  3. There are several methods for positioning opening brackets (cl-01) at the beginning of a line (details are explained in ). Because an opening bracket is not a full-width character, in cases where the indentation of the first line of a paragraph is a one em space, or if the tentsuki position is used for the bracket (that is, there is no space at the line head), the character following the bracket will be in a position which does not fit to the character positions established for the kihon-hanmen (see ). However, the adaptations made during the alignment of line ends will ensure that the character at the end of a line is at a position that fits with the kihon-hanmen.

    Example of positioning of characters off the kihon-hanmen position due to opening brackets at the line head.
    Example of positioning of characters off the kihon-hanmen position due to opening brackets at the line head.
  4. 3 Line Composition explains that full stops (cl-06), commas (cl-07), opening brackets (cl-01) and closing brackets (cl-02) are half-width. If these punctuation marks and brackets are adjacent to ideographic (cl-19), katakana (cl-16) or hiragana (cl-15) characters, in principle there should be a half em space before or after the punctuation mark or brackets, so that these occupy in effect a full-width size. However, if they are adjacent to other punctuation marks or brackets, the half em space is not used. This is done to improve the visual appearance. In such cases, the character positions are different than the positions established when defining the kihon-hanmen (see ).

    Example of lines with consecutive punctuation marks.
    Example of lines with consecutive punctuation marks.
  5. explains the principle that closing brackets (cl-02), full stops (cl-06) and commas (cl-07) should not be placed at the line head. If by simple sequential placement these characters would appear at the line head or at the line end, some kind of adjustment becomes necessary. A similar adjustment is required for characters that should not be placed at the end of a line, such as opening brackets (cl-01). As a result of such adjustment, it may happen that other characters are placed at positions which are different from those established for the kihon-hanmen.

    Example of line adjustment to avoid those characters which shall not start and end a line.
    Example of line adjustment to avoid those characters which shall not start and end a line.

Running Heads and Page Numbers

Positioning of Running Heads and Page Numbers

Typical positions of running heads and page numbers for vertically set books with double running heads (see ) are as shown in .

Typical positioning of running heads and page numbers for vertically set books with double running heads.
Typical positioning of running heads and page numbers for vertically set books with double running heads.

Typical positions of running heads and page numbers for horizontally set books with double running heads (see ) are as shown in .

Typical positioning of running heads and page numbers for horizontally set books with double running heads.
Typical positioning of running heads and page numbers for horizontally set books with double running heads.

In principle, positions of running heads and page numbers should be specified relative to the kihon-hanmen, not with absolute coordinates in the trim size. (Positioning of running heads is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 7.6.4. Positioning of page numbers is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 7.5.4.)

Positioning a horizontal running head above the top left corner (to head and fore-edge) of the kihon-hanmen in a typical vertically set book (see ).

9 points above the kihon-hanmen (vertical space)

9 points from the left edge of the kihon-hanmen (horizontal space)

Positioning of a running head (vertical writing mode).
Positioning of a running head (vertical writing mode).

The following recommendations should be taken into account when positioning running heads and page numbers with reference to the kihon-hanmen.

  1. When positioning horizontal running heads and page numbers with reference to the kihon-hanmen in vertically set books, the amount of vertical space between the edge of the kihon-hanmen and the running head is a one em space as established for the kihon-hanmen. If the kihon-hanmen of the book is horizontally set, take more vertical space than the character size in the kihon-hanmen.

  2. Regardless of the direction of text in the kihon-hanmen of a book, horizontal running heads and page numbers on the left page should be aligned either at the left edge of the kihon-hanmen or one em space to the right of the left edge. On the right page, the tail of the running heads or page numbers should be aligned either at the right edge of the kihon-hanmen or one full-width space to left of the right edge.

  3. Regardless of the direction of text in a book, when arranging running heads and page numbers together on the same horizontal line, the space between the running head and the page number should be double or one and a half times the character size of the running head. On the left page, the page number should be set at the left side and the running head should be set at the right side. On right-hand pages, the page number should be set at the right side and the running head should be set at the left side. The exact positions of the page numbers are given by the instructions above (see b).

  4. When positioning running heads and page numbers vertically to the fore-edge of the kihon-hanmen in a vertically set book (see spread (e) in , for example), the minimum horizontal distance from the kihon-hanmen should be the same as that of the line gap of the kihon-hanmen. The top of the running head should be positioned approximately four kihon-hanmen characters below the head, and the bottom of the page numbers should be positioned approximately five kihon-hanmen characters above the foot.

Principles of Arrangement of Running Heads and Page Numbers

Positioning of all running heads and page numbers in the same book should be consistent.

Positioning of running heads and page numbers on TOC pages for which the hanmen is smaller in size than the kihon-hanmen.
Positioning of running heads and page numbers on TOC pages for which the hanmen is smaller in size than the kihon-hanmen.
Positioning of running heads and page numbers on index pages for which hanmen is smaller in size than the kihon-hanmen.
Positioning of running heads and page numbers on index pages for which hanmen is smaller in size than the kihon-hanmen.

Because the start of a page will be on the recto side, the right-hand page of a spread in a vertically set book is always an even page and the left-hand page is always an odd page (see ). Likewise, the left-hand page of a spread in a horizontally set book is always an even page and the right-hand page is always an odd page (see ).

Page numbers on a spread in a vertically set book.
Page numbers on a spread in a vertically set book.
Page numbers on a spread in a horizontally set book.
Page numbers on a spread in a horizontally set book.

Ways of Arranging Running Heads and Page Numbers

There are two ways to arrange running heads. One is the single running head method and the other is the double running head method. (Arrangement of running heads is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 7.6.2. Page Numbers are defined in sec. 7.5.2.).

Double running head method.
Double running head method.
Single running head method.
Single running head method.
  1. In the double running head method, a higher-level title, such as that of the chapter or book, is used for the running heads on the even pages, and a lower-level title, such as that for a section, on the odd pages. Where there are no differing levels of titles, such as on the page containing the table of contents, the same running head is used on both even and odd pages.

  2. In the single running head method, one of the headings between the top and third levels is used.

  3. In principle, the contents of running heads will be the same as those of headings with the following differences:

    1. Numbers and words in Latin alphanumeric characters in vertically set headings in vertically set books should be changed to horizontal notation for horizontally set running heads (see ).

    2. If headings are too long, they should be made shorter by paraphrasing them in fewer characters. Running heads with too many characters will not look good.

    3. For certain publications, such as a collection of monographs, the names of authors may be added in parentheses at the end of the running head.

  4. In principle, the text direction of running heads and page numbers should be the same as that of the kihon-hanmen. For vertically set books, however, it is more common to set running heads and page numbers horizontally.

  5. In principle, for the single running head method running heads are printed on all odd pages, and for the double running head method on all even and odd pages. However, for the sake of appearance, running heads may be omitted as follows:

    1. Pages on which running heads should be hidden:

      1. Naka-tobira and han-tobira.

      2. Pages where a running head overlaps with other elements such as illustrations.

      3. Blank pages.

    2. Pages on which running heads may be hidden:

      1. Pages where a figure or a table is positioned adjacent to the running head.

      2. Pages with a heading right after a new recto or new page.

  6. In principle, page numbers are printed on all pages. However, for the sake of appearance, they may be omitted as follows:

    1. Pages on which page numbers should be hidden:

      1. Pages on which a illustration or a table is positioned adjacent to the page number.

      2. Blank pages.

    2. Pages on which page numbers may be hidden:

      1. Divisional title and simplified divisional title pages.

      2. Pages in horizontally set books with a page number placed in the margin at the top of the page, and with a heading at the beginning of a new recto or new page. (In this case, it is also possible to move the page numbers to the center of the margin at the foot of the page.)

  7. There are two types of page numbering. "Continuous pagination" means that page numbers continue throughout the whole book. "Independent pagination" means that page numbers start from "1" separately at beginning of the front matter and back matter. There is also, for example in manuals, the method of starting each chapter from page number "1". (In such cases, it is common that the name of the chapter is added as a prefix before the page number.)

Line Composition

Line Composition Rules for Punctuation Marks

Differences in Vertical and Horizontal Composition in Use of Punctuation Marks

There are some punctuation marks that are used uniquely in either vertical writing mode or horizontal writing mode. In this document, characters and symbols are treated as members of a character class, classified by their behavior for composition. Each class name is followed by class id, such as opening brackets (cl-01). Details are explained in . The following are some typical examples:

  1. Full stops (cl-06) and commas (cl-07)

    1. In vertical writing mode, IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP "。" and IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA "、" are used for full stops (cl-06) and commas (cl-07).

    2. In horizontal writing mode, there are three conventions in choice of symbols for full stops (cl-06) and commas (cl-07):

      1. Using COMMA "," and FULL STOP "." (see ).

        Example text using COMMA and FULL STOP.
        Example text using COMMA and FULL STOP.
      2. Using COMMA "," and IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP "。" (see ).

        Example text using COMMA and IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP.
        Example text using COMMA and IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP.
      3. Using IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA "、" and IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP "。" (see ).

        Example text using IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA and IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP.
        Example text using IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA and IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP.
  2. LEFT CORNER BRACKET "「", RIGHT CORNER BRACKET "」", LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK "“" and RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK "”"

    1. In vertical writing mode, LEFT CORNER BRACKET "「" and RIGHT CORNER BRACKET "」" are used for quotations (see ).

      Examples of quoted text using LEFT CORNER BRACKET and RIGHT CORNER BRACKET.
      Examples of quoted text using LEFT CORNER BRACKET and RIGHT CORNER BRACKET.
    2. In horizontal writing mode, pairs of LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK "“" and RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK "”" or pairs of LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK "‘" and RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK "’" may be used in place of LEFT CORNER BRACKET "「" and RIGHT CORNER BRACKET "」" (see ).

      Examples of quoted text using LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK and RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK.
      Examples of quoted text using LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK and RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK.
      Examples of quoted text using REVERSED DOUBLE PRIME QUOTATION MARK and LOW DOUBLE PRIME QUOTATION MARK.
      Examples of quoted text using REVERSED DOUBLE PRIME QUOTATION MARK and LOW DOUBLE PRIME QUOTATION MARK.
  3. LEFT SQUARE BRACKET "[", RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET "]", LEFT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET "〔" and RIGHT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET "〕"

    LEFT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET "〔" and RIGHT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET "〕" are vertical variants of LEFT SQUARE BRACKET "[" and RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET "]", which are used in horizontal writing mode. Square brackets should be used in horizontal writing mode except for special cases.

KATAKANA-HIRAGANA PROLONGED SOUND MARK for vertical and horizontal writing modes.
KATAKANA-HIRAGANA PROLONGED SOUND MARK for vertical and horizontal writing modes.

Positioning of Punctuation Marks (Commas, Periods and Brackets)

The positioning of punctuation marks (commas, periods and brackets) in a line proceeds as follows.

The character advance of commas (cl-07), full stops (cl-06), opening brackets (cl-01), closing brackets (cl-02) and middle dots (cl-05) is half-width (half em). But when those punctuation marks are placed side-by-side with ideographic (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15), or katakana (cl-16) characters, in principle, a given amount of space will be inserted before or after the symbols, which makes them appear as if they were intrinsically full-width (one em) (see ). Space is inserted before and after middle dots (cl-05). This principle makes the symbols consistent with ideographic (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) characters in character width, and at the same time the space for punctuation helps to make the organization of text clearer. The space size added before or after punctuation marks is subject, in principle, to line adjustment and may eventually be removed, except for that added after full stops (cl-06). (Details of line adjustment are discussed in ).

Character widths of commas, periods, and the space size appended before and/or after the symbols.
Character widths of commas, periods, and the space size appended before and/or after the symbols.
Character widths of commas, periods, and the space size appended before and/or after the symbols.
  1. After commas (cl-07), a half em space is added, in principle.

  2. After full stops (cl-06), in the middle of a line, a half em space is added. At the end of a line, a half em space is added, in principle.

  3. Before opening brackets (cl-01), a half em space is added, in principle.

  4. After closing brackets (cl-02), a half em space is added, in principle.

  5. Before and after middle dots (cl-05), a quarter em space is added, in principle.

Positioning of parentheses and brackets. (The left-hand side shows an example of setting them solid.)
Positioning of parentheses and brackets. (The left-hand side shows an example of setting them solid.)

Exceptional Positioning of Ideographic Comma and Katakana Middle Dot

The space usually added after IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA "、" and the space before and after KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT "・" are omitted, in principle, for cosmetic reasons in the following cases.

  1. In vertical writing mode, ideographic numerals and IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA "、" used as a decimal separator are set solid (as in the right line in ).

    Example of  exceptional positioning of the IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA.
    Example of exceptional positioning of the IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA.
    Example of the positioning of IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA with ideographic digits to represent an approximate number.
    Example of the positioning of IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA with ideographic digits to represent an approximate number.
  2. In vertical writing mode, ideographic digits and KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT "・" representing a decimal point are set solid (as in the right line in ).

    Example of the exceptional positioning of KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT.
    Example of the exceptional positioning of KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT.

Positioning of Consecutive Opening Brackets, Closing Brackets, Commas, Full Stops and Middle Dots

In cases where multiple punctuation marks, such as opening brackets (cl-01), closing brackets (cl-02), commas (cl-07), full stops (cl-06) and middle dots (cl-05), come one after the other, the following space adjustments are made for aesthetic reasons (see ). Note also that the half em and quarter em spaces added before or after punctuation marks, including the half em space after full stops (cl-06) appearing in the middle of a line, are subject, in principle, to line adjustment and may eventually be removed, except for those added after full stops (cl-06). (See for more about line adjustment.) For more information about the positioning of closing brackets (cl-02), full stops (cl-06), commas (cl-07) and middle dots (cl-05) at line end, see .

  1. When closing brackets (cl-02) come immediately after commas (cl-07) or full stops (cl-06), remove the default half em space between them and, in principle, add a half em space after the closing brackets (see ①).

  2. When commas (cl-07) come immediately after closing brackets (cl-02), remove the default half em space between them and, in principle, add a half em space after the comma. When full stops (cl-06) come immediately after closing brackets (cl-02), remove the default half em space between them and, in middle of a line, add a half em space after the full stop; at the end of a line, in principle, add a half em space after the full stop (see ②).

  3. When opening brackets (cl-01) come immediately after commas (cl-07), in principle, add a half em space between them (see ③). When opening brackets (cl-01) come immediately after full stops (cl-06) in the middle of a line, add a half em space between them. Note that when full stops (cl-06) come in the bottom of lines, in principle, insert a half space after full stops (cl-06).

  4. When opening brackets (cl-01) come immediately after closing brackets (cl-02), in principle, add a half em space between them (see ④).

  5. When opening brackets (cl-01) come immediately after other opening brackets (cl-01), set them solid and, in principle, add a half em space before the first one (see ⑤).

  6. When closing brackets (cl-02) come immediately after other closing brackets (cl-02), set them solid and, in principle, add a half em space after the last closing bracket (see ⑥).

  7. When middle dots (cl-05) come immediately after closing brackets (cl-02), in principle, add a quarter em space before the following middle dot (see ⑦).

  8. When opening brackets (cl-01) come immediately after middle dots (cl-05), in principle, add a quarter em space after the preceding middle dot (see ⑦).

Examples of line adjustment with multiple opening brackets, closing brackets, commas, full stops or middle dots.
Examples of line adjustment with multiple opening brackets, closing brackets, commas, full stops or middle dots.

The line adjustment rules shown above have been established because the default half em space before or after consecutive punctuation marks, or quarter em space before and after them, makes the line look sparse and doesn't make the line appear well-proportioned (see ).

Examples of bad line composition with unadjusted spaces between multiple opening brackets, closing brackets, commas, full stops or middle dots.
Examples of bad line composition with unadjusted spaces between multiple opening brackets, closing brackets, commas, full stops or middle dots.

Positioning of Opening Brackets at Line Head

When starting a new line with opening brackets (cl-01) there are some patterns as shown in . Note that the amount of line indent after the line feed (the first line indent of a new paragraph) is assumed to be a one em space across all the patterns.

  1. The first line indent after the line feed is set full-width (one em) and the next line after the first line break starts with no space (so-called tentsuki) (see ①).

  2. The first line indent after the line feed is set one and a half em and the next line indent after the first line break is set to a half em (see ②).

  3. The first line indent after the line feed is set at a half em and the next line after the first line break is set tentsuki (see ③).

Examples of positioning of opening brackets at line head.
Examples of positioning of opening brackets at line head.

Positioning of Dividing Punctuation Marks (Question Mark and Exclamation Mark) and Hyphens

The dividing punctuation marks (cl-04) (QUESTION MARK "?" and EXCLAMATION MARK "!") should be full-width, and they are typeset as follows.

  1. Basically, add no space before dividing punctuation marks (cl-04) at the end of a sentence and add a one em space after them (see ). However when a closing bracket (cl-02) follows right after the dividing punctuation mark, add no space after the dividing punctuation mark and add a half em space after the closing bracket (see ).

    Positioning of dividing punctuation marks (Examples in vertical writing mode).
    Positioning of dividing punctuation marks (Examples in vertical writing mode).
    Examples of positioning of dividing punctuation marks in the middle of a sentence (in vertical writing mode).
    Examples of positioning of dividing punctuation marks in the middle of a sentence (in vertical writing mode).
  2. When dividing punctuation marks (cl-04) at the end of a sentence reach the end of a line, apply the following rules (see ).

    Examples of positioning of dividing punctuation marks at the end of a line (in vertical writing mode).
    Examples of positioning of dividing punctuation marks at the end of a line (in vertical writing mode).
    1. If the line length is 13 character widths and a dividing punctuation mark (cl-04) occurs in the 12th character position, a one em space should be appended after it.

    2. If the line length is 13 character widths and a dividing punctuation mark (cl-04) occurs in the 13th character position, no space should be appended after it. In addition, do not carry over the one em space usually appended after the dividing punctuation marks to the line head of the next line; the line in this case should be set tentsuki.

The character width of hyphens (cl-03) varies according to the type of hyphen. HYPHEN "‐" should be quarter em width (i.e. one quarter of an em width), EN DASH "–" and KATAKANA-HIRAGANA DOUBLE HYPHEN "゠" should be half-width (a half em width), WAVE DASH "〜" should be full-width. Basically there should be no space before and after hyphens (cl-03). However, a half em space should be appended, in principle, when opening brackets (cl-01) follow right after a hyphen (cl-03) and a quarter em space when middle dots (cl-05) follow a hyphen (cl-03).

Characters Not Starting a Line

In principle, no line should begin with closing brackets (cl-02), hyphens (cl-03), dividing punctuation marks (cl-04), middle dots (cl-05), full stops (cl-06), commas (cl-07), iteration marks (cl-09), a prolonged sound mark (cl-10), small kana (cl-11) or warichu closing brackets (cl-29) (line-start prohibition rule). Otherwise the line would have an odd appearance.

Characters Not Ending a Line

No line should end with opening brackets (cl-01) or warichu opening brackets (cl-28) (line-end prohibition rules). Otherwise the line would have an odd appearance.

Positioning of Closing Brackets, Full Stops, Commas and Middle Dots at Line End

In principle, closing brackets (cl-02), commas (cl-07) or full stops (cl-06) at the line end have a half em space after them (see ). This half em space can be deleted for line adjustment (for more about line adjustment, see ). However, the possibilities are only half em space or solid. Other spaces, such as a quarter em space should not be used. In principle, the middle dot (cl-05) character at the line end also has a quarter em space before and after, and is handled like a full-width character (see ). This quarter em space can also be deleted for line adjustment, namely middle dots (cl-05) can be set solid before and after (about line adjustment, see ). However, in this case also, the only possibilities are quarter em space or solid setting. Other intermediate-sized spacing should not be used.

Example of handling closing brackets, full stops, commas and middle dots at the line end like full-width characters.
Example of handling closing brackets, full stops, commas and middle dots at the line end like full-width characters.
Example of handling closing brackets, full stops, commas and middle dots at the line end in JIS X 4051.
Example of handling closing brackets, full stops, commas and middle dots at the line end in JIS X 4051.
Examples of closing brackets, commas and full stops at the end of a line with either a half em space after or set solid.
Examples of closing brackets, commas and full stops at the end of a line with either a half em space after or set solid.
Example of always applying solid setting after closing brackets, full stops, and commas at the line end.
Example of always applying solid setting after closing brackets, full stops, and commas at the line end.

Unbreakable Character Sequences

If the following characters and symbols appear in sequence there will be no line break between them. The reason is that these characters and symbols are to be handled as one unit.

  1. Between a sequence of EM DASH "—" characters (to be more specific, for a double dash, see ). Note that some systems implement HORIZONTAL BAR "―" with very similar behavior to EM DASH "—".

    Sequence of EM DASH characters is unbreakable.
    Sequence of EM DASH characters is unbreakable.
  2. Between sequences of HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS "…" or TWO DOT LEADER "‥" (to be more specific, double HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS "……" or double TWO DOT LEADER "‥‥").

    Unbreakable sequence of HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS.
    Unbreakable sequence of HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS.
  3. Between European numerals (see , , and .). European numerals indicate ranks via the position of a numeral.

  4. Between prefixed abbreviations (cl-12) (YEN SIGN "¥"DOLLAR SIGN "$"CENT SIGN "¢" etc.) and the following arabic or ideographic numeral (see ). The reason is that such character sequences are to be handled as one unit.

    Unbreakable sequences between prefixed abbreviations and the following European numeral.
    Unbreakable sequences between prefixed abbreviations and the following European numeral.
  5. Between postfixed abbreviations (cl-13) (PERCENT SIGN "%", PER MILLE SIGN "‰" etc.) and the preceding European numeral or ideographic numeral (see ). The reason is that such character sequences are to be handled as one unit.

    Unbreakable sequences between postfixed abbreviations and the preceding European numeral.
    Unbreakable sequences between postfixed abbreviations and the preceding European numeral.
  6. Inter-letter space among Western characters (cl-27) in a word (or, sequence of letters, which it is not possible to hyphenate), or unit indicators (km, kg, mm etc.) in Latin letters (see ).

    It is not possible to break a line between letters in unit symbols using Latin letters.
    It is not possible to break a line between letters in unit symbols using Latin letters.
  7. Inter-letter space among ruby letters, when composed as mono-ruby. Note that it is possible to break a line between base characters with mono-ruby (see ).

  8. Inter-letter space among ruby letters or base characters, composed as group-ruby (see ).

    Example of unbreakable sequences of ruby.
    Example of unbreakable sequences of ruby.
    Example of a line break for jukugo-ruby.
    Example of a line break for jukugo-ruby.
  9. Between a subscript or superscript and an adjacent base character (preceding or following) (see ), or between base characters with ornament characters, or between ornament characters themselves. The reason is that these character sequences are to be handled as one object.

    Unbreakable sequences between a character and its related subscripts.
    Unbreakable sequences between a character and its related subscripts.
  10. In order to create a correspondence between notes and the related main text, reference marks (aijirushi) are often added. Line breaks are not allowed before the reference mark or between letters of the reference mark itself (see ). The application of the no-line-break rule here is a matter of style.

    Unbreakable sequences before an aijirushi (reference marks, European numerals or ideographic numerals).
    Unbreakable sequences before an aijirushi (reference marks, European numerals or ideographic numerals).
  11. After warichu opening brackets (cl-28), which open warichu, or before warichu closing brackets (cl-29), which close warichu.

  12. A unit of furiwake. A unit of furiwake is handled as one object.

Character Sequences which Do Not Allow Space Insertion as Part of Line Adjustment Processing

For line adjustment processing, space must not be added between the following characters. (This is called the inseparable characters rule.) The reason is that these characters or symbols should appear as one unit (for more about line adjustment, see ).

  1. There must be no space between any characters described in .

  2. In addition to the cases mentioned above, the inseparable character rule has to be applied to the following cases.

    1. Before or after opening brackets (cl-01) or closing brackets (cl-02).

    2. Before or after full stops (cl-06) or commas (cl-07).

    3. Before or after middle dots (cl-05).

    4. Before or after dividing punctuation marks (cl-04).

    5. Before or after hyphens (cl-03).

    6. Before or after one em, etc. spaces between Japanese characters.

    7. Among base characters with jukugo-ruby.

Examples of Line Adjustment

Methods of line adjustment processing are discussed in . However, since layout processing of punctuation marks is one reason for the need for line adjustment processing, we will here introduce two main examples of cases where line adjustment processing is necessary, and show adjustment examples (see ).

  1. The principal approach in Japanese composition is that with the exception of the last line of a paragraph, the length of all lines is the same, so all lines are aligned. As explained before, the line length is set to be n-times the character size established for the kihon-hanmen. Hence, as long as only full-width characters are used, all lines have the same length (see ① at ).

  2. In at ②, there is an IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA "、" followed by a LEFT CORNER BRACKET "「", and the total space taken by the two characters is one and a half em. That means that the line overshoots or runs short of the edge of the kihon-hanmen by a half em. To restore a uniform line length, line adjustment is applied as shown at ③ in . The half em space overshoot or shortage is recovered by reducing inter-character space to a quarter em before the LEFT CORNER BRACKET "「" and after the RIGHT CORNER BRACKET "」".

  3. At ④ in , the 15th character is an opening bracket (cl-01). This should not appear at the line end. Ideally, a full width space reduction would be applied, and the character "前" on the second line would be moved onto the first line in the 15th position. In that way, the problem could be avoided. However, in this example a full-width space reduction is not possible, so line adjustment processing is applied as shown at ⑤ in . The opening bracket (cl-01) is moved to the second line, and line adjustment by inter-character space expansion is applied. That means that space is inserted in the first line at places where it is allowed.

    Examples of line adjustment.
    Examples of line adjustment.

Japanese and Western Mixed Text Composition (including Horizontal-in-Vertical Text Composition)

Composition of Japanese and Western Mixed Texts

There are a lot of examples of Japanese text in which Western and/or Greek letters are mixed among Japanese letters. Examples are as follows:

  1. Using one Latin letter as a symbol for something, like "A" and "B".

  2. Using a Western word in a Japanese context, like "editor".

  3. Using acronyms of things and organization names, like "DTP" and "GDP".

  4. Writing Western book titles and authors in lists of referred books with original spelling.

Latin letters are also used in itemized lists and numbering of headings, as well as symbols for units, symbols for chemical elements, and mathematical symbols. As can be judged from these examples, mixtures of Latin letters among Japanese letters are in daily use in Japanese composition.

Mixed Text Composition in Horizontal Writing Mode

In horizontal writing mode the basic approach is to use proportional Western fonts (). For European numerals, both half-width fonts and proportional fonts are used. Note that Western word space (cl-26) is a one third em space, in principle, except at line head, line head of warichu, line end and line end of warichu. Western word space (cl-26) at line head, line head of warichu, line end and line end of warichu, is set solid.

Example of proportional Western fonts used in Japanese in horizontal writing mode.
Example of proportional Western fonts used in Japanese in horizontal writing mode.
Example of Western full-width fonts used in Japanese in horizontal writing mode. (In horizontal writing mode, Western full-width fonts are usually not recommended.)
Example of Western full-width fonts used in Japanese in horizontal writing mode. (In horizontal writing mode, Western full-width fonts are usually not recommended.)
Example of Japanese and Western mixed text with the same font Ryumin R-KL for both Japanese characters and proportional Western
     characters.
Example of Japanese and Western mixed text with the same font Ryumin R-KL for both Japanese characters and proportional Western characters.
Example of Japanese and Western mixed text with two distinct fonts - Ryumin R-KL for Japanese characters and Times New Roman
     for Western characters.
Example of Japanese and Western mixed text with two distinct fonts - Ryumin R-KL for Japanese characters and Times New Roman for Western characters.

Mixed Text Composition in Vertical Writing Mode

As explained in , there are three different styles for setting Latin letters and European numerals in vertical writing mode:

  1. Setting Latin letters and/or European numerals one by one in inline direction with Japanese characters (see ). Single Latin letters or Arabic numerals are set with this style. In this case, a full width monospace font is usually used. Currently, proportional Western style fonts are also sometimes used with this style.

    Example of Latin letters in normal orientation.
    Example of Latin letters in normal orientation.
  2. Setting Latin letters and/or European numerals rotated 90 degrees clockwise in vertical text mode (). This style is usually adopted when Latin letters compose a word or sentence. Proportional fonts are specified for characters in this style, as in horizontal writing mode (or half-width fonts for European numerals).

    Example of Latin letters rotated 90 degrees clockwise.
    Example of Latin letters rotated 90 degrees clockwise.
  3. Setting Latin letters and/or European numerals in tate-chu-yoko (horizontal-in-vertical setting, see ). Tate-chu-yoko layout is usually adopted when dealing with a two-digit number in European numerals, or a combination of two or three Latin letters, the length of which is equal to the default size of the line in paragraph direction or longer than that just to an acceptable extent. (A combination of two or three Latin letters may be rotated 90 degrees clockwise rather than set in tate-chu-yoko layout.) Proportional glyphs (or half-width glyphs for European numerals) are used for characters in tate-chu-yoko layout.

    Example of European numerals in tate-chu-yoko (horizontal-in-vertical setting).
    Example of European numerals in tate-chu-yoko (horizontal-in-vertical setting).
    Example of acronyms set one by one in normal orientation.
    Example of acronyms set one by one in normal orientation.
    Example of acronyms rotated 90 degrees clockwise.
    Example of acronyms rotated 90 degrees clockwise.

Method for Setting Full-width Latin Letters and European Numerals

When full-width and fixed-width Western characters or European numerals are set in vertical writing mode as "quasi" Japanese characters, inter-character spaces between these characters and hiragana (cl-15), katakana (cl-16) or ideographic characters (cl-19) are set solid, similar to ordinary ideographic characters (cl-19) (see ). Also, in principle, when full-width and fixed-width Western characters or European numerals are set after full stops (cl-06), commas (cl-07) or closing brackets (cl-02), or before opening brackets (cl-01), insert a half em space after commas (cl-07) or closing brackets (cl-02), or before opening brackets (cl-01). In addition, in these cases, insert a half em space after full stops (cl-06). When full-width and fixed-width Western characters or European numerals are set before a full stop (cl-06), comma (cl-07) or closing bracket (cl-02), or after an opening bracket (cl-01), the inter-character space before the full stop, comma or closing bracket, or after the opening bracket is set solid.

Setting example of full-width Latin letters and European numerals.
Setting example of full-width Latin letters and European numerals.
Example of setting KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT as a ranking symbol among full-width, fixed-space European numerals.
Example of setting KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT as a ranking symbol among full-width, fixed-space European numerals.

Handling of Tate-chu-yoko (Horizontal-in-Vertical Settings)

To set strings as tate-chu-yoko (horizontal-in-vertical setting), first set from left to right using solid setting, then align the whole string to the center of the vertical line (). When hiragana (cl-15), katakana (cl-16) or ideographic characters (cl-19) are set before/after tate-chu-yoko, the inter-character space is set solid. In principle, when tate-chu-yoko is set after a comma (cl-07) or closing bracket (cl-02), or before an opening bracket (cl-01), a half em space is inserted. In addition, when tate-chu-yoko is set after a full stop (cl-06) in the middle of a line, a half em space is inserted. When a full stop (cl-06) is set at the end of a line, a half em space is inserted after it, in principle. When tate-chu-yoko is set before full stops, commas or closing brackets, or after opening brackets, the inter-character space is set solid.

Example of setting tate-chu-yoko (horizontal-in-vertical text setting).
Example of setting tate-chu-yoko (horizontal-in-vertical text setting).

Handling of Western Text in Japanese Text using Proportional Western Fonts

Composition rules for Western characters, Western text and European numerals, set rotated 90 degrees clockwise in vertical writing mode, and horizontal writing mode, are as follows:

  1. A sequence of Western characters in a Western word should not be broken across a line-break, except where hyphenation is allowed.

  2. When line adjustment is done with line adjustment by inter-character space reduction, Western word space (cl-26) is used as first priority. Also, when line adjustment is done with line adjustment by inter-character space expansion, Western word spaces are used as first priority.

  3. When line adjustment by inter-character space addition is used, inter-character spaces within Western words and European numerals are not used for expansion.

  4. Inter-character space, between hiragana (cl-15), katakana (cl-16) or ideographic characters (cl-19) and Western characters or European numerals, is a quarter em space (see ). The issue as to whether the quarter em space can be used for line end adjustment or not is discussed in and .

    Example of a quarter em inter-character space between hiragana, katakana and ideographic characters, and Latin characters.
    Example of a quarter em inter-character space between hiragana, katakana and ideographic characters, and Latin characters.

    In the following cases, a quarter em space is not inserted (see ).

    1. At the start of a line, there is no space before Latin characters or European numerals. At the end of the line, there is no space after Latin characters or European numerals.

    2. In the case where Latin characters and European numerals follow a comma (cl-07) or closing bracket (cl-02), or are followed by opening brackets (cl-01), in principle, a half em space is inserted. In the case where Latin characters and European numerals follow a full stop (cl-06) in the middle of a line, a half em space is inserted. When the full stop (cl-06) is set at the end of a line, in principle, a half em space is inserted after the full stop (cl-06).

    3. In the case where Latin characters and European numerals are set before a full stop (cl-06), comma (cl-07) or closing bracket (cl-02), or after an opening bracket (cl-01), the inter-character space is set solid.

Example of no inter-character space before and after Latin characters and European numerals.
Example of no inter-character space before and after Latin characters and European numerals.
Example of solid setting between, katakana and ideographic characters and Latin characters and European numerals. (This method is
     not recommended).
Example of solid setting between, katakana and ideographic characters and Latin characters and European numerals. (This method is not recommended).

Ruby and Emphasis Dots

Usage of Ruby

Ruby is a small-sized, supplementary text attached to a character or a group of characters in the main text. A run of ruby text, usually attached to the right of the characters in vertical writing mode or immediately above them in horizontal writing mode, indicates the reading or the meaning of those characters (see ). The characters in the main text that are annotated by ruby are called "base characters". Mainly Hiragana (cl-15) characters are often used for ruby to indicate how to read ideographic characters (cl-19); this is known as ruby annotation or as "furigana".

Ruby and base characters.
Ruby and base characters.

There are three methods to treat ruby as follows:

  1. Mono-ruby : ruby letters are set in connection with each base character (see ).

  2. Jukugo-ruby : ruby letters are set not only in connection with each base character but also treated as a group as kanji compound word (see and ).

  3. Group-ruby : The connection between ruby letters and base characters is treated as group-to-group (see ).

Because of different purposes and different functionalities, there are several complicated methods for ruby as follows:

  1. PURPOSE: Ruby annotation with kana (usually hiragana (cl-15)) to provide readings of ideographic characters (cl-19). There are two types of ruby for this purpose depending on the type of base character:

    1. Add one or more hiragana (cl-15) ruby character to indicate the reading (Japanese onyomi or kunyomi) for each base ideographic character (cl-19) (see ). This method, attaching one or several hiragana or katakana characters for each base ideographic character, is called mono-ruby.

      Example of ruby annotation  per ideographic character.
      Example of ruby annotation per ideographic character.
    2. In the Japanese writing system, kanji compound words (jukugo) occasionally appear, usually constructed with a couple of ideographic characters (cl-19). There are two different methods of attaching ruby letters to base ideographic characters (cl-19) for these compound words.

      1. Mono-ruby. Ruby letters are attached to each base ideographic character (cl-19), similarly to the previous section (see ).

        Example of mono-ruby method. Ruby letters are attached to each base ideographic character in a compound word.
        Example of mono-ruby method. Ruby letters are attached to each base ideographic character in a compound word.
      2. Jukugo-ruby. Pronunciation is indicated for each ideographic character (cl-19), but the positioning takes into account the fact that together they make up a compound word (see ). The intention when using jukugo-ruby is to handle the ideographic character (cl-19) phrase as one object.

        Example of jukugo-ruby method. Ruby letters are attached to groups of ideographic characters in compound words.
        Example of jukugo-ruby method. Ruby letters are attached to groups of ideographic characters in compound words.
        Examples of ruby attachment for a compound phrase.
        Examples of ruby attachment for a compound phrase.
        Examples of ruby for jukuji readings.
        Examples of ruby for jukuji readings.
  2. PURPOSE: Ruby annotation that annotates a ideographic character (cl-19) or hiragana (cl-15) word with katakana (cl-16) to provide its meaning, together with it's reading. In terms of ruby layout, attaching ruby text to a single character in ideographic character (cl-19) is essentially the same as attaching the reading to a ideographic character (cl-19) (e.g. attaching ruby text "バザール", 'Bazaar', in hiragana (cl-15) or katakana (cl-16) to a ideographic character (cl-19) "市" is just like attaching the reading "いち" to that character). When attaching katakana (cl-16) ruby text to a run of base text consisting of two or more characters in ideographic character (cl-19) and/or hiragana (cl-15), the ruby text needs to be positioned as if it corresponds to the annotated text itself, no matter how the ruby characters are distributed across each base character. The most typical example of this is attaching ruby text to a kanji compound word to indicate a corresponding loan word in katakana (see ). The use of ruby text of this kind is on the increase in proportion to the growing need for translations and loan words. This type of ruby, namely ruby letters that are attached to two or more base characters as one object (note that ruby characters are not limited to katakana (cl-16). and ), is called group-ruby. Group-ruby and it's base characters are unbreakable, because of their behavior as one object (it is possible to break a line in the middle of the base characters where jukugo-ruby is in use).

    Examples of ruby for compound ideographic character words to indicate corresponding words in katakana.
    Examples of ruby for compound ideographic character words to indicate corresponding words in katakana.
  3. PURPOSE: Ruby annotation, usually with katakana (cl-16) characters, to indicate the reading or the meaning of a Western word used in base text (see ). There are opposite cases where a synonymous Western word in Latin characters is attached as a ruby annotation to a Japanese word in ideographic character (cl-19) or hiragana (cl-15) and so on (see ). These cases are less used than a and b, however they are quite common in study guides, translated books and travel guides.

    Examples of Latin characters used either in  base text or ruby text for Western words.
    Examples of Latin characters used either in base text or ruby text for Western words.
  4. PURPOSE: Ruby annotation using ideographic character (cl-19) for a base text word in hiragana (cl-15). This is called furikanji, and is very rarely found.

Hereafter, mainly the usage of (a) and (b) will be explained.

Choice of Base Characters to be Annotated by Ruby

There are several methods of choosing how to attach ruby annotations to which base characters.

  1. 'General-ruby' is the method of attaching ruby annotations to all base characters in ideographic character (cl-19).

  2. 'Para-ruby' is the method of attaching ruby annotations to only those base characters in ideographic character (cl-19) for which readings are difficult.

Note that ruby should be attached to all ideographic characters (cl-19) in a compound word, to reflect the unitary nature of the text. To attach ruby to only some of the ideographic characters (cl-19) in a compound word is not recommended (see ).

Examples of ruby on kanji characters in a compound word. (Left side, recommended. Right side, not recommended.)
Examples of ruby on kanji characters in a compound word. (Left side, recommended. Right side, not recommended.)

Choice of Size for Ruby Characters

The character size of ruby characters is, in principle, the half size of the base characters (see ).

Examples of ruby with half the size of the base characters.
Examples of ruby with half the size of the base characters.

The 'one-third-ruby' characters are used on rare occasions to attach three ruby characters to one full-width ideographic character (cl-19). One-third-ruby for vertical layout has the dimension of the half of the base character in width and the one third in height. Those for horizontal writing mode have the dimension of half of the base characters in height and one third in width (see ).

Examples of one third ruby.
Examples of one third ruby.

When ruby is attached to twelve point or larger base characters (usually used for headings), the size of the ruby letter is generally smaller than half the size of the base characters, considering the proportion of the sizes of base characters and ruby. When all is said and done, these cases are very rare.

Examples of ruby at a size smaller than half the size of the base characters.
Examples of ruby at a size smaller than half the size of the base characters.

Choice of Sides for Ruby with Respect to Base Characters

In principle, ruby is attached to the right of base characters in vertical writing mode, and above in horizontal writing mode.

In some special cases, ruby can be seen to the left of base characters in vertical writing mode, and below in horizontal writing mode, but this is very rare.

There are cases where two kinds of ruby are attached, one to either side of the base characters, one for readings and the other for meanings (see ). This is also very rare.

An example of ruby attached to both sides of the base characters.
An example of ruby attached to both sides of the base characters.

In the following sections, the ruby composition methods will be explained on the assumption that the size of ruby is half the size of the base characters, and they will be attached to the right in vertical writing mode and above in horizontal writing mode. First we look at the basic composition rules of mono-ruby, group-ruby and jukugo-ruby, then the rules of positioning of ruby with respect to those characters which come before and after the base characters, and finally the composition rules at the line head and at the line end.

Positioning of Mono-ruby with Respect to Base Characters

When mono-ruby characters are Japanese, they are set solid. If mono-ruby characters have their own character widths such as Western characters or European numerals, they are set according to their own widths and then the ruby text is placed so that its center matches that of its base character. There are more variations depending on the combination of the base character and ruby text and accordingly various composition rules have been invented, which will be explained with examples.

When attaching two hiragana (cl-15) ruby characters to a single base character, the lengths of the ruby text and the base text are the same and they are positioned as shown in .

An example of composition with two ruby characters.
An example of composition with two ruby characters.

When attaching a single hiragana (cl-15) ruby character to a single base character, there are two ways of positioning the ruby character.

  1. In vertical writing mode, attach a ruby character so that its vertical center matches that of the base character (see ). In horizontal writing mode, attach a ruby character so that its horizontal center matches that of the base character (see ). This positioning of a ruby character is called 'nakatsuki' (center-alignment).

    Examples of nakatsuki and katatsuki alignment.
    Examples of nakatsuki and katatsuki alignment.
  2. In vertical writing mode, attach a ruby character so that the top of its virtual body is aligned with the top of that of the base character (see ). This positioning of a ruby character is called 'katatsuki' (top-alignment). For horizontal writing mode, 'katatsuki' should not be adopted. If a ruby character is attached so that the left-edge of its virtual body is aligned with the left-edge of that of the base character, it would result in the loss of the center of balance, which doesn't look good (see ).

    Example of katatsuki alignment in horizontal layout (this is intentionally wrong and should not be applied).
    Example of katatsuki alignment in horizontal layout (this is intentionally wrong and should not be applied).

When attaching three or more hiragana (cl-15) ruby characters to a single base character, the ruby characters are set solid. In this case, where the length of a ruby text is longer than that of its base character, positioning of the ruby text depends on which alignment has been adopted for a single ruby character. There is another issue: how to maintain the spatial balance of the ruby characters hanging over those characters which are not related base characters. The adjustment of inter-character spacing for those characters which come before and after the base character will be explained in 3.3.8 Adjustments of Ruby with Length Longer than that of the Base Characters.

  1. When nakatsuki alignment is adopted for a single ruby character, position a ruby text so that its vertical center is aligned with that of its base character in vertical writing mode (see ). In horizontal writing mode, position a ruby text so that its horizontal center is aligned with that of its base character (see ).

    Example 1 of positioning of ruby text with three or more  characters.
    Example 1 of positioning of ruby text with three or more characters.
  2. When katatsuki alignment is adopted for a single ruby character, there are two methods, as follows.

    1. Position the ruby text so that its vertical center is aligned with that of its base character (see ).

    2. Depending on the type of script of the adjacent characters to the base character, and the number of ruby characters, a decision is made about whether ruby hangover is allowed on the character before its base character, or on the character after, or on both adjacent characters. At break-even situation, the hangover is usually on the character after its base character (see ).

Example 2 of positioning of ruby text with three or more characters (vertical writing mode).
Example 2 of positioning of ruby text with three or more characters (vertical writing mode).

For mono-ruby, base characters and attached ruby characters are handled as one object, and internal line-breaks are prohibited.

Positioning of Group-ruby with Respect to Base Characters

When the length of a sequence of base characters (number of characters * advance-width of each character) and that of the ruby text are the same, each text is set solid and the center of both texts are aligned with each other (see ).

Examples of group-ruby where the length is the same as that of the base text.
Examples of group-ruby where the length is the same as that of the base text.

When the length of the ruby text is shorter than that of its base characters, set the base text solid and attached ruby character, so that both texts balance each other. To be more specific, where 2 units of inter-character space are used between ruby characters, add 1 unit of space between the start of the base text and the start of the ruby text, and between the end of the ruby text and the end of the base text. This will give a balanced appearance, and is the method specified in JIS X 4051 (see ). Another way is to first align the leading characters for both the base text and ruby text and the ends of both trailing characters, and then add the same amount of inter-character space between the rest of the ruby characters (see ).

Example 1 of distribution of group-ruby alongside base characters where the length of the ruby is shorter than that of the base characters.
Example 1 of distribution of group-ruby alongside base characters where the length of the ruby is shorter than that of the base characters.
Example 2 of distribution of group-ruby alongside base characters where the length of the ruby is shorter than that of the base characters.
Example 2 of distribution of group-ruby alongside base characters where the length of the ruby is shorter than that of the base characters.
Examples of distribution of group-ruby where the length is much shorter than that of the base text.
Examples of distribution of group-ruby where the length is much shorter than that of the base text.

When the length of the ruby text is longer than that of the base characters, balance the base characters with the ruby text by setting the ruby text solid and adding a certain amount of inter-character space between each adjacent base character. To be more specific, for 2 units of inter-character space, add 1 unit of space between the start of the ruby text and the start of the base text, and between the end of the base text and the end of the ruby text, as specified in JIS X 4051 (see ). Another way is to first align the start of both the leading characters and the end of the trailing characters, and then add a certain amount of inter-character space between each adjacent base character (see ).

Example 1 of distribution of group-ruby where the length is longer than that of the base characters.
Example 1 of distribution of group-ruby where the length is longer than that of the base characters.
Example 2 of distribution of group-ruby where the length is longer than that of the base characters.
Example 2 of distribution of group-ruby where the length is longer than that of the base characters.

For group-ruby, base characters and attached ruby characters are handled as one object, and internal line-breaks are prohibited. Also, for an object constructed with base characters and attached ruby characters it is prohibited to insert additional spaces between each character for line adjustment.

Positioning of Jukugo-ruby with Respect to Base Characters

If the number of ruby characters are two or less for each ideographic characters (cl-19) which participates in a kanji compound word (or jukugo), then for each run of ruby text associated with each base character, compose ruby characters as described in (see ).

Example 1 of distribution of jukugo-ruby.
Example 1 of distribution of jukugo-ruby.

If there is any ideographic character (cl-19) in a given kanji compound word which needs three or more ruby characters, the jukugo-ruby layout cannot be used. In this case, attach the ruby text to the kanji compound word as a whole. The available methods include the layout as specified in JIS X 4051, which is similar to the group-ruby method described in (see ), and layout decided by the phonetic structure of the kanji compound word and the type of script of the adjacent characters (see ). The latter method can be used unless a run of ruby text for the base character hangs over another base character more than a full character width (or one and a half times the full-width) of a ruby character. (The detail of this method is described in .)

Example 2 distribution of jukugo-ruby.
Example 2 distribution of jukugo-ruby.
Example 3 distribution of jukugo-ruby.
Example 3 distribution of jukugo-ruby.
Example of distribution as mono-ruby for jukugo.
Example of distribution as mono-ruby for jukugo.

Jukugo-ruby can be split into two lines at the boundary of each unit of ruby text attached to one ideographic character (cl-19). When a kanji compound word consists of two characters, each unit will be processed using the mono-ruby method. When dividing a compound word that consists of three ideographic characters (cl-19), use the mono-ruby method for the first ideographic character (cl-19) and use the jukugo-ruby method for the remaining two ideographic characters (cl-19), and vice versa. In order to maintain the correspondence of each ideographic character (cl-19) to its ruby annotation, the layout of the ruby may be different after the division (see ). Note that jukugo-ruby and its base characters cannot be the subject of inter-character space expansion for line adjustment.

Examples of distribution of jukugo-ruby split across two lines.
Examples of distribution of jukugo-ruby split across two lines.

Adjustments of Ruby with Length Longer than that of the Base Characters

When the length of any ruby text is shorter than that of the base characters, the main text can be just set solid because there is no need for any adjustment of the inter-character spacing between base characters and their adjacent characters in the main text.

Set solid when the length of ruby text is shorter than that of base characters.
Set solid when the length of ruby text is shorter than that of base characters.

When the length of the ruby text is longer than that of the base characters, the method of composing the main text depends on how much the ruby text hangs over the ideographic character (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) or punctuation marks, which are attached to the base characters. The following are the general rules (see and ). They were established especially in order to avoid misreading and to maintain the beauty of the layout. Noted that the detailed value of spaces between characters for cases of ruby letters hanging over the base characters is described in "Appendix B Spacing between Characters" as Table 1 in accordance with 3.9 About Character Classes.

Example 1 of distribution of ruby characters overhanging adjacent characters.
Example 1 of distribution of ruby characters overhanging adjacent characters.
Example 2 of distribution of ruby characters overhanging adjacent characters.
Example 2 of distribution of ruby characters overhanging adjacent characters.
  1. Ruby text shall not hang over the ideographic characters (cl-19) adjacent to the base characters.

  2. When the adjacent character is a hiragana (cl-15), katakana (cl-16), prolonged sound mark (cl-10) or small kana (cl-11), the ruby text may overhang the character up to the full-width size of the ruby characters.

    An example of not recommended case that two different group of ruby letters are consecutive without space
    An example of not recommended case that two different group of ruby letters are consecutive without space
    An example of  two different group of ruby letters are consecutive with space
    An example of two different group of ruby letters are consecutive with space
  3. The ruby letter may go over the base characters and overhang the half em spaces which are inserted after closing brackets (cl-02), full stops (cl-06) or commas (cl-07), set before the target ruby object, up to the full-width size of a ruby letter. Also, the ruby letter may go over the base characters and hang over the half em spaces which are inserted before opening brackets (cl-01), set after the target ruby object, up to the full -width size of a ruby letter. Note that when the half em spaces are reduced for line adjustment, the room for ruby letter overhang is also compressed to the reduced space size. (For example, if the space is a quarter em in the base character size, the ruby letter can overhang by a half em in ruby letter size.)

  4. When the adjacent character is an inseparable character (cl-08), the ruby text may overhang the character up to the full-width size of a ruby character.

  5. When the adjacent character is one of the middle dots (cl-05), the ruby text may overhang the middle dots, in principle, up to the full-width size of a ruby character. But if there is any reduction of space size before and after the middle dots as a result of the line adjustment, the amount of the extension shall be up to the amount of space size after the middle dots plus 1/2 a ruby character size when the middle dots are set before the ruby object, or the space size before the middle dots plus 1/2 a ruby character size when the middle dots are set after the ruby object.

  6. When the adjacent character is one of the closing brackets (cl-02), the ruby text may go over the base characters up to the full-width size of a ruby character. Note that the overhang must not go beyond the closing bracket itself.

  7. When the adjacent character is a comma (cl-07) or full stop (cl-06), the ruby text may go over the base characters and overhang the comma or full stop up to the full-width size of a ruby character. Note that the overhang must not go beyond the comma or the period itself.

  8. Also, when the adjacent character is one of the opening brackets (cl-01) before the ruby object, the ruby text may go over the base characters and hang over the opening brackets up to the full-width size of a ruby character. Note that the overhang must not go beyond the opening brackets.

Example 3 of distribution of ruby characters overhanging adjacent characters.
Example 3 of distribution of ruby characters overhanging adjacent characters.
Example 4 of distribution of ruby characters overhanging adjacent characters.
Example 4 of distribution of ruby characters overhanging adjacent characters.

When the line head starts with ruby annotated text where the ruby text length is shorter than that of the base characters, compose the text so that the first base character is aligned with the line head. Similarly, when ruby annotated text ends at the line end and the ruby length is shorter than that of the basic characters, compose the text so that the last basic character is aligned with the line end.

When the line head starts with ruby annotated text where the ruby text length is longer than that of the base characters, compose the text so that the first ruby character which overhangs the base text is aligned with the line head, and vice versa (see ). Alternatively, there is a variation by which the text is composed so that the first base character is aligned with the line head, and vice versa (see ).

Example 1 of positioning of ruby characters at the line head and at the line end.
Example 1 of positioning of ruby characters at the line head and at the line end.
Example 2 of positioning of ruby characters at the line head and at the line end.
Example 2 of positioning of ruby characters at the line head and at the line end.

When aligning the first base character to the line head and the last base character to the line end, ruby text is not allowed to extend beyond the hanmen or the area of the column. If it does, the following adjustments should be considered in positioning base characters and ruby characters.

  1. Mono-ruby at the line head: Make adjustments so that the top of the ruby text is aligned with that of the base characters (see ).

  2. Mono-ruby at the line end: Make adjustments so that the bottom of the ruby text is aligned with that of the last base character (see ).

  3. Group-ruby at the line head: Make adjustments so that the top of the ruby text is aligned with that of the first base character, and add the same amount of inter-character space between the base characters and between the end of the last base character and the end of the last ruby character after the last base character (the method specified in JIS X 4051) (see ).

    Example 3 of positioning of ruby characters at the line head and at the line end.
    Example 3 of positioning of ruby characters at the line head and at the line end.
  4. Group-ruby at the line end: Make adjustments so that the end of the ruby text is aligned with that of the last base character and add the same amount of inter-character space between the base characters and the space between the start of the base text and the start of the ruby text (the method specified in JIS X 4051) (see ).

  5. Jukugo-ruby at the line head or at the line end: Make the same adjustments as described in (c) or (d) for the group-ruby.

  6. Jukugo-ruby at the line head: Make adjustments so that the top of the ruby text is aligned with that of the first base character. A run of ruby characters for a base character may overhang the adjacent base characters of the same kanji compound word, up to the full-width size (or one and a half of it) of a ruby character. If the extension should go beyond the limit, just force the ruby text out of the base characters, or make a further adjustment by adding inter-character space between the base characters.

  7. Jukugo-ruby at the line end: Make adjustments so that the end of the ruby text is aligned with that of the last base character. A run of ruby characters for a base character may overhang the adjacent base characters of the same kanji compound word, up to the full-width size (or one and a half of it) of the ruby characters. If the extension should go beyond the limit, just force the ruby text out of the base characters, or make a further adjustment by adding inter-character space between the base characters.

  8. Jukugo-ruby split across two lines: jukugo-ruby can be split across two lines, with one part at the line end and the other at the line head. In the case of a compound word with two ideographic characters (cl-19), it is as the same as dealing with one ideographic character (cl-19) with a mono-ruby text at the line end and the other ideographic characters (cl-19) with another mono-ruby text at the next line head. In the case of a phrase with three ideographic characters (cl-19), handle one ideographic character (cl-19) with mono-ruby text and the remaining two ideographic characters (cl-19) with jukugo-ruby, and vice versa. The layout of one ideographic character (cl-19) with mono-ruby text will be composed by method (a) or (b) described above. The layout of two ideographic characters (cl-19) with jukugo-ruby text will be composed by method (f) or (g) above.

Composition of Emphasis Dots

Emphasis dots (also known as bouten or side dots) are symbols placed alongside a run of ideographic character (cl-19) or hiragana (cl-15) characters to emphasize the text.

Composition of emphasis dots is as follows (see ).

Composition of emphasis dots.
Composition of emphasis dots.
  1. The character size of emphasis dots is the half size of the base characters to be emphasized.

  2. Emphasis dots are attached to the right of the base characters in vertical writing mode, or above them in horizontal writing mode. The center of emphasis dots is aligned with that of the base characters.

  3. There are many symbols that could be specified for use as emphasis dots. SESAME DOT "﹅" in vertical writing mode and BULLET "•" in horizontal writing mode are those used for emphasis dots in general.

Inline Cutting Note (Warichu)

Where the Inline Cutting Note (Warichu) is used

Warichu (inline cutting note) is a type of inline notation, where two lines of small characters are inserted into the text. Warichu divides a line into two sub lines. The frequency of use of the inline cutting note is not so high. However, the inline cutting note is very important for study guides, travel guides, reference books, encyclopedias and manuals, because it is very effective for inserting notes at the point in the text where they are needed (see ). Inline cutting note is usually used in vertical writing mode. It is very infrequently used in horizontal writing mode.

Warichu (inline cutting note).
Warichu (inline cutting note).

Character Size for Inline Cutting Notes and Line Gaps

Character size for an inline cutting note depends on the character size established for the kihon-hanmen. Usually, around six point size is used (see ).

The space between adjacent lines in an inline cutting note is zero, that is to say, there is no line gap between them (see ).

As shown in , an inline cutting note usually has two lines, and is surrounded by LEFT PARENTHESIS "(" and RIGHT PARENTHESIS ")" characters that are double the size of the characters in the inline cutting note itself. There is no space between the surrounding text and parentheses for the inline cutting note.

Example of construction of an inline cutting note.
Example of construction of an inline cutting note.

Symbols, like opening brackets (cl-01), closing brackets (cl-02), commas (cl-07) and full stops (cl-06) are also used in inline cutting note text. In such cases, the handling of such symbols is the same as for the main text.

In vertical text, the horizontal width of the inline cutting note area is wider than the width of a kihon-hanmen line. The horizontal centers of the kihon-hanmen line and inline cutting note area are aligned. The line gap used to establish the kihon-hanmen should not be affected by the horizontal width of the inline cutting note area. In other words, the line gap for the kihon-hanmen needs to be designed wider than usual in preparation for the use of the inline cutting note. (see and ) Warichu is used also in horizontal text, however it is not so common, and usually occurs only in study guides and encyclopedias.

The length of the two lines of the inline cutting note should be as near as possible the same. When the inline cutting note can be set in one kihon-hanmen line, the whole inline note text should be broken at a position where line breaking is permitted, and where the two resulting lines are as close as possible to the same length. The length of the second line should not be longer than the length of the first line. Note that the same line breaking rules are used as for basic text (see ).

Examples showing how the inline cutting note can be set in one line of base text.
Examples showing how the inline cutting note can be set in one line of base text.

Handling an Inline Cutting Note when it Straddles Two Kihon-hanmen Lines

When an inline cutting note will not fit on a single kihon-hanmen line, it will wrap onto the following line, and will be set as shown in or .

Example of an inline cutting note straddling two base text lines.
Example of an inline cutting note straddling two base text lines.
Example of an inline cutting note straddling three base text lines.
Example of an inline cutting note straddling three base text lines.

(note 1)

Normally, an inline cutting note is short, and will therefore fit on a single kihon-hanmen line. There are cases where the note wraps onto the following line, but it is rare that it extends over three or more of the kihon-hanmen lines. If the note is too large, other styles of notation should be considered.

Paragraph Adjustment Rules

Line Head Indent at the Beginning of Paragraphs

A paragraph, a section of a document which consists of one or more sentences to indicate a distinct idea, usually begins on a new line. For the related line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs (in JIS 4051, this is called the "paragraph line head indent") the following methods are available. The amount of space used for the indentation is, in principle, one em space using the character size in the paragraph.

  1. Line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs is applied to all paragraphs. Nearly all books and magazines make use of this method (see ).

    Example of line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs.
    Example of line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs.
    Layout example 1 of a line immediately following a written conversation.
    Layout example 1 of a line immediately following a written conversation.
    Layout example 2 of a line immediately following a written conversation.
    Layout example 2 of a line immediately following a written conversation.
  2. Line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs is not applied for any paragraph at all, and the tentsuki position is used (see ). There are examples of this method being used in certain books and magazines for the sake of styling, but this is rather hard to read.

    Example of no line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs.
    Example of no line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs.
  3. In principle, line head indent is applied at the beginning of a paragraph. However, a paragraph immediately following a tentsuki-set heading is also set tentsuki, so that the beginning of the heading and the paragraph are aligned (see ). In some books and magazines this method is applied to text in horizontal writing mode.

    Example of no line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs immediately following headings.
    Example of no line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs immediately following headings.

On the other hand, for example with itemization, there is also the method that indents the second and following lines of the paragraph (see ). This is the so-called "questions and answer" (Q&A) form. It has the effect that numbers (if used) stand out.

Layout example for itemization.
Layout example for itemization.

3.5.2 Line Head Indent and Line End Indent

The line head indent is the indentation of the line head by a fixed amount, starting from the line head side of the hanmen (in the case of one column) or of the column area (in the case of several columns). In contrast, the indentation of the line end position by a fixed amount, starting from the line head, is called line end indent.

There are examples of line head indent for quotations in separate lines (see ) or for headings in separate lines. Line end indent is used, for example, for headings or for quotations in separate lines.

Example of line head indent for a quotation in a separate line.
Example of line head indent for a quotation in a separate line.

Single Line Alignment Processing

The Japanese "single line alignment method" is a process for setting alignment for a run of text that is shorter than a given line length. This method is frequently used for headings and poems. The following methods are available (see ).

Single line alignment processing.
Single line alignment processing.
  1. Centering: The space between adjacent characters is, in principle, set solid. (If space is needed between Japanese text and western text, before opening brackets (cl-01) and after closing brackets (cl-02), that space is inserted based on the table in .) Also, if there is an explicit instruction to insert spaces, such spaces are inserted. If there is not solid setting but a fixed space between characters, this is used; the amount of space at the line head and line end is made equal, and the center of the character sequence is unified with the center of the line.

  2. Line head alignment: The space between adjacent characters is, in principle, set solid. (If space is needed between Japanese text and western text, before opening brackets (cl-01) and after closing brackets (cl-02), that space is inserted based on the table in .) Also, if there is an explicit instruction to insert spaces, such spaces are inserted. If there is not solid setting but a fixed space between characters, this is used; the start of the character sequence is unified with the line head, and if the line is not full, the line end is kept empty.

  3. Line end alignment: The space between adjacent characters is, in principle, set solid. (If space is needed between Japanese text and western text, before opening brackets (cl-01) and after closing brackets (cl-02), that space is inserted based on the table in .) Also, if there is an explicit instruction to insert spaces, such spaces are inserted. If there is not solid setting but a fixed space between characters, this is used; the end of the character sequence is unified with the line end, and if the line is not full, the line head is kept empty.

  4. Even inter-character spacing: The space between adjacent characters is, in principle, set solid. (If space is needed between Japanese text and western text, before opening brackets (cl-01) and after closing brackets (cl-02), that space is inserted based on the table in .) Also, if there is an explicit instruction to insert spaces, such spaces are inserted. In addition, using the space made available during line adjustment processing, equal character spacing is applied where possible. The start of the character sequence is aligned to the position of the line head, and the end of the character sequence to the position of the line end.

Example of Haiku positioning with even inter-character spacing.
Example of Haiku positioning with even inter-character spacing.

Widow Adjustment of Paragraphs

The intent of widow adjustment of paragraphs is to avoid that the last line of a paragraph contains less than a given number of characters. This is also called "widow" processing.

Example of just one character on a page just before a page break (to be avoided).
Example of just one character on a page just before a page break (to be avoided).

Tab Setting

Usage of Tab Setting

Tab setting is useful for alignment of table data, itemized lists, etc. where a series of characters need to be set at specific alignment positions within a line (see ).

Example of tab setting.
Example of tab setting.

For tab setting, it is necessary to identify tab positions, tab types (how to align the characters in the tab position), and the characters to be set. For this purpose, it is necessary to insert a tab sign before the tabbed character. The series of characters just after the tab sign are the target characters (see ). If there is more than one tab sign, it is necessary to set the same numbers of tab positions and tab types as the number of tab signs.

Tab signs and the target text of tab setting.
Tab signs and the target text of tab setting.

Types of Tab Settings

There are the following types of tab setting to align texts.

  1. Start alignment tab setting: the start position of the text is aligned to the tab position (see ).

    Examples of start alignment tab settings.
    Examples of start alignment tab settings.
  2. End alignment tab setting: the end position of the text is aligned to the tab position (see ).

    Examples of end alignment tab settings.
    Examples of end alignment tab settings.
  3. Center alignment tab setting: the center of the text is aligned to the tab position (see ).

    Examples of center alignment tab settings.
    Examples of center alignment tab settings.
  4. Alignment with a specified character tab setting: the start position of a specified character or sign (for example, a period) in the text is aligned to the tab position (see ).

    Examples of specified character alignment tab settings.
    Examples of specified character alignment tab settings.

The Method of Setting the Target Text

Set the text from the line head to the position before the tab sign in the first tab position, set the text from the first tab sign to the next tab sign in the second tab position, and so on. The behavior of opening brackets (cl-01) and closing brackets (cl-02), etc. is same as for the main text.

Following are some examples. The behavior of text before and after the tab positions are very difficult to anticipate, so it is necessary to design using trial and error.

  1. If the target string is the first series of the line, the characters should be set in the first tab position from the start of the line, and so on, one after another (see ).

    Example of tab setting 1.
    Example of tab setting 1.
  2. If the target string of text is too long to be set before the next tab position and overflows, the next string of text is aligned to the tag position after the end of the preceding string (see ).

    Example of tab setting 2.
    Example of tab setting 2.
  3. If the beginning of the string overlaps with the end of the preceding string as the result of the tab setting indication, the following string is set just after the preceding string (see ).

    Example of tab setting 3.
    Example of tab setting 3.
  4. If there is no tab position corresponding to the target string, the string should be set from the tab position of the next line, and so forth (see ).

    Example for tab setting 4.
    Example for tab setting 4.

Other Rules of Japanese Typesetting

Superscripts and Superscripts

Superscripts and subscripts are small letters associated with base characters, and typically used to indicate SI unit symbols, or used for mathematical or chemical formulae.

Superscripts and subscripts are usually set after the base character, with some exceptions for chemical formulae (which appear before the base character). They should be set solid.

For examples of superscripts and subscripts see . In this document, superscripts and subscripts and their base characters are handled as ornamented character complex (cl-21) characters.

Examples of superscripts and subscripts.
Examples of superscripts and subscripts.

JIS X 4051 specifies the character size and the block direction positioning of superscripts and subscripts alongside the base character to be implementation definable parameters. However it is recommended that the size of superscripts and subscripts are around 60% of the base character, depending on the size of the base character.

It is prohibited to break lines within an ornamented character complex (cl-21) sequence. Also, it is prohibited to use inter-character spacing within an ornamented character complex (cl-21) sequence for line adjustment.

Furiwake Processing

Furiwake is a typesetting style for setting multiple phrases or sentences in the middle of a line. Furiwake is also used to indicate options (see ). Study guides, manuals and reference books sometimes use furiwake. In many furiwake styles, multiple lines are indicated with opening brackets (cl-01) and closing brackets (cl-02), etc.

Example of furiwake.
Example of furiwake.

Furiwake is usually done as follows (see ). In this document, the lines which combine to make the furiwake are called furiwake-gyou.

  1. The character size of the furiwake-gyou is usually the same as that of the base paragraph. Sometimes, the furiwake-gyou is a little bit smaller than the size of the base paragraph. Sometimes, the font style of the furiwake-gyou is different typeface the style of the base paragraph.

  2. In the same furiwake block, the top positions of all the furiwake-gyou lines are aligned.

  3. The line length of the furiwake block is the line length of the longest furiwake-gyou. However, it is permitted to indicate the length of the furiwake block, and break the furiwake-gyou lines. In this style, the start positions of the broken lines should be explicitly indicated. When there are line break marks in the furiwake-gyou, the line is broken in the indicated places. In this style, the start positions of the wrapped lines are aligned to the first line. The space between wrapped lines should be set solid.

  4. The line-feed space of each furiwake block should be explicitly indicated.

  5. The center line of the furiwake block should be aligned with the center line of the main text.

  6. When the furiwake block is enclosed by opening brackets (cl-01) and closing brackets (cl-02), etc. the width of brackets should be the same as the width of the furiwake block.

  7. One furiwake block should be set per base text line. One furiwake block should not be extended across multiple base text lines.

Setting method of furiwake.
Setting method of furiwake.

The size of the line-feed space of the paragraph which contains the furiwake block, should be explicitly indicated. The space should be decided by considering the content of the furiwake block, and may therefore differ from the size of the line-feed space of kihon-hanmen.

In general, the width of the furiwake block is larger than the width of an inline cutting note block. However, unlike in the case of the inline cutting block, the whole furiwake block should be set inside of the kihon-hanmen, or a column of the kihon-hanmen Setting a furiwake block that extends beyond the border of the kihon-hanmen is prohibited.

Jidori Processing

In cases such as lists of names of Japanese people, the length of some part of the text may be explicitly defined. In such cases, different numbers of characters are set, using adjustment of the inter-character spacing, so that they are all aligned to the same length. This is called jidori processing (see ).

Example 1 of jidori processing.
Example 1 of jidori processing.

Sometimes, in horizontal writing mode, text in running heads (with the exception of chapter and section numbers) are set using jidori processing. For example, three to six characters are set in a 7 character space (based on the size of the characters in the running head (see ). Two characters are set in a 6 character space to avoid too much space. Seven characters are set solid in a seven character space, and eight or more characters are set solid in a space of eight or more characters. This rule can be applied to other numbers of characters, such as five, six and eight.

Example 2 of jidori processing.
Example 2 of jidori processing.

Jidori processing should be done as follows:

  1. The length for the jidori processing should be defined as a whole number of full-width characters at the size defined for the surrounding text.

  2. The jidori text should be adjusted using spacing between characters so that the sides of the text are aligned at the defined length. The following, however, should be set solid:

    1. Positions where line breaks are prohibited: inter-character spaces between European numerals; between two EM DASH "—" characters; between two TWO DOT LEADER "‥" characters; between two HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS "…" characters; and so on. These sequences should be treated as a single block.

      Examples of jidori processing including opening brackets and closing brackets.
      Examples of jidori processing including opening brackets and closing brackets.
    2. Where Western word space (cl-26) or full-width ideographic space (cl-14) are inserted, add the same space as for other inter-character spaces to the value of the Western word space or the full-width ideographic space.

  3. If there is only one character, it should be aligned to the left of the jidori block.

Processing of Math Symbols and Math Operators

Math symbols and math operators, such as EQUALS SIGN "=", APPROXIMATELY EQUAL TO OR THE IMAGE OF "≒", PLUS SIGN "+" and MINUS SIGN "−" are commonly used not only for scientific and technical documents but also for ordinary books. In the Japanese composition system, there are two different groups of math symbols, which are each treated differently. So in this document math symbols are classified into two different classes; math symbols (cl-17) and math operators (cl-18).

Composition rules for math symbols (cl-17) and math operators (cl-18) are as follows:

  1. The width of math symbols (cl-17) and math operators (cl-18) is full-width, i.e. one em (see ).

  2. The inter-character space between math symbols (cl-17) or math operators (cl-18) and before and after adjacent characters, such as grouped numerals (cl-24), Western characters (cl-27), and ornamented character complex (cl-21) in one line is set solid (see ). However, when the top and/or the bottom of the mathematical formula is grouped numerals (cl-24) or Western characters (cl-27), the space between ideographic characters (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) is quarter em space.

    Example of math symbols and math operators set within an ordinary line.
    Example of math symbols and math operators set within an ordinary line.
    Example of math symbols and math operators set within an ordinary line.
    Example of math symbols and math operators set within an ordinary line.
  3. When math formulae or chemical formulae are set in one independent line, the inter-character space between math symbols (cl-17) and adjacent grouped numerals (cl-24), Western characters (cl-27) and ornamented character complex (cl-21) is quarter em. Also, when math formulae or chemical formulae are set in an individual line, the inter-character space between math operators (cl-18) and adjacent grouped numerals (cl-24), Western characters (cl-27) or ornamented character complex (cl-21) is set solid.

    Example of math symbols and math operators in one independent line.
    Example of math symbols and math operators in one independent line.
    Another example of setting math symbols  and math operators in one independent formula line.
    Another example of setting math symbols and math operators in one independent formula line.
  4. A line can be broken between math symbols (cl-17) or math operators (cl-18) and adjacent grouped numerals (cl-24), Western characters (cl-27) or ornamented character complex (cl-21).

Line Adjustment

Necessity for Line Adjustment

Line adjustment processing is applied where inter-character adjustments are needed to bring the line end into the correct alignment, e.g. because of line wrap or other reasons. Within a paragraph, lines are created by separating character sequences at places where line breaking is not prohibited. Except for the end of the last line of a paragraph, it is necessary to set the head and end of each line at predicable, aligned positions. For the last line of the paragraph, it is still necessary to set the head at the aligned position, however the line end need not aligned to the other alignment position. To achieve this, only inter-character spacing indicated in the table of , or explicitly chosen space sizes, are inserted, and other inter-character spaces are set solid.

There are various reasons for line adjustment processing. Examples of the most important ones will be given below.

  1. Mixed use of characters and symbols (e.g. grouped numerals (cl-24) or Western characters (cl-27)) where not all characters are full-width (see ).

    Example of grouped numerals and Western characters.
    Example of grouped numerals and Western characters.
  2. Sequences of punctuation marks. For example, a sequence of a closing bracket (cl-02) and a full stop (cl-06) takes one and a half em spaces together (see ). However, if an opening bracket (cl-01) follows immediately after the full stop, these punctuation marks will need two em size spaces together. Hence, no adjustment is needed to correctly align the line end (see ).

    Examples of sequences of punctuation marks.
    Examples of sequences of punctuation marks.
  3. Mixtures of characters with different sizes (see ).

    Example of characters within brackets which are made a level smaller than the normal character size.
    Example of characters within brackets which are made a level smaller than the normal character size.
  4. Cases where line head wrapping, line end wrapping or unbreakable character sequences should not be broken (see ).

Reduction and Addition of Inter-Character Space

Line adjustment processing targets places with a predefined space size or solid setting. Methods for line adjustment are as follows.

  1. Line adjustment by inter-character space reduction. This means that a half em space is reduced after commas (cl-07) or closing brackets (cl-02), or before opening brackets (cl-01), and Western word space (cl-26) is reduced within a defined limit.

  2. Line adjustment by inter-character space expansion. Line adjustment by inter-character space expansion means expanding inter-character space for line adjustment, where inter-character space is allowed to be extended up to a defined limit, such as for Western word space (cl-26) or other places where it is not prohibited to extend inter-character space.

Normally line adjustment by inter-character space reduction is preferred. Only when there are no spaces that can be reduced is line adjustment by inter-character space expansion applied. The reason for the preference of line adjustment by inter-character space reduction comes from the thinking that characters in solid setting should not have more inter character space, if at all possible.

Examples of line adjustment by hanging punctuation.
Examples of line adjustment by hanging punctuation.

Procedures for Inter-Character Space Reduction

For line adjustment by inter-character space reduction decisions must first be made about the preferred order in which reduction processing options are applied, and the maximum amount of space reduction needed. Inter-character space reduction is processed with following priorities.

  1. Western word space (cl-26), which is usually one third em, is reduced by equal amounts, to leave a minimum of a quarter em space between words. The same space reduction is applied to all spaces on the target line at the same time.

  2. The half em space after closing brackets (cl-02),commas (cl-07) and full stops (cl-06) at the end of a line, is deleted and set solid.

  3. The quarter em spaces both before and after the middle dots (cl-05) are deleted and set solid.

  4. The quarter em space before or after middle dots (cl-05), in the middle of a line, is reduced equally with proportional character size as far as solid setting.

  5. The half em spaces before opening brackets (cl-01) or after closing brackets (cl-02) or commas (cl-07), in the middle of a line, are reduced equally with proportional character size, as far as solid setting.

  6. The quarter em space between Japanese text (hiragana (cl-15), katakana (cl-16) and ideographic characters (cl-19)) and Latin script text (grouped numerals (cl-24), Western characters (cl-27) and unit symbols (cl-25)), is reduced equally with proportional character size, as far as one eighth em space.

In JIS X 4051, the space after closing brackets (cl-02), commas (cl-07) and middle dots (cl-05) at the end of a line are set solid, and the space after commas (cl-07) at the end of a line is set to a half em. Accordingly, JIS X 4051 defines the priority of processing as follows:

  1. Western word space (cl-26), which is usually one third em, is reduced by equal amounts, to leave a minimum of a quarter em space between words.

  2. The quarter em space before and after middle dots (cl-05) is reduced equally with proportional character size as far as solid setting.

  3. The half em spaces before opening brackets (cl-01) and after closing brackets (cl-02) or commas (cl-07), are reduced equally with proportional character size as far as solid setting.

  4. The quarter em spaces between Japanese text (hiragana (cl-15), katakana (cl-16) and ideographic characters (cl-19)) and Latin script text (grouped numerals (cl-24), Western characters (cl-27) and unit symbols (cl-25)) are reduced equally with proportional character size, as far as a 1/8th em space.

Procedures for Inter-Character Space Expansion

As with line adjustment by inter-character space reduction, for line adjustment by inter-character space expansion at first the order of processing and the maximum amount of space to be added are defined. In JIS X 4051, the following processing order is defined.

  1. Western word space (cl-26), which is usually one third em, is added equally with proportional character size up to a maximum of a half em size for each space.

  2. The quarter em space between Japanese text (hiragana (cl-15), katakana (cl-16) and ideographic characters (cl-19)) and Latin script text (grouped numerals (cl-24), Western characters (cl-27) and unit symbols (cl-25)) is increased equally with proportional character size, up to half em space (or one third em space).

  3. For places which do not fall under (a) or (b) and which do not have the inseparable character rule (bunrikinshi), space is added equally with proportional character size up to a quarter em space.

  4. In addition to the adaptation in the manner of (a), (b) and (c), in cases where such processing is not possible, space is added equally with proportional character size, with the exception of places which require the inseparable character rule (bunrikinshi).

About Character Classes

Differences in Positioning of Characters and Symbols

The positioning of characters and symbols may vary depending on the following.

  1. Is the character width full-width, half-width, or something else?

  2. Is it allowed or forbidden to place the character or symbol at the line head? If it is allowed, how will it be placed?

  3. Is it allowed or forbidden to place the character or symbol at the line end? If it is allowed, how will it be placed?

  4. Are characters and symbols appearing in sequence in solid setting, or will there be a fixed size space between them? For example, sequences of ideographic characters (cl-19) and hiragana (cl-15) are set solid, and for Western characters (cl-27) following hiragana (cl-15) there will be quarter em space.

  5. Is it allowed to have a line break within a sequence of characters? For example, there must not be a line break in a sequence of grouped numerals (cl-24).

  6. Is it allowed to use the space between characters in a sequence during line adjustment processing? For example, is inter-character space reduction or addition possible between the characters appearing in sequence? Another issue to be decided is the preferred order for adjustment processing, and the amount of the allowed adjustment.

Grouping of Characters and Symbols depending on their Positioning

During layout processing, the issues mentioned in the previous section are addressed by grouping characters and symbols according to their characteristics, and handling them as character classes.

JIS X 4051 also provides similar character classes but that are slightly different from this document. Furthermore JIS X 4051 states that it is implementation-defined how to handle characters that are not explicitly mentioned, e.g. whether they should belong to either class or not.

A few character classes of this document are modified from JIS X 4051. In , there is a whole mapping table to ISO/IEC 10646 Annex A collection 285 (BASIC JAPANESE) and collection 286 (JAPANESE NON IDEOGRAPHIC EXTENSION). All character classes of this document are as follows:

  1. Opening brackets (cl-01)

    ‘“(〔[{〈《「『【 etc.

  2. Closing brackets (cl-02)

    ’”)〕]}〉》」』】 etc.

  3. Hyphens (cl-03)

    ‐〜 etc.

  4. Dividing punctuation marks (cl-04)

    ?! etc.

  5. Middle dots (cl-05)

    ・:;

  6. Full stops (cl-06)

    。.

  7. Commas (cl-07)

    、,

  8. Inseparable characters (cl-08)

    —…‥ etc.

  9. Iteration marks (cl-09)

    ヽヾゝゞ々 etc.

  10. Prolonged sound marks (cl-10)

  11. Small kana (cl-11)

    ぁぃぅぇぉァィゥェォっゃゅょッャュョ etc.

  12. Prefixed abbreviations (cl-12)

    ¥$£# etc.

  13. Postfixed abbreviations (cl-13)

    °′″℃¢%‰ etc.

  14. Full-width ideographic space (cl-14)

    U+3000 IDEOGRAPHIC SPACE

  15. Hiragana (cl-15)

    あいうえおかがきぎ etc.

  16. Katakana (cl-16)

    アイウエオカガキギ etc.

  17. Math symbols (cl-17)

    =≠<>≦≧⊆⊇∪∩ etc.

  18. Math operators (cl-18)

    +-÷× etc.

  19. Ideographic characters (cl-19)

    亜唖娃阿哀愛挨〃仝〆♂♀ etc.

  20. Characters as reference marks (cl-20)

    Characters which are inside verification seal (those are characters inside a verification seal that appear in the line just after the item applicable for reference marks of notes). See 4.2.2 Note Numbers.

  21. Ornamented character complexes (cl-21)

  22. Simple-ruby character complexes (cl-22)

  23. Jukugo-ruby character complexes (cl-23)

  24. Grouped numerals (cl-24)

    Sequences of European numerals which are not full-width and are handled as Japanese text, the decimal point or the comma and space used as grade indicator in number.

  25. Unit symbols (cl-25)

    Units described here include combinations of Latin script and Greek script characters used for international units (SI).

    Example of a unit which encompasses a full-width unit character (upper part) and characters for Latin script text (lower part).
    Example of a unit which encompasses a full-width unit character (upper part) and characters for Latin script text (lower part).
  26. Western word space (cl-26)

  27. Western characters (cl-27)

  28. Warichu opening brackets (cl-28)

    (〔[ etc.

  29. Warichu closing brackets (cl-29)

    )〕] etc.

  30. Characters in tate-chu-yoko (cl-30)

Positioning Methods for each Character Class

For each character class it is possible to describe whether the characters may appear at the line head or line end or not, the positioning method for the line head or line end positions (if available), the amount of space between sequences of several characters, and the combination with character classes before or after the characters (in a 2 dimensional table). In JIS X 4051 this is shown in table 5 "Amount of space (between characters)".

Also, it can be defined for each combination of the character classes (in a two dimensional table) whether the characters of classes appearing in sequence allow for a line break between them, or whether it is possible during line adjustment processing to add inter character space between them. In JIS X 4051 these items are also shown in a two dimensional table. Table 6 shows whether a line break is possible, and table 7 shows if it is possible to add inter character space.

The width, in principle, of the space between each character or symbol in character classes used in this document is described in the table of .

The combinations of adjacent characters and symbols in character classes used in this document, and where text is breakable or not, is described in the table of .

The width of spaces between each character or symbol in character classes used in this document, and which can be reduced, is described in the table of . Also, expandable spaces are described in the table of .

Positioning of Headings, Notes, Illustrations, Tables and Paragraphs

Handling of Headings (including Page Breaks)

Types of Headings

In terms of text composition, there are four types of headings.

  1. Naka-tobira or han-tobira

  2. Block headings

  3. Run-in headings

  4. Cut-in headings

Naka-tobira is used to separate sections of books. One whole odd page is used for the section title and the following even page is left blank. Naka-tobira sometimes includes author's names and illustrations, in addition to the section title (see ). Some kinds of book, such as encyclopedias, dictionaries and annual reports, use a different kind of paper from that in the main text.

An example naka-tobira
An example naka-tobira

Han-tobira is a simplified naka-tobira. The following even page is not blank, and is used for the main text.

Most books are usually set using naka-tobira or han-tobira, even when sections need not be separated with naka-tobira. In such cases, at the very top of the main text, namely just after the front matter, one naka-tobira is commonly set to show the book title itself.

A block heading is the heading occupying a whole, independent line. The main text is set from the very next line. Top level headings and medium level headings are of this type (see ).

An example of block heading
An example of block heading
An example with Spanning block heading
An example with Spanning block heading

A run-in heading is a heading immediately followed by main text without a line break, and is usually used as a low level heading (see ). Note that a low level heading can also appear as a block heading.

An example of run-in heading.
An example of run-in heading.

A drop heading is a somewhat modified run-in heading style. The footprint of the heading is followed by two or three main text lines without line breaks, like drop caps (see ). Drop headings are usually used for low level headings.

An example of cut-in heading
An example of cut-in heading

Elements of Block Heading

JIS X 4051 describes the elements of a block heading as follows: top level heading, medium level heading and low level heading have to have a label name, number, heading title and heading sub-title (see ). Note that the label name, number and heading sub-title are not mandatory.

Elements of block heading
Elements of block heading

There are several different styles of heading as follows: the heading is enclosed with symbols at the top and the bottom, rules (or thin lines) are inserted before and after the heading line, or the heading is enclosed with rectangular rules (or thin lines).

Font Selection and Heading Font Size

Headings have a hierarchical structure. So, each level of heading has to have an appropriate visual style. The following issues have to be considered:

  1. Character size for the heading

    The character size of headings should be selected as appropriate in accordance with the level of headings. For example, when the character size of main text is 9 point, the small-headings are usually set with 10 points, medium-headings are usually set with 12 points and large-headings are usually set with 14 points. The character size of headings is usually larger than main text, and the character size of higher level headings are larger than the size of smaller size headings. is an example of this principle.

    An example of different character sizes corresponding to the heading levels
    An example of different character sizes corresponding to the heading levels
  2. Type faces for headings

    Both mincho and Japanese gothic are usually used. Other type face designs are seldom used.

    An example of same mincho but different weight for headings
    An example of same mincho but different weight for headings
  3. Alignment of headings (inline direction)

    In the case of horizontal writing mode, large-headings and medium-headings are in most cases centre-aligned. In the case of vertical writing mode, headings are usually aligned to the line head with some indent.

    An example of indented heading
    An example of indented heading
  4. Block direction footprint of headings

    Generally, the block direction footprint of any element of layout, including figures, notes and headings, should be aligned to the line positions of the kihon-hanmen. Accordingly, the block direction space is set based on a number of lines in the kihon-hanmen. This method is usually called "gyou-dori". "Gyou-dori" is a very complicated issue, and provokes much discussion, so the detail will be discussed in another section with examples. Details will be discussed in and .

  5. The beginning position of headings around page breaks etc.

    The handling of headings around page breaks and other places will be discussed in .

  6. At any level, when the number of characters for a heading is two or three, the heading is sometimes set with fixed inter-character spacing. Examples are shown below (see ).

    An example of a heading with fixed inter-character spacing
    An example of a heading with fixed inter-character spacing
  7. Whether to decorate with solid lines, or give a symbol on the top of the heading.

How to Handle Headings with New Recto, Page Break and New Column

A large heading sometimes starts with a new page following a page break, to clarify the separation between sections. The processing below should be followed:

  1. Always begin with odd pages, i.e. new recto. Used for Naka-tobira, han-tobira and large-heading.

    An example of new recto (vertical writing mode)
    An example of new recto (vertical writing mode)
  2. Always begin with new pages, regardless of even pages or odd pages, i.e. page breaking. Used for large-heading.

  3. Always begin with even pages. Used for magazines articles beginning a spread page. Begin with right pages when in vertical writing mode and bound on the right-hand side. Begin with left pages when in horizontal writing mode and bound on the left-hand side.

  4. In multicolumn format, begin with a new column.

  5. Following previous text (see ), i.e. "nariyuki". Medium-headings and small-headings are usually processed with "nariyuki". Note that medium-headings are sometimes processed with a page break. Even when "nariyuki" mode is adopted, small-headings sometimes happen to be set at the top of new pages, also the headings at the very end of pages or columns are sometimes moved to the top of next page or column, for aesthetic reasons. (Details are described at .)

    An example of a "nariyuki" heading
    An example of a "nariyuki" heading

Handling of Spaces just before the New Recto, Page Breaks and New Edges

Spaces just before new rectos, page breaks and new columns are treated as follows (the last pages are treated as the same):

  1. In the case of single column typesetting, the spaces just before the new rectos and page breaks are left as they are (see ).

    An example of processing of the page just before a page break (one column setting)
    An example of processing of the page just before a page break (one column setting)
  2. In the case of multiple columns, the remaining space of preceding columns is left as it is.

  3. In the case of vertical writing mode, columns are filled with text lines from upper right to lower left. There is no need to align line numbers of the upper column and lower column, and remaining spaces are left as they are (see ).

    An example of text handling for vertical writing mode and multi-column format just before the page break.
    An example of text handling for vertical writing mode and multi-column format just before the page break.
  4. In horizontal writing mode and multi-column format, the number of lines for each column is set to be the same, but where the result of the total number of lines divided by the column number chosen for the kihon-hanmen results in an odd number, the last column may have a smaller number of lines and may be followed by blank space (see ).

    An example of handling of spaces just before page breaks, in the case of horizontal writing mode and multi-column format
    An example of handling of spaces just before page breaks, in the case of horizontal writing mode and multi-column format

Processing of Gyou-dori

"Gyou-dori" is the process of specifying the footprint of headings in the block direction by using the line positions provided by the kihon-hanmen as a basis and by deciding how many times they need to be used. The length of the footprint in the block direction is calculated as follows: (line width in the block direction) × (line number) + (line gap) * (line number − 1). However, when the heading footprint happens to appear in middle of the page or the column, the footprint has adjacent line gaps before and after, and when the heading footprint happens to appear at the top of the page or the column, the footprint has an adjacent line gap after.

The following procedures are some of the ways "betsugyou" headings are processed based on the "gyou-dori" method:

  1. Set the heading text at the center of the space specified with multiple lines of the kihon-hanmen. For example, when the heading is set at the center of a three line space, it is called "center of three lines space". Following are some examples (see et al). In these figures, gray rectangles indicate the main text, and dotted rectangles in the heading area indicate the space specified with kihon-hanmen text lines. Also, running headings and page numbers are indicated with gray rectangles.

  2. Set the heading text at the center of the footprint specified with a multiple number of lines of the kihon-hanmen, and add space size before and/or after also specified using numbers of lines of the kihon-hanmen. For example, when adding space corresponding to the size of one line of the kihon-hanmen, it is called a one line blank space. Following are some examples (see et al).

  3. Set the heading text in the space specified with multiple number of lines from the kihon-hanmen, with specific specifications regarding size. In this case, the size of the heading block in the block direction is the total of the previous space, the character size and the after space, and the size should be the same as the space occupied by multiple lines of the kihon-hanmen. Following are some examples (see et al).

  4. Set one line heading at the place decided by the kihon-hanmen design and set one blank line before the heading line. Blank lines may be more than one line, but such cases are very rare. This style is commonly used for small-headings. Following are some examples (see et al).

  5. When headings are on multiple levels, set "gyou-dori" headings with different line spaces per heading level. There are two cases. One is the single heading case, the other is adjacent multiple headings. In these cases, spaces in the block direction should look the same in both the single heading case and in the case of adjacent different level headings. To implement this design, in some cases, same level headings have different spaces depending on whether the heading is single or whether headings are adjacent. There are some examples in .

  6. The heading is set in a block of multiple lines, which is specified by using the line positions provided by the kihon-hanmen as a basis, but is not set in the center of the block but rather specified by specification of line numbers and spaces before and after. See an example in et al.

    Example one of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines (the heading is set around the center of the page).
    Example one of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines (the heading is set around the center of the page).
    Example two of a heading set in the center of indicated lines (The heading is set in the top of the page).
    Example two of a heading set in the center of indicated lines (The heading is set in the top of the page).
    Example three of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines (the heading, which is permitted to be set in one column of the hanmen, is set at the bottom of an even page).
    Example three of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines (the heading, which is permitted to be set in one column of the hanmen, is set at the bottom of an even page).
    Example four of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines (a heading with sub-title is set around the center of the page).
    Example four of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines (a heading with sub-title is set around the center of the page).
    Example five of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines (the heading has two lines and set in around the center of the page).
    Example five of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines (the heading has two lines and set in around the center of the page).
    Example one of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines with a blank line before (the heading is set around the center of the page).
    Example one of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines with a blank line before (the heading is set around the center of the page).
    Example two of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines with a blank line before (the heading is set in the top of the page).
    Example two of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines with a blank line before (the heading is set in the top of the page).
    Example  of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines with one blank line after (the heading is set in the top of the page).
    Example of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines with one blank line after (the heading is set in the top of the page).
    Example one of a heading set in the specified position relative to multiple lines (the heading is set in around the center of the page).
    Example one of a heading set in the specified position relative to multiple lines (the heading is set in around the center of the page).
    Example two of a heading set the specified position relative to multiple lines (the heading is set in the top of the page).
    Example two of a heading set the specified position relative to multiple lines (the heading is set in the top of the page).
    Example one of a heading with one blank line before (the heading is set in around the center of the page).
    Example one of a heading with one blank line before (the heading is set in around the center of the page).
    Example two of a heading set with one blank line before (the heading is set in the top of the page).
    Example two of a heading set with one blank line before (the heading is set in the top of the page).
    Example three of a heading set with one blank line before (the heading is set in the bottom of even page (This case is limited to vertical writing mode and one column style)).
    Example three of a heading set with one blank line before (the heading is set in the bottom of even page (This case is limited to vertical writing mode and one column style)).
    Examples of top level,  medium level and low level heading in gyou-dori style.
    Examples of top level, medium level and low level heading in gyou-dori style.
    Example one of a heading set with specification of line numbers in kihon-hanmen and blank lines before and after (the heading is set in around the center of the page).
    Example one of a heading set with specification of line numbers in kihon-hanmen and blank lines before and after (the heading is set in around the center of the page).
    Example one of instruction of line numbers in block direction for headings and blank lines before and after (The heading is set in the top of the page).
    Example one of instruction of line numbers in block direction for headings and blank lines before and after (The heading is set in the top of the page).

Processing of Gyou-dori Heading Set at the bottom of the Page

When the gyou-dori heading is set at the bottom of the page (or the top of the page), the processing is done as follows in consideration of the visual effect:

  1. Except for (d) of the previous section, when it is not possible to set the heading block at the bottom of the page, the block is set at the top of the next page and the remaining space at the bottom of the former page may be left blank (see for the case of the previous section).

  2. When there is space for the heading block at the bottom of the page but no space for following main text, in cases involving vertical writing style on an odd page, horizontal writing style on an odd page and horizontal writing style on an even page, the heading block is set at the top of the next page and remaining space at the bottom of the previous page may be left blank (see ). In the case of vertical writing style on an even page, the heading block is set at the bottom of the page.

    An example of heading blocks set at the top of even page, when the heading block is come to the bottom of odd page of vertical writing style.
    An example of heading blocks set at the top of even page, when the heading block is come to the bottom of odd page of vertical writing style.
    An example of heading set at the bottom of vertical writing style even page
    An example of heading set at the bottom of vertical writing style even page
  3. When the heading block of gyou-dori comes at the bottom of the column, the block is moved to the top of the next for reasons of visual aesthetics. The blank space of the bottom of a previous column needs some processing, however it may be left blank if there is no solution.

Processing when a One Line Space is Set Before a Low Level Heading

When a one line space is set before a low level heading, the following different cases apply when the one line space comes at the top of the page.

  1. When the low level heading with a one line space before comes at the top of the page, the one line space is always set before the heading. The reason is that the heading and the one line space before are regarded as one unified object.

    Example one of a low level heading where one blank line comes at the top of the page
    Example one of a low level heading where one blank line comes at the top of the page
  2. When a heading with one blank line comes at the top of the page, the blank line before should be deleted. At the top of the page there is already space before the line, so there is no need for an additional blank line.

    Example two of a heading with one blank line that comes at the top of the page
    Example two of a heading with one blank line that comes at the top of the page
  3. When a heading with one blank line before comes at the top of the page, if the previous page is filled with lines of text, set the blank line before the heading, and if the bottom of the previous page has one or two blank lines, set no blank line before the heading ().

    Example three of a heading with one blank line before that comes at the top of the page
    Example three of a heading with one blank line before that comes at the top of the page

Processing of Run-in Headings

Run-in headings are usually used for low level headings. The following are some examples of run-in headings. Inter-character space between the run-in heading and following main text is usually a one em space of the base character size decided for the kihon-hanmen. Note that the run-in heading may be set at the last line of the page, or of the column in multi column style.

  1. The run-in heading is set with the same character size as the main text and with Japanese gothic face (see ).

    Example one of run-in heading
    Example one of run-in heading
  2. Set the run-in heading with one level smaller character size than the main text and use Japanese gothic face (see ).

    Example two of run-in heading
    Example two of run-in heading
  3. Set the run-in heading with the same character size and type-face as the main text. Note that the heading number or Western characters (cl-27) at the top of the heading are set with Japanese gothic face or bold face, for emphasis (see ).

    Example three of run-in heading
    Example three of run-in heading

Processing of Cut-in Headings

Drop headings are also used for low level headings. A drop heading has no label name or heading number. Processing is as follows (see ):

An example of cut-in headings
An example of cut-in headings
  1. Set the cut-in heading with one rank smaller character size than the main text or the same character size as the main text, and with Japanese gothic face.

  2. It is better that the cut-in heading occupies a maximum of three lines and ten characters per line. JIS X 4051 determines that cut-in headings with up to six characters should be one line, up to twenty characters should be two lines and more than twenty-one characters should be three lines. When the cut-in heading has two lines, each line has half the number of characters of the heading text. When the cut-in heading has three lines, each line has a third of the number of characters of the heading text. If lines have a different number of characters, the last line may have less characters, and the remainder may be blank space. The line gap of two or three lines of cut-in heading is usually a fourth of an em of the heading character size.

  3. The line indent of a cut-in heading is usually a half em of the base character size for the kihon-hanmen. The in-line direction length of a cut-in heading is usually multiples of the character size for the kihon-hanmen. The space between the cut-in heading and the main text is usually more than one em and less than two em of the character size for the kihon-hanmen.

  4. When a cut-in heading has one line, the heading is set in the center of a two line space of the kihon-hanmen and two lines of main text are set following the cut-in heading. When the cut-in heading has two lines or three lines, the heading is set in the center of a three line space of the kihon-hanmen and three lines of main text follow the cut-in heading.

    An example of a one line cut-in heading
    An example of a one line cut-in heading
    An example of two lines or three lines cut-in headings
    An example of two lines or three lines cut-in headings
  5. A cut-in heading may be set at the end of a page or column. Note that if the space is less than the block direction width of the cut-in heading, the heading should be set on a new page or new column and the blank before the heading may be left as is. One cut-in heading is not set across two pages or two columns.

Processing of Column Spanning Headings

In multi-column pages, headings spanning multiple columns are processed as follows:

  1. A spanning heading spanning all columns in the kihon-hanmen is usually set at the top of the page after the page break or new recto. However, there are cases where full spanning headings are set around the middle of the page. In such cases, main text lines are turned back before the heading block, including before headings that are not full spanning headings (see ).

    Example one of spanning block heading turned back before the heading block
    Example one of spanning block heading turned back before the heading block
  2. When turning back main text before a spanning block, if the divided text lines are not same, the last column has less lines and remaining blank lines may be left as is (see ). In vertical writing mode, the column with the least number of lines is the column nearest the bottom, and in horizontal writing mode, the column with the least number of lines is the right-most column.

    Example two of turning back of main text lines before spanning block heading
    Example two of turning back of main text lines before spanning block heading
  3. The less spanning block headings are usually set in the middle of the page. In these cases, the way in which multi column heading blocks are set is decided as follows:

    1. When setting main text lines in multiple columns, if the spanning block heading appears in the first column, the spanning heading block is set to start from the first column ().

      Example one of spanning block heading started from the first column
      Example one of spanning block heading started from the first column
    2. When main text lines are set following the multi column region, if a spanning block heading does not appear in the top column, the heading is set in that column or in the previous column. If the heading block appears before the block direction center of the column, the heading is set from the previous column (see ). If the heading block appears after the block direction center of the column, the heading is set from that column itself (see ). Note that if the line direction bottom of the heading block runs out of the hanmen, the heading block is set from previous columns (see ).

      Example two of spanning block heading started from the first column
      Example two of spanning block heading started from the first column
      Example three of which  column the spanning block heading is set from
      Example three of which column the spanning block heading is set from
      Example four of which column the spanning block heading is set from
      Example four of which column the spanning block heading is set from
  4. Spanning block headings are not set at the bottom of columns. Full spanning block headings are moved to the top of the next page. The bottom of the previous page is processed in the same way as for new recto and page break cases. Less column spanning block headings are moved to other positions, usually one column down.

Processing of Notes

Kinds of Notes

The following kinds of notes are used in Japanese text layout, besides notes between LEFT PARENTHESIS "(" and RIGHT PARENTHESIS ")" or warichu:

  1. Endnotes: Notes used both in horizontal writing mode and vertical writing mode, set after a paragraph, a clause, a chapter or the whole base text. In vertical writing mode this type is most frequently used (see ). In horizontal writing mode, the frequency of this type is second after footnotes (see ).

    An example of an endnote in vertical writing mode
    An example of an endnote in vertical writing mode
    An example of an endnote in horizontal writing mode
    An example of an endnote in horizontal writing mode
  2. Headnotes (in vertical writing mode) : Notes set above the kihon-hanmen in vertical writing mode. The area for the headnote is reserved at the upper part of the kihon-hanmen when the kihon-hanmen is designed, and notes related to a page or spread are set in the same page or spread (see ). Headnotes are frequently used as explanations for words and idioms of Japanese classic texts. Japanese classic texts are sometimes set with three vertical areas, the top area is used for head notes, the middle area is used for the original text and the bottom area is used for a modern Japanese translation.

    An example of headnotes in vertical writing mode
    An example of headnotes in vertical writing mode
  3. Footnotes (in horizontal writing mode) : Notes set beneath the kihon-hanmen (see ). In horizontal writing mode, footnotes are the most frequently used note style.

    An example of a footnote in horizontal writing mode
    An example of a footnote in horizontal writing mode
  4. Footnotes (in vertical writing mode) : The area for the footnote for vertical writing mode is reserved at the bottom of the kihon-hanmen beforehand, when the kihon-hanmen is designed, and notes are set in this area. This is similar to a headnote, but the location is beneath the base text. It is used in Japanese classic texts and keimousho (enlightening books), as explanations for technical terms. When illustrations are included in the footnote, basically the illustrations should be set within the footnote area (see ).

    An example of a footnote in vertical writing mode
    An example of a footnote in vertical writing mode
  5. Sidenotes (in vertical writing mode) : In vertical writing mode, related notes in a spread are set in the fore-edge of the left (recto) page (see ). In vertical writing mode, sidenotes are not frequently used. However, this style may be used more frequently, because for the reader this style causes minimal disturbance when following the flow of the base text, and the notes can be set very near to the related base text.

    An example of a sidenote in vertical writing style
    An example of a sidenote in vertical writing style
  6. Sidenotes (in horizontal writing mode) : In horizontal writing mode an area for a sidenote is reserved at the fore-edge side when the kihon-hanmen is designed, and the notes related to the page are set in the sidenote area of the same page (). Related illustrations are also set in the area. There are cases where sidenotes in horizontal writing style are set not in the fore-edge but right side of both recto and verso pages (). There are not so many cases of sidenotes in horizontal writing style. This style is sometimes used for keimousho (enlightening books) with many illustrations.

    Example one of a sidenote in horizontal writing mode
    Example one of a sidenote in horizontal writing mode
    Example two of a sidenote in horizontal writing mode (sidenotes are set in the right side of the pages)
    Example two of a sidenote in horizontal writing mode (sidenotes are set in the right side of the pages)
An example of a note in inter lines
An example of a note in inter lines

Note Numbers

Some notes have no explicit relationship to the specific position of the base text, and describe issues only vaguely related to the issues on the same page. However, in most cases, notes are explicitly related to specific positions within the base text using note numbers.

An example of western numerals as note numbers in tate-chu-yoko style.
An example of western numerals as note numbers in tate-chu-yoko style.
An example of ideographic numerals as note numbers with hiraji shape
An example of ideographic numerals as note numbers with hiraji shape

Note numbers in corresponding positions in the base text are called reference marks. The character class of reference mark is characters as reference marks (cl-20).

There are several principles related to how to reset the series of note numbers. Endnotes are usually reset every chapter or section. Sidenotes in vertical writing mode are usually reset in every spread. Footnotes in horizontal writing mode are usually reset in every page.

Headnotes (in vertical writing mode), footnotes (vertical writing mode) and sidenotes (in horizontal writing mode) sometimes have no note numbers and are set with corresponding heading text with Japanese gothic typeface at the top of the note text (see ).

An example of a footnote (in vertical writing mode), with corresponding heading text with Japanese gothic face
An example of a footnote (in vertical writing mode), with corresponding heading text with Japanese gothic face

The Processing of the Reference Mark

There are two styles for setting reference marks (characters as reference marks (cl-20)). One is to set the reference mark adjacent to the target word and on the interlinear right side (in vertical writing mode) or interlinear upper side (in horizontal writing mode). The other is to set the reference mark in the line just after the target word.

The method where the reference mark is set on the right side (vertical writing mode) or above (horizontal writing mode) is as follows (see , ).

An example where reference marks are set in the right inter-line space in vertical writing mode
An example where reference marks are set in the right inter-line space in vertical writing mode
An example where reference marks are set in inter-line space above in horizontal writing mode
An example where reference marks are set in inter-line space above in horizontal writing mode
  1. Character size of reference marks is around 6 points.

  2. In vertical writing mode, the bottom edges of the character frames of the target word and the characters as reference marks (cl-20) are aligned. In horizontal writing mode, the right side of the characters as reference marks (cl-20) and the target word are aligned. The characters as reference marks (cl-20) are not set outside of the area of the hanmen or column, so in such cases, characters as reference marks (cl-20) are aligned at the top of the line. In this case, characters as reference marks (cl-20) may jut out of the bottom of the target word.

  3. The target word corresponding to the reference mark can be split across a line break where permitted. However, characters as reference marks (cl-20) are not split when including opening brackets (cl-01) and closing brackets (cl-02) and are treated as one object.

  4. Reference marks do not affect the default line gap.

  5. Reference marks, attached to the word set in the first line of the page or column, are set touching the outside of the hanmen or column area (see (, ).

In vertical writing mode, characters as reference marks (cl-20) are set just after the target word inline, as follows (see ):

An example of reference marks set inline just after the target word in vertical writing mode
An example of reference marks set inline just after the target word in vertical writing mode
  1. Character size of reference marks is one or two levels smaller than the character size defined for the kihon-hanmen.

  2. The right side of characters as reference marks (cl-20) is set aligned with the right side of the base character line.

  3. Characters as reference marks (cl-20) are set solid with the base text before and after, except when followed by opening brackets (cl-01) (see Appendix B Spacing between Characters).

  4. Characters as reference marks (cl-20) do not include line breaks when including opening brackets (cl-01) and closing brackets (cl-02), and are handled as one object. Characters as reference marks (cl-20) are not used for the line adjustment process, i.e., are set solid. Also, characters as reference marks (cl-20) and base characters before and after are set solid.

In horizontal writing mode, characters as reference marks (cl-20) are set inline just after the target word as follows ():

An example of reference marks set inline just after the target word in horizontal writing mode
An example of reference marks set inline just after the target word in horizontal writing mode
  1. Characters as reference marks (cl-20) are same kind to characters for superior scripts.

  2. Characters as reference marks (cl-20) and base characters before and after are set solid, except for characters as reference marks (cl-20) followed by opening brackets (cl-01).

  3. Characters as reference marks (cl-20) are not broken across a line end when including opening brackets (cl-01) and closing brackets (cl-02), and are handled as a one object. Characters as reference marks (cl-20) are not used for the line adjustment process, i.e., are set solid. Also, characters as reference marks (cl-20) and base characters before and after are set solid.

Processing of Endnotes in Vertical Writing Mode or Horizontal Writing Mode

The following figure is a common example of endnotes set at the end of paragraphs in vertical writing mode (see ).

An example of endnotes set  at the end of paragraphs in vertical writing mode
An example of endnotes set at the end of paragraphs in vertical writing mode

Specific issues related to setting endnotes in vertical writing mode or horizontal writing mode include the following:

  1. The character size of endnotes should be one or two levels smaller than the character size of the base text in the kihon-hanmen.

  2. The indent length should be around two characters sizes of the base text in the kihon-hanmen. The line length of endnotes should be an integer-based number of times the endnote character size. The bottom of the endnote line should be set aligned with the bottom edge of the kihon-hanmen or column area. Accordingly, the indent length of endnotes needs to be adjusted and the length may sometimes differ by an integer-based number of units based on the base character size of the kihon-hanmen.

  3. The inter-letter space after the head endnote number is usually the size of a full-width character of the endnote.

  4. When the endnote is two lines or more, the second line and after are indented one or two full-width character sizes longer than the first line.

  5. Line gaps of endnotes are narrower than the line gap of the kihon-hanmen because of the smaller character size of endnotes.

  6. When new chapters are begun after a page break or new recto, endnotes are set just before the page or page break or new recto, and the space after the endnote may be left as is. Only the line gap between the base text and the endnote should be specified. However, when the endnotes are set between paragraphs, the line gap before and after the endnote becomes an issue. Basically, the minimum size of line gaps between the endnote and the base text, before and after, is the line gap decided for the kihon-hanmen, and usually, the line at the end of the hanmen or a column is aligned with the bottom of the hanmen or the column. In these cases, the fraction of line gap is basically adjusted by the increase of the line gap after the endnote, but when the endnote comes to the end of the hanmen or the column, the line gap before the endnote is increased ().

    An example of the handling of line gaps before and after  endnotes
    An example of the handling of line gaps before and after endnotes

Processing of Footnotes in Horizontal Writing Mode

Setting positions of footnotes in horizontal writing mode are at the bottom of the hanmen in the page where the target words and the reference marks appear in one column, and at the bottom of the column space where the target words and the reference marks appear in two or more columns. When footnotes overflow from the hanmen or the column, the overflowed part of the footnotes is inserted before the footnotes of the next page or next column.

Example one of footnotes in multiple columns
Example one of footnotes in multiple columns
Example two of footnotes in multiple columns
Example two of footnotes in multiple columns
Example one of footnotes before page break or new recto
Example one of footnotes before page break or new recto
Example two of footnotes before page break or new recto
Example two of footnotes before page break or new recto

Following figure is an common example of footnotes in horizontal writing mode (see ).

An example of footnotes in single column horizontal writing mode
An example of footnotes in single column horizontal writing mode

The following items are outstanding issues when setting footnotes in horizontal writing mode:

  1. The character size of footnotes is one or two levels smaller than the character size of the base text in the kihon-hanmen.

  2. Usually footnotes are accompanied by lines to separate the base text and footnotes (i.e. rules), indentation is not needed. However because the line length of footnotes should be multiples of the character size of footnotes, the difference in line length of the base text and line length of footnotes is adjusted with the insertion of left side spaces and the bottom of footnote is aligned with the kihon-hanmen or column area.

  3. The inter-character space between footnote numbers at the top of the line and footnote text is usually a full-width of footnote text character in size.

  4. When a footnote has two or more lines, the second line or below is indented by one em space, or the first line is indented by one em space of footnote character size ().

    Examples of indents of footnotes, first line indentation and second line and below indentation
    Examples of indents of footnotes, first line indentation and second line and below indentation
  5. Line gaps of footnotes are narrower according to the smaller size of footnote characters. The line gap of footnotes is recommended to be a half em of a footnote character size or slightly narrower, depending on the base text line gap.

  6. A line called a rule is inserted between the base text and footnotes to distinguish the footprint of the footnotes. For this purpose, a thin border is used. The length of the line is usually one third of the line length of the kihon-hanmen, depending on the kihon-hanmen design. The left side of the line is aligned to the left side of the hanmen or column. The line gap between the line and the footnote is slightly wider than the usual line gap among footnotes.

  7. The minimum size of line gaps among base text, the rule, and footnotes is a line gap size of the base text in the kihon-hanmen. The bottom line of footnotes is aligned to the edge of the kihon-hanmen or column area. Accordingly, fractions will appear. This fraction is inserted between the base text area and the rule. Accordingly, the fraction between the rule and the base text area will change between the line gap of the kihon-hanmen and the character size plus line gap of the kihon-hanmen.

Processing of Sidenotes in Vertical Writing Mode

The following figure is a common example of sidenotes in vertical writing mode (see ).

An example of sidenotes in vertical writing mode
An example of sidenotes in vertical writing mode

Side notes in vertical writing mode are similar to footnotes in horizontal writing mode. Accordingly, general methods for footnotes in horizontal writing mode can be applied to sidenotes in vertical writing mode. The following items are outstanding issues only applied to sidenotes in vertical writing mode:

  1. Side notes in vertical writing mode are set at the left side of the odd page of the spread to which corresponding reference marks appear. In multiple columns, sidenotes are aligned to the left side of the lowest column.

  2. When the volume of sidenotes is too great, the sidenotes may overflow to the even page. In multiple columns, the sidenotes may overflow to the column above.

  3. When it is not possible to set any sidenotes or some of the sidenotes in a spread, the overflowed part may be inserted before the sidenotes corresponding to the next reference mark in an odd page or the lowest column in an odd page of the next spread.

  4. In pages just before a page break or a new recto, the sidenotes are set in the last page of the section following the base text, even if the last page is even. If it is not possible to set the side notes in the page, the part of the notes that juts out is set from the top of the next page or the top of the first column, then the page is followed by page break or new recto.

  5. In the above cases, the remaining space is usually inserted after the sidenote, unlike the case where footnotes are inserted between the base text and the footnotes in horizontal writing mode.

  6. A thin line is inserted between the base text and sidenotes to distinguish them. The line is a thin border. The length of the line depends on the line length of the kihon-hanmen, but is usually one third of the line length, and the top end of the line is aligned to the top edge of the kihon-hanmen. It is recommended that the gap between the line and the sidenotes is a little bit wider than for footnote cases.

  7. The minimum value of the line gap between the line to distinguish the base text and sidenotes is the value of line gap decided in the kihon-hanmen. The left side of the last line of the sidenotes is aligned to the left edge of the kihon-hanmen or the column. Accordingly, a fraction space in the block direction is inserted between the base text area and the rule, and the fraction between the rule and the base text area will change between the line gap of the kihon-hanmen and the character size plus line gap of the kihon-hanmen.

Processing of Headnotes (in Vertical Writing Mode), Footnotes (in Vertical Writing Mode) and Sidenotes (in Horizontal Writing Mode)

Processing of headnotes in vertical writing mode, footnotes in vertical writing mode and sidenotes in horizontal writing mode is very similar, so these processing methods will be described together in this section. These types of notes will be called parallel-notes, hereafter.

There are the following relationships between the parallel-note and the main text:

  1. Setting the note number as a reference mark: Set a number as a reference mark (characters as reference marks (cl-20) at the corresponding main text position, and set the same number at the very top of the parallel-note.

  2. Setting symbols as a reference mark: Set a symbol (ex. ASTERISK "*") beside the corresponding main text position or change the font style or corresponding main text position to another font style (ex. Japanese Gothic) (, ).

    Examples of numbers and a symbol to indicate corresponding reference marks
    Examples of numbers and a symbol to indicate corresponding reference marks
    Examples of changed font style to indicate corresponding reference marks
    Examples of changed font style to indicate corresponding reference marks
  3. Set parallel-notes in the same spread where the corresponding main text positions appear without reference marks. Only the key words are emphasized with a difference of font style (ex. Japanese Gothic).

There are some issues specific to setting parallel-notes as follows:

  1. The character size of parallel-notes is one or two ranks smaller than the character size of main text in the kihon-hanmen.

  2. The line length of parallel-notes is an integer based multiple of the character size of notes. It depends on the book size; around fifteen characters to twenty characters in a line is recommended. In some cases around twenty five characters is acceptable.

  3. The line gap of parallel-notes is basically a half em of the character size of the parallel-notes. When the volume of parallel-notes is high, there are cases of one third em.

  4. The size of the parallel-note area in the block direction is the same as the size of the main text in the kihon-hanmen.

  5. It is recommended to set the space between parallel-notes and the main text in inline direction at around double the em character size of the main text in the kihon-hanmen.

  6. Usually, indentation of the second line and after, like end notes, is not applied to parallel-notes. In the majority of cases, the first line of a parallel-note is set as tentsuki. There are cases where the first line is indented by one a em character size of the parallel-notes, like common paragraphs.

  7. The inter-letter space between the note number and the following parallel-note text is around one em of a parallel-note character size. There are cases where the note number and target word are changed to a different font style (ex. Japanese Gothic) and the note number and the target word are set solid. The inter-letter space between the target word and parallel-note text is one em of the parallel-note text size (see ).

    Examples of headnotes in vertical writing mode
    Examples of headnotes in vertical writing mode

The setting of parallel-notes and the main text area is as follows:

  1. The position of target text and the position of a parallel-note in block direction are aligned as near as possible. In vertical writing mode, the right edge of the target word and the right edge of the parallel-note are aligned. In horizontal writing mode, the upper edge of the target word and the upper edge of the parallel-note are aligned (see ).

    Example one of headnotes in vertical writing mode
    Example one of headnotes in vertical writing mode
  2. After these methods are applied, if the parallel-note text overflows, there needs to be some arrangement to handle that within the page. In vertical writing mode, the parallel-note positions are shifted to the right, and in horizontal writing mode, the parallel-note positions are shift above (see ). This arrangement is done until the first parallel-note reaches the right edge in vertical writing mode or the top edge in horizontal writing mode. If there is more overflow, the overflowed part of the parallel-notes is set at the top of the next page. In vertical writing mode, arrangements may be applied not within the page but within the spread.

    Example two of headnote in vertical writing mode
    Example two of headnote in vertical writing mode
  3. When there are multiple parallel-notes set in the same page or the same spread, the following methods are applied:

    1. The line gap between the two different parallel-notes is explicitly specified, or the value for the line gap within the parallel-note itself is applied if there is no explicit instruction.

    2. The arrangement of positioning is done as follows. First, the parallel-note positions are settled from first parallel-note, and second parallel-note and after is set with the instructed line gap or corresponding position to the target word in the main text. Second, if the parallel-note will overflow, the parallel-notes are set from the bottom of parallel-note area. Third, if the parallel-notes still overflow, parallel-notes are set from the top of the parallel-note area with appropriate line gap, and the overflowed part of the parallel-notes is set at the top of the next page or next spread.

    3. When the parallel-notes will overflow to the next page or next spread, the instructed line gap is inserted between the overflowed part of the parallel-notes and the original parallel-note part. The realm after the overflowed part is the area for the original parallel-notes.

Positioning of Illustrations

Specification of the Position of Illustrations

There are two methods for specifying the position of illustrations.

  1. With this method, first, the in slip for the body of the book is created. Then, for each page, layout processing is executed, and the positioning of illustrations on a specific page and its position in that page are specified.

  2. With this method, the relation between the main text and the illustration is specified, and the position of the illustration within the page is specified only in principle.

    Common example of illustration positioning
    Common example of illustration positioning
    Common example of figure positioning in horizontal layout
    Common example of figure positioning in horizontal layout
    Example for layout of captions
    Example for layout of captions

The explanation below is restricted to method (b). Illustration, captions and notes will be regarded as one piece of data. The positioning method for this single piece of data is explained.

Basic Concepts about Illustration Positioning

When the position of an illustration within a page is specified only by the relation between illustration and main text, it is desirable that the explanation of the illustration in the main text and the illustration are as close as possible to each other.

Requirements for Illustration Positioning in Vertical Layout

For vertical layout as in , the following requirements for illustration positioning apply.

  1. In books, the spread is the basis for the design, and the illustration position is specified towards the head and fore-edge. Hence it is necessary to use the spread as the basis for the specification of the position. Concretely it means that the position has to correspond to "towards the fore-edge" or towards the gutter.

  2. In vertical layout, often the upper part of an illustration touches the head of the hanmen, or the left or right part touches the fore-edge. This makes it necessary to position the illustration relying on the hanmen (or the final size). Furthermore, even if the complete hanmen is occupied by the illustration, depending on the illustration content, in some cases it is better style to position the illustration about 1mm inside the hanmen.

  3. As said in "b", normally, it is appropriate to specify a position starting from the hanmen. However, in the case of a bleed, it is necessary to jut out of the final size to position the illustration (see ). Furthermore, in such cases it is possible to specify an intuitive position, if the specification of the position uses the edge of the trim size as the origin (see ).

    Bleed positioning
    Bleed positioning
  4. If base text is placed around illustrations, normally the smallest space size between them is specified. The smallest space size is the character size used for the main text (which is specified for the kihon-hanmen), or the line gap (also specified for the kihon-hanmen). It is also necessary to specify the line length of surrounding text as an integral multiple of the character size in use.

    An example of space size around illustration
    An example of space size around illustration
  5. If the number of characters of main text to be placed around illustrations in inline direction is very small (for example 1/4 of the line length of the kihon-hanmen or less than 9 characters), it is better to not place the characters and leave the space free (see ). Also, as shown in the left part of , for the arrangement of illustrations in the block direction, it is bad style and should be avoided to have only one line of main text (in , the right side shows the appropriate way).

    A case where the number of characters of main text in inline direction is very short
    A case where the number of characters of main text in inline direction is very short
    Example of only one full length line of vertical text after  illustrations in the block direction (the left case should be changed to the right case)
    Example of only one full length line of vertical text after illustrations in the block direction (the left case should be changed to the right case)

Requirements for Illustration Positioning in Horizontal Layout

In the case of horizontal layout as in , the following requirements for illustration positioning apply.

  1. In case of , the basic approach is to position the illustration directly after the paragraph with its explanation (see ).

    Positioning directly after the explaining paragraph
    Positioning directly after the explaining paragraph

    If due to space it is not possible to position the illustration in that place, it is placed at the head or foot of the hanmen (see ).

    Placing the illustration at the foot or head of the hanmen
    Placing the illustration at the foot or head of the hanmen
  2. As shown in , often characters are not put to the right or left of an illustration, and the space is left blank. However, there is also the possibility of placing the illustration at the side of the fore-edge (see ) or the right side (see ). Also in these cases, the illustrations are not placed - like in vertical layout - at the side of the head, but often in linkage with the main text. That is, the illustrations are placed on the page with their explanations, beside the mid paragraph anchor point or on the head or foot (see and ).

    Example of placing an illustration at the fore-edge of the hanmen
    Example of placing an illustration at the fore-edge of the hanmen
    Example of placing an illustration at the right side of the hanmen
    Example of placing an illustration at the right side of the hanmen
  3. As shown in the left part of , like in vertical layout, it is bad style and must be avoided to have just one line of the main text around an illustration in the block direction. In the example in , the problem is solved by transferring the single line below the illustration above it and placing the illustration at the bottom fore-edge of the hanmen.

    Example for horizontal layout of having just only one line after the illustration in the block direction (should change the left case to the right case)
    Example for horizontal layout of having just only one line after the illustration in the block direction (should change the left case to the right case)
  4. Illustrations which stretch across several columns in a print space are normally placed at the head or foot (see ).

    Example of illustration stretching across several columns
    Example of illustration stretching across several columns

Basic Ideas about Illustration Positioning in JIS X 4051

To provide some background for the preceding discussion, the main definitions of JIS X 4051 will be introduced below.

  1. JIS X 4051 defines two methods for illustration positioning: "relative position specification" and "absolute position specification". Below the definitions from this standard are described.

    Relative position specification: the specification of block units appears together with the flow of, say, paragraphs of the main text within lines. The lines are the basis for positioning, and segmentation of the line feed is not possible. ("block unit": a general term for blocks of figures, images etc. and tables)

    Absolute position specification: the specification of block units appears within the hanmen or spread. An absolute position based on these is the basis for illustration placement.

    In the case of , where the position is specified from two directions (from the head or the fore-edge), the absolute position specification method is used.

    As shown in , or , when the position in the inline direction is given as specified, and the position in the block direction is determined depending on the position of the main text which refers to the block unit, the adopted method is relative positioning (of course absolute positioning is possible too for placement at the head or foot ).

    Furthermore, JIS X 4051 defines the placement of the specification method for gutter and fore-edge with absolute positioning method, but not with relative positioning. It is desirable to allow for a positioning based upon a specification method of gutter and fore-edge, also for relative positioning.

  2. When both the main text (or the main paragraph in JIS X 4051 terminology) and the illustration are on the same page, either method does not raise any problem unless there is only a single line of the main text to be laid out before the illustration in the block direction on the top of the content page area or after the illustration at the bottom as shown in or in . The problematic cases are where, via the relation to the corresponding text or the size of the illustration, the illustration juts out of the the hanmen or the area of the column, or the page of the main text and the page of the illustration are different. About these issues JIS X 4051 makes the following definitions.

    1. With the relative positioning method, the illustration is placed directly after the line in which the anchor in the main text is defined. If, as a result of the positioning, the illustration juts out of the hanmen or the column, the length of the part of the illustration inside the hanmen or the column (a), and the part outside the area (b) will be compared (see ). Since it should be avoided (if possible) that an illustration appears before its explanation in the main text, the comparison uses not a simple 1/2, but a relative weight. If concretely like in the relation between a and b is a ≧ 2b, the illustration is placed on that page (in the final stage), and the lines which overlap with the area of the illustration (including the line with the anchor) are put on the following page, they are put out (see ).

      Example of positioning on the same page with relative positioning specification (before the adaptation in case of  a  ≧ 2 b )
      Example of positioning on the same page with relative positioning specification (before the adaptation in case of a ≧ 2b)
      Example of positioning on the same page with relative positioning specification (after the adaptation in case of  a  ≧ 2 b )
      Example of positioning on the same page with relative positioning specification (after the adaptation in case of a ≧ 2b)

      Also, in the case of a < 2b (see ), the illustration is placed on the following page, and the free area is filled with main text taken from the following page.

      Example of positioning on the following page with relative positioning specification (before the adaptation in case of  a  <  2b )
      Example of positioning on the following page with relative positioning specification (before the adaptation in case of a < 2b)
      Example of positioning on the following page with relative positioning specification (after the adaptation in case of  a  <  2b )
      Example of positioning on the following page with relative positioning specification (after the adaptation in case of a < 2b)
    2. The same basic ideas apply also for absolute positioning. However, the portions to be compared are different than with relative positioning.

      With the absolute positioning method, first the distance between the specification of the position via the anchor in the main text, and the distance to the end of the area of the hanmen or the column are calculated (see a in the left part of ). Next, as a result of the positioning of the illustration, the anchor will be moved. If the moved anchor is on the same page, the illustration will be placed on that page.

      If the anchor has moved to the following page, the distance between that anchor and the beginning of the area of the hanmen or the column will be calculated (see b in the right part of ).

      Example of positioning with absolute positioning specification (in case of  a  < 2 b )
      Example of positioning with absolute positioning specification (in case of a < 2b)

      In addition, a and b are compared. If a ≧ 2b, the illustration is placed on the page where the anchor appeared first. In the case of a < 2b, the illustration is placed after the page where the anchor appeared first. In the example in , a < 2b, the illustration is moved to the left page (page 13), see .

      Illustration positioning example 1, final position
      Illustration positioning example 1, final position

      shows an example where an anchor firstly appears in the 5th line of a page (page 12), and as a result of illustration placement, the anchor is moved to the second line of the left page (page 13). In this case a ≧ 2b, and the illustration is left on the right page (page 12).

      Absolute positioning example 2 (left is before illustration positioning, right is after)
      Absolute positioning example 2 (left is before illustration positioning, right is after)
  3. In addition some more definitions related to illustration positioning are introduced below.

    1. With the absolute positioning method, a stranded line before or after the illustration in the block direction can be predicted and hence avoided. In contrast, with the relative positioning method, it happens that a stranded line in the block direction is left out as a result. This is bad style, and JIS X 4051 defines a processing method for avoiding it.

    2. Several elements come in between e.g. paragraphs, and it is necessary to adapt the area of the hanmen size in the block direction. For this case, there are several approaches about style designed via the kihon-hanmen (character size, line spacing etc.) and different style elements: the approach of unifying the space around such elements, or the approach of maintaining (if at all possible) the position of lines specified during the design of the hanmen. JIS X 4051 defines two methods for this topic (see section ).

    3. When the space around an illustration is maintained and main text is inserted in the free area, it is necessary to adapt the line length to integral multiple of the characters used. Such aspects are defined in JIS X 4051 as well (see ).

    4. Also, if the number of surrounding characters is extremely low, it is better to keep the surroundings free. If the number of surrounding characters is 1/4 of the line length of the kihon-hanmen or 9 characters below, JIS X 4051 specifies that no main text should surround an illustration. In or the illustration is placed midway down the page using the relative positioning method, so it is necessary to unify the space above and below the illustration. JIS X 4051 also provides definitions for this aspect (see ).

      Space between an illustration placed midway a page and the characters above and below it
      Space between an illustration placed midway a page and the characters above and below it
    5. For positioning of illustrations relying on the spread, JIS X 4051 defines a method using the absolute positioning method (see )..

Processing of Tables

Elements of Tables

A table is set of cells, which includes numbers, facts or information, arranged in rows across and down lines for easy recognition at a glance.

In JIS X 4015, there is a figure of an example of the structure of table in horizontal writing mode as follows (see ). The following descriptions will use the terminology in this figure.

Structure of a table (from JIS X 4051)
Structure of a table (from JIS X 4051)

Tables are used for various purposes, and there is a lot to consider with regards to the processing of tables, so, only Japanese language related issues are discussed here.

Direction of Tables Themselves

Tables themselves can be classified according to horizontal mode and vertical mode.

An example of table, with vertical direction
An example of table, with vertical direction
An example of horizontal table with vertical text cells
An example of horizontal table with vertical text cells

When the direction of a table itself is horizontal, the position of the origin and the setting order of cell contents is as follows ():

  1. The origin is the left upper top of the table.

  2. The order of cells in a line is from left to right.

  3. The order of lines in a table is from top to bottom.

  4. In the first line of , cells from cell ① to cell ③ are filled with cell contents, consequently, in the second line, cells from cell ④ to cell ⑦ are filled with cell contents, and in the third line, cell ④ is skipped and cells from cell ⑧ to cell ⑩ are filled with cell contents.

    An example of the position of the origin and the setting order of cell contents in horizontal table
    An example of the position of the origin and the setting order of cell contents in horizontal table

When the direction of a table itself is vertical, the position of the origin and the setting order of cell contents is as follows ().

An example of the position of the origin and setting order of cell contents in vertical table
An example of the position of the origin and setting order of cell contents in vertical table
  1. The origin is the right upper top of the table.

  2. The order of cells in a line is from top to bottom.

  3. The order of lines in a table is from right to left.

  4. In the first line of cells from cell ① to cell ③ are filled with cell contents, consequently, in the second line, cells from cell ④ to cell ⑦ are filled with cell contents, and in the third line, cell ④ is skipped and cells from cell ⑧ to cell ⑩ are filled with cell contents.

The text direction in a cell content is vertical or horizontal only, and cannot be mixed. When different text directions are needed in a cell, the cell is divided into two cells.

An Example of Layout with a Table

Following is an example of a vertical writing mode book with a table (see ). The issues to be noted are as follows:

An example of a vertical writing mode book with a table.
An example of a vertical writing mode book with a table.
  1. The direction of the kihon-hanmen is vertical, and the table itself is predominantly in horizontal writing mode. However, some cells of the header row are cell merged and vertically set.

  2. The character size of the table text is smaller than the character size of the kihon-hanmen (kihon-hanmen: nine point, table: seven point or eight point). The caption of the table is also seven point with the number emphasized with Japanese Gothic (there are cases where all the caption text is emphasized with Japanese Gothic). The note attached to the table is six point, smaller than the table text.

  3. The usage of visible lines to distinguish cells is limited. In this case, the top horizontal line is emphasized with a width of 0.25 mm., other horizontal lines are 0.12 mm. width. There are cases where the top horizontal line is 0.4 mm. or 0.12 mm.

    Physical OMOTEKEI and URAKEI in letterpress printing
    Physical OMOTEKEI and URAKEI in letterpress printing
  4. The top column of the table is used for row header names. and the first two rows from left are used for column header names, partially merged to one row.

  5. The width of each row is calculated as follows: firstly, calculate the width of the widest cell content in the column, and add space the size of a half em of the character size of the cell to both edges of the text. Secondly, adjust for the multiples of the character size used for the table. Thirdly, if the cell contents among different rows are similar, the width of the rows are set the same (in the fourth and fifth rows from the left).

  6. Some row headers have two lines with no line gap to maintain appropriate proportions with the cell contents.

  7. Column header names and row header names are set with evenly distributed-character spacing, except for vertically set KANJI cells and "total" cells. "Total" cells shall be distinguished from other ordinary cells.

  8. The horizontal position of names of header rows and the header column are horizontally centered.

  9. For cells except header rows and header columns, all numeric data is set aligned by the decimal point, or line end aligned for currency. Numeric data is centered according to the longest numeric cell, but the space size after shall not be longer than the space size before.

  10. The block direction spaces between KEISEN and cell contents are as follows: the spaces between visible KEISEN and cell content are a half em space of the basic table character size. The spaces between invisible KEISEN and cell content are a fourth em space of the basic table character size. Namely, it can be said that the visible line gaps are one half em except for the header row. In this example, there are two line cells as a header, the block direction spaces between KEISEN and cell contents are set with a minimum gap of one fourth em (see a and b). The reason is not to make a space between KEISEN and cell contents for other one line cells.

Kinds of Tables from Allocation to Page Position

There are several kinds of tables as follows:

  1. Tables treated as one object with captions and notes together with the table itself, where it is prohibited to divide across two or more pages or columns.

    1. Linked with an anchor of the base text, and moved with the anchor. The position of the table is relative (see and ).

      An example of relatively allocated table
      An example of relatively allocated table
    2. Tables allocated with absolute position in the kihon-hanmen, except for the tables allocated with absolute position in a spread (see ).

      An example of a table allocated with absolute position
      An example of a table allocated with absolute position
  2. Tables allocated in a spread with absolute position (see ).

    An example of a table allocated in a spread with absolute position
    An example of a table allocated in a spread with absolute position
  3. Tables anchored to base text and moving with the position of the anchor, can also be divided across two or more pages or columns. In JIS X 4051, this type of table is called "continuously allocated tables" (see ).

    An example of a table continuously allocated through two pages
    An example of a table continuously allocated through two pages

Processing of Tables Allocated in a Spread

When a table is allocated in a spread, it is desirable to allocate within the spread. However, sometimes it is impossible to allocate in the same spread where the table is linked to. In such cases, the spread where the table is allocated is decided as follows (see ): Firstly, calculate the distance between the anchor position of the base text and the last position of the spread (see ). Secondly, calculate the distance between the original position of the anchor and the position of the anchor when the table is allocated at the spread where the anchor was originally positioned, and consequently the position of the anchor is overflowed to the next spread (see ). Finally, compare these two distances, and decide whether to allocate the table to the original spread or next spread (see ).

First step of the calculation of the distance of the allocation method to a spread.
First step of the calculation of the distance of the allocation method to a spread.
Second step of the calculation of the distance of the allocation method to a spread.
Second step of the calculation of the distance of the allocation method to a spread.
Last step of the calculation of the distance of the allocation method to a spread.
Last step of the calculation of the distance of the allocation method to a spread.

The next problem is where to divide a table. In some senses, illustrations can be divided wherever specified or at the kihon-hanmen border. On the other hand, there are some limitations and issues to consider when dividing tables as follows:

  1. Tables are divided at the border of rows or columns, with condition that the border between the header and adjoining cells shall not be divided, also it is prohibited to divide just after captions.

  2. When there is a visible KEISEN at the expected dividing position, the common approach is as follows:

    1. When the outer frame KEISENs of inline direction are visible, the top side KEISEN at the dividing position shall be invisible and the bottom side KEISEN at the dividing position shall be visible (see ).

      Example one of KEISEN of a table set in a spread
      Example one of KEISEN of a table set in a spread
    2. When the outer frame KEISENs of inline direction are invisible, the top side KEISEN at the dividing position shall be visible and the bottom side KEISEN at the dividing position shall be invisible (see ).

      Example two of KEISEN of a table set in a spread
      Example two of KEISEN of a table set in a spread
    3. When the tables are divided by column units, the KEISEN at the dividing position of the top part shall be invisible, and the bottom part KEISEN shall be visible.

Processing of Dividable Tables

Processing of dividable tables is as follows:

  1. Dividable tables are set from the position of the specified anchor text position with specified line direction gap

  2. The inline length of the table shall not hang out from the inline length of the kihon-hanmen or the column.

  3. Dividable tables are divided at the bottom of the kihon-hanmen or the column and between lines of the table. When there are other tables or illustrations are set in the page, the space for the other tables or illustrations should be kept beforehand.

  4. Captions and header line shall not be divided in following cases:

    1. Between header with two lines.

    2. Between caption and header column.

    3. Between header column.

    4. Between header column and the first column of the content.

  5. The same header column shall also be set at the top of the divided tables. Noted that when the kihon-hanmen is in vertical writing mode, if the following page is odd, there is usually no header column, i.e. the divided tables on even pages have a header column (see ).

    An example of divided tables with same header columns in vertical writing mode.
    An example of divided tables with same header columns in vertical writing mode.
  6. When the table is divided by columns, the top KEISEN of the divided position shall be invisible, and the bottom KEISEN of the divided position shall be visible. However, there are methods where both top and bottom KEISENs are visible.

Block Direction Setting Process of Lines, Paragraphs etc.

Line Gap Arrangement with Ruby and Other Objects

When setting lines in pages or columns, basically each line should be set by aligning with the line positions set in the kihon-hanmen

Also the last line of each page or each column should be set at the very end of the kihon-hanmen area or the column area.

The following objects should be set in the interlinear space.

  1. Ruby

  2. Emphasis dots

  3. Underlines and sidelines

  4. Interlinear reference marks

The following objects might jut into the interlinear space in conjunction with character size and other factors.

  1. Tate-chu-yoko processed texts

  2. Ornament characters

  3. Warichu (inline cutting note)

  4. The strings some of character positions are moved to block direction.

  5. Strings where the character size is larger than the size specified in the kihon-hanmen (see ).

    An example of strings  some of characters' size is larger than the kihon-hanmen character size
    An example of strings some of characters' size is larger than the kihon-hanmen character size

On the other hand when characters are inserted that are smaller than the basic character size of the paragraph, to keep the line gap of the paragraph visible the interlinear space looks wider as shown below (see ).

An example of inserted smaller characters than basic paragraph character size
An example of inserted smaller characters than basic paragraph character size

When the following interlinear objects are set at the very top of the page or the column, these objects are set out of the hanmen or the column area (see ):

  1. In vertical writing mode, ruby, emphasis dots and sidelines at the right side of the character.

  2. In horizontal writing mode, ruby and emphasis dots above the character.

  3. In horizontal writing mode and vertical writing mode, reference marks between lines.

An example of objects set out of the kihon-hanmen
An example of objects set out of the kihon-hanmen

When the following objects which jut into the interlinear area are set on the very top line of the hanmen or column area, the part of the object that juts out is set outside of the hanmen or column area:

  1. characters processed with tate-chu-yoko

  2. ornamented characters

  3. warichu

  4. characters where each base line is changed to block direction

  5. characters where the size is larger than the size dictated by the kihon-hanmen

Following interlinear objects are set outside the hanmen or column area, when set at the very last line of the hanmen or column area:

  1. in vertical writing mode, ruby and sideline set left side of the base character

  2. in horizontal writing mode, underline under main text

When the following objects which jut into the interlinear area are set for the very end line of the hanmen or column area, the part of the objects that juts out is set outside of the hanmen or column area (see ):

  1. characters processed with tate-chu-yoko

  2. ornamented characters

  3. warichu

  4. characters where each position is changed to block direction

  5. characters whose size is larger than the size dictated by the kihon-hanmen

An example of warichu jutting from kihon-hanmen
An example of warichu jutting from kihon-hanmen

Processing of Spaces between Paragraphs

The space between paragraphs is usually same as line gap specified for the paragraphs.

Sometimes the space between paragraphs is specified. JIS X 4051 determines the space before the paragraph as "space before paragraph" and the space after the paragraph as "space after paragraph". When the "space before paragraph" or the "space after paragraph" is specified, the space will be kept between paragraphs. Thus "space before paragraph" or "space after paragraph" in the JIS X 4051 context is usually specified with absolute space sizes (see ) or a number of lines (see ).

Example one where the "space before paragraph" or the "space after paragraph" is specified
Example one where the "space before paragraph" or the "space after paragraph" is specified
Example one where the "space before paragraph" or the "space after paragraph" is specified (quotations are inserted)
Example one where the "space before paragraph" or the "space after paragraph" is specified (quotations are inserted)

When the "space before paragraph" or the "space after paragraph" is specified with a number of lines, the space is calculated with the basic character size and line gap of the paragraph. The space accompanying the header is calculated with the character size and the line gap of the kihon-hanmen. When the spaces among paragraphs are specified as a size of one line space, the results are as follows:

Example one of the space size between paragraphs with number of lines (at the middle of the hanmen)
Example one of the space size between paragraphs with number of lines (at the middle of the hanmen)
Example two of the space sibe between paragraphs with number of lines (at the top of the hanmen)
Example two of the space sibe between paragraphs with number of lines (at the top of the hanmen)
Example two of the space size between paragraphs with number of lines (at the bottom of the hanmen)
Example two of the space size between paragraphs with number of lines (at the bottom of the hanmen)

Adjustment of Processing of Realm in Block Direction

Except for the last line before the page break or new recto, the very last line set at the bottom of a page or a column is set to be aligned to the border of the kihon-hanmen or the column area. However, sometimes exceptions arise as follows:

  1. Paragraphs and other objects set using a different character size or line gap from the kihon-hanmen. If there is no adjustment, the bottom of the last line will not be aligned to the bottom of the kihon-hanmen or column area in the block direction. Examples are block headings and end notes inserted after a paragraph.

  2. When setting objects which are prohibited at the bottom of a kihon-hanmen or the bottom of a column, such as block headings, some blanks may appear on the previous page or in the previous column.

In these cases, there are two ways to solve the issue. Hereafter, procedure (a) will be called "adjustment processing in block direction".

  1. Set the bottom of the line aligned to the bottom of the kihon-hanmen or the bottom of the column in the block direction, and move blanks to appropriate positions within the kihon-hanmen or the column.

  2. Let the blanks appearing at the bottom of the hanmen or the column in block direction remain as they are.

There are some issues related to the adjustment procedure in the block direction as follows:

First, make best efforts to reduce such cases. Some examples of how not to let objects affect the alignment to the kihon-hanmen lines of following objects are:

  1. Block heading: the area of the block heading is specified by an integral number of lines (see ).

  2. Block direction space between paragraphs: to specify the size of a space with a number of lines (see ).

  3. Other cases such as Haiku with larger characters, where the space of the block is specified with a number of lines.

When there is a following object and the properties of the object are different from the properties of the kihon-hanmen, set the object to align with the bottom edge of hanmen or column and adjust the space between the object and the text before. Examples are as follows:

  1. Footnotes in horizontal writing mode (see ).

  2. Sidenotes in vertical writing mode (see ).

When there is following text and objects and there is a blank as the result of setting text and objects with specified spaces, adjustment is done with the block direction space among text lines and objects. Examples are as follows:

  1. Cases where an illustration or a table is inserted with "relative positioning and no turn around mode" in terms of JIS X 4051 (see ). Process should be implemented as follows:

    1. When only one illustration or table with "relative positioning and no turn around mode" is allocated at the top or the bottom of the hanmen or the column, the adjustment of the hanmen or the column is done between the illustration or the table and the main text (see ).

      Example one of adjustment of allocation of a illustration with"relative positioning mode" (at the top of a hanmen)
      Example one of adjustment of allocation of a illustration with"relative positioning mode" (at the top of a hanmen)
    2. When only one illustration or table with "relative positioning and no turn around mode" is allocated in the middle of a hanmen or a column the adjustment of the hanmen or the column is done evenly in the space before and after the illustration or table (see ).

      Example two of adjustment of allocation of a illustration with "relative positioning mode" (at the middle of a hanmen)
      Example two of adjustment of allocation of a illustration with "relative positioning mode" (at the middle of a hanmen)
    3. When two or more illustrations or tables are inserted, a fractional blank is distributed to multiple spaces between main text and illustrations or tables (see ).

  2. Cases where an endnote is inserted (see ). In these cases, basically the adjustment is done between the endnote and the main text just after the endnote. However, when endnotes are only set at the very end of the hanmen or the column, the adjustment is done between the endnote and the main text before the endnote.

  3. Cases where an inserted quotation block has a smaller character size and narrower line gap than the kihon-hanmen. In these cases, the adjustment processing in block direction is basically the same as for endnotes inserted between paragraphs (see , ).

    First example of a case quoted text block has smaller character size than kihon-hanmen
    First example of a case quoted text block has smaller character size than kihon-hanmen
    Second example of a case quoted text block has smaller character size than kihon-hanmen
    Second example of a case quoted text block has smaller character size than kihon-hanmen

When there is no place for the adjustment even if it is necessary, the blank at the very bottom of the hanmen or the column area in block direction is left as it is. One example is the blank after endnotes occupying one full page.

There are cases that there is not enough blank to set the following object and there happen to remain blank at the bottom of the realm of the hanmen or the column. The examples to let the rest blanck as is are as follows:

  1. Cases where the heading is set at the bottom of the hanmen or column and the heading is moved to the next page or next column (see ).

  2. Cases where the size of the space before or after the paragraph is specified and the paragraph is set at the top or bottom of a hanmen or a column (see ).

  3. Cases where there are no dividable positions in the first part of a dividable table and the table is set at the top of the next page or the next column and there remains some blank space at the bottom of the previous hanmen or the previous column. Also cases where a dividable table is divided and there remains some blank space at the bottom of the previous hanmen or the previous column.

Character Classes

The following are lists of (non-ideographic) characters from a subset of ISO/IEC 10646 (collection number 285 "BASIC JAPANESE" and 286 "JAPANESE NON IDEOGRAPHICS EXTENSION") grouped by character class according to the classification explained in .

Opening brackets (cl-01)

Character UCS Name Remark
2018 LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK used horizontal composition
201C LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK used horizontal composition
0028 LEFT PARENTHESIS
3014 LEFT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET
005B LEFT SQUARE BRACKET
007B LEFT CURLY BRACKET
3008 LEFT ANGLE BRACKET
300A LEFT DOUBLE ANGLE BRACKET
300C LEFT CORNER BRACKET
300E LEFT WHITE CORNER BRACKET
3010 LEFT BLACK LENTICULAR BRACKET
2985 LEFT WHITE PARENTHESIS
3018 LEFT WHITE TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET
3016 LEFT WHITE LENTICULAR BRACKET
« 00AB LEFT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARK
301D REVERSED DOUBLE PRIME QUOTATION MARK used vertical composition

Closing brackets (cl-02)

Character UCS Name Remark
2019 RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK used horizontal composition
201D RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK used horizontal composition
0029 RIGHT PARENTHESIS
3015 RIGHT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET
005D RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET
007D RIGHT CURLY BRACKET
3009 RIGHT ANGLE BRACKET
300B RIGHT DOUBLE ANGLE BRACKET
300D RIGHT CORNER BRACKET
300F RIGHT WHITE CORNER BRACKET
3011 RIGHT BLACK LENTICULAR BRACKET
2986 RIGHT WHITE PARENTHESIS
3019 RIGHT WHITE TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET
3017 RIGHT WHITE LENTICULAR BRACKET
» 00BB RIGHT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARK
301F LOW DOUBLE PRIME QUOTATION MARK used vertical composition

Hyphens (cl-03)

Character UCS Name Remark
2010 HYPHEN quarter em width
301C WAVE DASH
30A0 KATAKANA-HIRAGANA DOUBLE HYPHEN half-width
2013 EN DASH half-width

Dividing punctuation marks (cl-04)

Character UCS Name Remark
0021 EXCLAMATION MARK
003F QUESTION MARK
203C DOUBLE EXCLAMATION MARK
2047 DOUBLE QUESTION MARK
2048 QUESTION EXCLAMATION MARK
2049 EXCLAMATION QUESTION MARK

Middle dots (cl-05)

Character UCS Name Remark
30FB KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT
003A COLON
003B SEMICOLON used horizontal composition

Full stops (cl-06)

Character UCS Name Remark
3002 IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP
002E FULL STOP used horizontal composition

Commas (cl-07)

Character UCS Name Remark
3001 IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA
002C COMMA used horizontal composition

Inseparable characters (cl-08)

Character UCS Name Remark
2014 EM DASH Some systems implement U+2015 HORIZONTAL BAR very similar behavior to U+2014 EM DASH
2026 HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS
2025 TWO DOT LEADER
3033 VERTICAL KANA REPEAT MARK UPPER HALF used vertical composition
U+3035 follows this
3034 VERTICAL KANA REPEAT WITH VOICED SOUND MARK UPPER HALF used vertical composition
U+3035 follows this
3035 VERTICAL KANA REPEAT MARK LOWER HALF used vertical composition

Iteration marks (cl-09)

Character UCS Name Remark
30FD KATAKANA ITERATION MARK
30FE KATAKANA VOICED ITERATION MARK
309D HIRAGANA ITERATION MARK
309E HIRAGANA VOICED ITERATION MARK
3005 IDEOGRAPHIC ITERATION MARK
303B VERTICAL IDEOGRAPHIC ITERATION MARK

Prolonged sound mark (cl-10)

Character UCS Name Remark
30FC KATAKANA-HIRAGANA PROLONGED SOUND MARK

Small kana (cl-11)

Character UCS Name Remark
3041 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL A
3043 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL I
3045 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL U
3047 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL E
3049 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL O
30A1 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL A
30A3 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL I
30A5 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL U
30A7 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL E
30A9 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL O
3063 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL TU
3083 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL YA
3085 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL YU
3087 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL YO
308E HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL WA
3095 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL KA
3096 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL KE
30C3 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL TU
30E3 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL YA
30E5 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL YU
30E7 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL YO
30EE KATAKANA LETTER SMALL WA
30F5 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL KA
30F6 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL KE
31F0 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL KU
31F1 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL SI
31F2 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL SU
31F3 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL TO
31F4 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL NU
31F5 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL HA
31F6 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL HI
31F7 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL HU
31F8 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL HE
31F9 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL HO
31FA KATAKANA LETTER SMALL MU
31FB KATAKANA LETTER SMALL RA
31FC KATAKANA LETTER SMALL RI
31FD KATAKANA LETTER SMALL RU
31FE KATAKANA LETTER SMALL RE
31FF KATAKANA LETTER SMALL RO
ㇷ゚ <31F7, 309A> <KATAKANA LETTER SMALL HU, COMBINING KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK>

Prefixed abbreviations (cl-12)

Character UCS Name Remark
00A5 YEN SIGN
0024 DOLLAR SIGN
00A3 POUND SIGN
0023 NUMBER SIGN
20AC EURO SIGN
2116 NUMERO SIGN

Postfixed abbreviations (cl-13)

Character UCS Name Remark
° 00B0 DEGREE SIGN proportional
2032 PRIME proportional
2033 DOUBLE PRIME proportional
2103 DEGREE CELSIUS
00A2 CENT SIGN
0025 PERCENT SIGN
2030 PER MILLE SIGN
33CB SQUARE HP
2113 SCRIPT SMALL L
3303 SQUARE AARU
330D SQUARE KARORII
3314 SQUARE KIRO
3318 SQUARE GURAMU
3322 SQUARE SENTI
3323 SQUARE SENTO
3326 SQUARE DORU
3327 SQUARE TON
332B SQUARE PAASENTO
3336 SQUARE HEKUTAARU
333B SQUARE PEEZI
3349 SQUARE MIRI
334A SQUARE MIRIBAARU
334D SQUARE MEETORU
3351 SQUARE RITTORU
3357 SQUARE WATTO
338E SQUARE MG
338F SQUARE KG
339C SQUARE MM
339D SQUARE CM
339E SQUARE KM
33A1 SQUARE M SQUARED
33C4 SQUARE CC

Full-width ideographic space (cl-14)

Character UCS Name Remark
  3000 IDEOGRAPHIC SPACE

Hiragana (cl-15)

Character UCS Name Remark
3042 HIRAGANA LETTER A
3044 HIRAGANA LETTER I
3046 HIRAGANA LETTER U
3048 HIRAGANA LETTER E
304A HIRAGANA LETTER O
304B HIRAGANA LETTER KA
304C HIRAGANA LETTER GA
304D HIRAGANA LETTER KI
304E HIRAGANA LETTER GI
304F HIRAGANA LETTER KU
3050 HIRAGANA LETTER GU
3051 HIRAGANA LETTER KE
3052 HIRAGANA LETTER GE
3053 HIRAGANA LETTER KO
3054 HIRAGANA LETTER GO
3055 HIRAGANA LETTER SA
3056 HIRAGANA LETTER ZA
3057 HIRAGANA LETTER SI
3058 HIRAGANA LETTER ZI
3059 HIRAGANA LETTER SU
305A HIRAGANA LETTER ZU
305B HIRAGANA LETTER SE
305C HIRAGANA LETTER ZE
305D HIRAGANA LETTER SO
305E HIRAGANA LETTER ZO
305F HIRAGANA LETTER TA
3060 HIRAGANA LETTER DA
3061 HIRAGANA LETTER TI
3062 HIRAGANA LETTER DI
3064 HIRAGANA LETTER TU
3065 HIRAGANA LETTER DU
3066 HIRAGANA LETTER TE
3067 HIRAGANA LETTER DE
3068 HIRAGANA LETTER TO
3069 HIRAGANA LETTER DO
306A HIRAGANA LETTER NA
306B HIRAGANA LETTER NI
306C HIRAGANA LETTER NU
306D HIRAGANA LETTER NE
306E HIRAGANA LETTER NO
306F HIRAGANA LETTER HA
3070 HIRAGANA LETTER BA
3071 HIRAGANA LETTER PA
3072 HIRAGANA LETTER HI
3073 HIRAGANA LETTER BI
3074 HIRAGANA LETTER PI
3075 HIRAGANA LETTER HU
3076 HIRAGANA LETTER BU
3077 HIRAGANA LETTER PU
3078 HIRAGANA LETTER HE
3079 HIRAGANA LETTER BE
307A HIRAGANA LETTER PE
307B HIRAGANA LETTER HO
307C HIRAGANA LETTER BO
307D HIRAGANA LETTER PO
307E HIRAGANA LETTER MA
307F HIRAGANA LETTER MI
3080 HIRAGANA LETTER MU
3081 HIRAGANA LETTER ME
3082 HIRAGANA LETTER MO
3084 HIRAGANA LETTER YA
3086 HIRAGANA LETTER YU
3088 HIRAGANA LETTER YO
3089 HIRAGANA LETTER RA
308A HIRAGANA LETTER RI
308B HIRAGANA LETTER RU
308C HIRAGANA LETTER RE
308D HIRAGANA LETTER RO
308F HIRAGANA LETTER WA
3090 HIRAGANA LETTER WI
3091 HIRAGANA LETTER WE
3092 HIRAGANA LETTER WO
3093 HIRAGANA LETTER N
3094 HIRAGANA LETTER VU
か゚ <304B, 309A> <HIRAGANA LETTER KA, COMBINING KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK>
き゚ <304D, 309A> <HIRAGANA LETTER KI, COMBINING KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK>
く゚ <304F, 309A> <HIRAGANA LETTER KU, COMBINING KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK>
け゚ <3051, 309A> <HIRAGANA LETTER KE, COMBINING KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK>
こ゚ <3053, 309A> <HIRAGANA LETTER KO, COMBINING KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK>

Katakana (cl-16)

Character UCS Name Remark
30A2 KATAKANA LETTER A
30A4 KATAKANA LETTER I
30A6 KATAKANA LETTER U
30A8 KATAKANA LETTER E
30AA KATAKANA LETTER O
30AB KATAKANA LETTER KA
30AC KATAKANA LETTER GA
30AD KATAKANA LETTER KI
30AE KATAKANA LETTER GI
30AF KATAKANA LETTER KU
30B0 KATAKANA LETTER GU
30B1 KATAKANA LETTER KE
30B2 KATAKANA LETTER GE
30B3 KATAKANA LETTER KO
30B4 KATAKANA LETTER GO
30B5 KATAKANA LETTER SA
30B6 KATAKANA LETTER ZA
30B7 KATAKANA LETTER SI
30B8 KATAKANA LETTER ZI
30B9 KATAKANA LETTER SU
30BA KATAKANA LETTER ZU
30BB KATAKANA LETTER SE
30BC KATAKANA LETTER ZE
30BD KATAKANA LETTER SO
30BE KATAKANA LETTER ZO
30BF KATAKANA LETTER TA
30C0 KATAKANA LETTER DA
30C1 KATAKANA LETTER TI
30C2 KATAKANA LETTER DI
30C4 KATAKANA LETTER TU
30C5 KATAKANA LETTER DU
30C6 KATAKANA LETTER TE
30C7 KATAKANA LETTER DE
30C8 KATAKANA LETTER TO
30C9 KATAKANA LETTER DO
30CA KATAKANA LETTER NA
30CB KATAKANA LETTER NI
30CC KATAKANA LETTER NU
30CD KATAKANA LETTER NE
30CE KATAKANA LETTER NO
30CF KATAKANA LETTER HA
30D0 KATAKANA LETTER BA
30D1 KATAKANA LETTER PA
30D2 KATAKANA LETTER HI
30D3 KATAKANA LETTER BI
30D4 KATAKANA LETTER PI
30D5 KATAKANA LETTER HU
30D6 KATAKANA LETTER BU
30D7 KATAKANA LETTER PU
30D8 KATAKANA LETTER HE
30D9 KATAKANA LETTER BE
30DA KATAKANA LETTER PE
30DB KATAKANA LETTER HO
30DC KATAKANA LETTER BO
30DD KATAKANA LETTER PO
30DE KATAKANA LETTER MA
30DF KATAKANA LETTER MI
30E0 KATAKANA LETTER MU
30E1 KATAKANA LETTER ME
30E2 KATAKANA LETTER MO
30E4 KATAKANA LETTER YA
30E6 KATAKANA LETTER YU
30E8 KATAKANA LETTER YO
30E9 KATAKANA LETTER RA
30EA KATAKANA LETTER RI
30EB KATAKANA LETTER RU
30EC KATAKANA LETTER RE
30ED KATAKANA LETTER RO
30EF KATAKANA LETTER WA
30F0 KATAKANA LETTER WI
30F1 KATAKANA LETTER WE
30F2 KATAKANA LETTER WO
30F3 KATAKANA LETTER N
30F4 KATAKANA LETTER VU
カ゚ <30AB, 309A> <KATAKANA LETTER KA, COMBINING KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK>
キ゚ <30AD, 309A> <KATAKANA LETTER KI, COMBINING KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK>
ク゚ <30AF, 309A> <KATAKANA LETTER KU, COMBINING KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK>
ケ゚ <30B1, 309A> <KATAKANA LETTER KE, COMBINING KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK>
コ゚ <30B3, 309A> <KATAKANA LETTER KO, COMBINING KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK>
セ゚ <30BB, 309A> <KATAKANA LETTER SE, COMBINING KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK>
ツ゚ <30C4, 309A> <KATAKANA LETTER TU, COMBINING KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK>
ト゚ <30C8, 309A> <KATAKANA LETTER TO, COMBINING KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK>
30F7 KATAKANA LETTER VA
30F8 KATAKANA LETTER VI
30F9 KATAKANA LETTER VE
30FA KATAKANA LETTER VO

Math symbols (cl-17)

Character UCS Name Remark
003D EQUALS SIGN
2260 NOT EQUAL TO
2252 APPROXIMATELY EQUAL TO OR THE IMAGE OF
2243 ASYMPTOTICALLY EQUAL TO
2245 APPROXIMATELY EQUAL TO
2248 ALMOST EQUAL TO
2261 IDENTICAL TO
2262 NOT IDENTICAL TO
003C LESS-THAN SIGN
003E GREATER-THAN SIGN
2266 LESS-THAN OVER EQUAL TO
2267 GREATER-THAN OVER EQUAL TO
226A MUCH LESS-THAN
226B MUCH GREATER-THAN
2276 LESS-THAN OR GREATER-THAN
2277 GREATER-THAN OR LESS-THAN
22DA LESS-THAN EQUAL TO OR GREATER-THAN
22DB GREATER-THAN EQUAL TO OR LESS-THAN
2227 LOGICAL AND
2228 LOGICAL OR
2305 PROJECTIVE
2306 PERSPECTIVE
2282 SUBSET OF
2283 SUPERSET OF
2284 NOT A SUBSET OF
2285 NOT A SUPERSET OF
2286 SUBSET OF OR EQUAL TO
2287 SUPERSET OF OR EQUAL TO
228A SUBSET OF WITH NOT EQUAL TO
228B SUPERSET OF WITH NOT EQUAL TO
2208 ELEMENT OF
220B CONTAINS AS MEMBER
2209 NOT AN ELEMENT OF
222A UNION
2229 INTERSECTION
2225 PARALLEL TO
2226 NOT PARALLEL TO
21D2 RIGHTWARDS DOUBLE ARROW
21D4 LEFT RIGHT DOUBLE ARROW
2194 LEFT RIGHT ARROW
223D REVERSED TILDE (lazy S)
221D PROPORTIONAL TO
22A5 UP TACK
2295 CIRCLED PLUS
2297 CIRCLED TIMES

Math operators (cl-18)

Character UCS Name Remark
002B PLUS SIGN
2212 MINUS SIGN
× 00D7 MULTIPLICATION SIGN
÷ 00F7 DIVISION SIGN
± 00B1 PLUS-MINUS SIGN
2213 MINUS-OR-PLUS SIGN

Ideographic characters (cl-19)

In addition to CJK Ideographs, ideographic characters (cl-19) also includes some handful of other symbols. The following is the list of all non-ideographic characters assigned to this character class.

Character UCS Name Remark
0026 AMPERSAND
002A ASTERISK
002F SOLIDUS
0030 DIGIT ZERO
0031 DIGIT ONE
0032 DIGIT TWO
0033 DIGIT THREE
0034 DIGIT FOUR
0035 DIGIT FIVE
0036 DIGIT SIX
0037 DIGIT SEVEN
0038 DIGIT EIGHT
0039 DIGIT NINE
0040 COMMERCIAL AT
0041 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A
0042 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER B
0043 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER C
0044 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER D
0045 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E
0046 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER F
0047 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER G
0048 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER H
0049 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I
004A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER J
004B LATIN CAPITAL LETTER K
004C LATIN CAPITAL LETTER L
004D LATIN CAPITAL LETTER M
004E LATIN CAPITAL LETTER N
004F LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O
0050 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER P
0051 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Q
0052 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER R
0053 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER S
0054 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER T
0055 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U
0056 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER V
0057 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER W
0058 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER X
0059 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Y
005A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z
005C REVERSE SOLIDUS
0061 LATIN SMALL LETTER A
0062 LATIN SMALL LETTER B
0063 LATIN SMALL LETTER C
0064 LATIN SMALL LETTER D
0065 LATIN SMALL LETTER E
0066 LATIN SMALL LETTER F
0067 LATIN SMALL LETTER G
0068 LATIN SMALL LETTER H
0069 LATIN SMALL LETTER I
006A LATIN SMALL LETTER J
006B LATIN SMALL LETTER K
006C LATIN SMALL LETTER L
006D LATIN SMALL LETTER M
006E LATIN SMALL LETTER N
006F LATIN SMALL LETTER O
0070 LATIN SMALL LETTER P
0071 LATIN SMALL LETTER Q
0072 LATIN SMALL LETTER R
0073 LATIN SMALL LETTER S
0074 LATIN SMALL LETTER T
0075 LATIN SMALL LETTER U
0076 LATIN SMALL LETTER V
0077 LATIN SMALL LETTER W
0078 LATIN SMALL LETTER X
0079 LATIN SMALL LETTER Y
007A LATIN SMALL LETTER Z
007C VERTICAL LINE
§ 00A7 SECTION SIGN
© 00A9 COPYRIGHT SIGN
® 00AE REGISTERED SIGN
00B6 PILCROW SIGN
¼ 00BC VULGAR FRACTION ONE QUARTER
½ 00BD VULGAR FRACTION ONE HALF
¾ 00BE VULGAR FRACTION THREE QUARTERS
Α 0391 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ALPHA
Β 0392 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER BETA
Γ 0393 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER GAMMA
Δ 0394 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER DELTA
Ε 0395 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER EPSILON
Ζ 0396 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ZETA
Η 0397 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ETA
Θ 0398 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER THETA
Ι 0399 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER IOTA
Κ 039A GREEK CAPITAL LETTER KAPPA
Λ 039B GREEK CAPITAL LETTER LAMDA
Μ 039C GREEK CAPITAL LETTER MU
Ν 039D GREEK CAPITAL LETTER NU
Ξ 039E GREEK CAPITAL LETTER XI
Ο 039F GREEK CAPITAL LETTER OMICRON
Π 03A0 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER PI
Ρ 03A1 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER RHO
Σ 03A3 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER SIGMA
Τ 03A4 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER TAU
Υ 03A5 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER UPSILON
Φ 03A6 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER PHI
Χ 03A7 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER CHI
Ψ 03A8 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER PSI
Ω 03A9 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER OMEGA
α 03B1 GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA
β 03B2 GREEK SMALL LETTER BETA
γ 03B3 GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA
δ 03B4 GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA
ε 03B5 GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON
ζ 03B6 GREEK SMALL LETTER ZETA
η 03B7 GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA
θ 03B8 GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA
ι 03B9 GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA
κ 03BA GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA
λ 03BB GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA
μ 03BC GREEK SMALL LETTER MU
ν 03BD GREEK SMALL LETTER NU
ξ 03BE GREEK SMALL LETTER XI
ο 03BF GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON
π 03C0 GREEK SMALL LETTER PI
ρ 03C1 GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO
ς 03C2 GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA
σ 03C3 GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA
τ 03C4 GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU
υ 03C5 GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON
φ 03C6 GREEK SMALL LETTER PHI
χ 03C7 GREEK SMALL LETTER CHI
ψ 03C8 GREEK SMALL LETTER PSI
ω 03C9 GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA
Ё 0401 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER IO
А 0410 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER A
Б 0411 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER BE
В 0412 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER VE
Г 0413 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER GHE
Д 0414 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER DE
Е 0415 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER IE
Ж 0416 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER ZHE
З 0417 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER ZE
И 0418 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER I
Й 0419 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER SHORT I
К 041A CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER KA
Л 041B CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER EL
М 041C CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER EM
Н 041D CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER EN
О 041E CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER O
П 041F CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER PE
Р 0420 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER ER
С 0421 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER ES
Т 0422 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER TE
У 0423 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER U
Ф 0424 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER EF
Х 0425 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER HA
Ц 0426 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER TSE
Ч 0427 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER CHE
Ш 0428 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER SHA
Щ 0429 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER SHCHA
Ъ 042A CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER HARD SIGN
Ы 042B CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER YERU
Ь 042C CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER SOFT SIGN
Э 042D CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER E
Ю 042E CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER YU
Я 042F CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER YA
а 0430 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER A
б 0431 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER BE
в 0432 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER VE
г 0433 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER GHE
д 0434 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER DE
е 0435 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER IE
ж 0436 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER ZHE
з 0437 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER ZE
и 0438 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER I
й 0439 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER SHORT I
к 043A CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER KA
л 043B CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER EL
м 043C CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER EM
н 043D CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER EN
о 043E CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER O
п 043F CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER PE
р 0440 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER ER
с 0441 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER ES
т 0442 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER TE
у 0443 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER U
ф 0444 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER EF
х 0445 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER HA
ц 0446 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER TSE
ч 0447 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER CHE
ш 0448 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER SHA
щ 0449 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER SHCHA
ъ 044A CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER HARD SIGN
ы 044B CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER YERU
ь 044C CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER SOFT SIGN
э 044D CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER E
ю 044E CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER YU
я 044F CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER YA
ё 0451 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER IO
2016 DOUBLE VERTICAL LINE
2020 DAGGER
2021 DOUBLE DAGGER
2022 BULLET
203B REFERENCE MARK
2042 ASTERISM
2051 TWO ASTERISKS ALIGNED VERTICALLY
2121 TELEPHONE SIGN
2153 VULGAR FRACTION ONE THIRD
2154 VULGAR FRACTION TWO THIRDS
2155 VULGAR FRACTION ONE FIFTH
2160 ROMAN NUMERAL ONE
2161 ROMAN NUMERAL TWO
2162 ROMAN NUMERAL THREE
2163 ROMAN NUMERAL FOUR
2164 ROMAN NUMERAL FIVE
2165 ROMAN NUMERAL SIX
2166 ROMAN NUMERAL SEVEN
2167 ROMAN NUMERAL EIGHT
2168 ROMAN NUMERAL NINE
2169 ROMAN NUMERAL TEN
216A ROMAN NUMERAL ELEVEN
216B ROMAN NUMERAL TWELVE
2170 SMALL ROMAN NUMERAL ONE
2171 SMALL ROMAN NUMERAL TWO
2172 SMALL ROMAN NUMERAL THREE
2173 SMALL ROMAN NUMERAL FOUR
2174 SMALL ROMAN NUMERAL FIVE
2175 SMALL ROMAN NUMERAL SIX
2176 SMALL ROMAN NUMERAL SEVEN
2177 SMALL ROMAN NUMERAL EIGHT
2178 SMALL ROMAN NUMERAL NINE
2179 SMALL ROMAN NUMERAL TEN
217A SMALL ROMAN NUMERAL ELEVEN
217B SMALL ROMAN NUMERAL TWELVE
2190 LEFTWARDS ARROW
2191 UPWARDS ARROW
2192 RIGHTWARDS ARROW
2193 DOWNWARDS ARROW
2194 LEFT RIGHT ARROW
2196 NORTH WEST ARROW
2197 NORTH EAST ARROW
2198 SOUTH EAST ARROW
2199 SOUTH WEST ARROW
21C4 RIGHTWARDS ARROW OVER LEFTWARDS ARROW
21E6 LEFTWARDS WHITE ARROW
21E7 UPWARDS WHITE ARROW
21E8 RIGHTWARDS WHITE ARROW
21E9 DOWNWARDS WHITE ARROW
221A SQUARE ROOT
221E INFINITY
221F RIGHT ANGLE
222B INTEGRAL
222C DOUBLE INTEGRAL
2234 THEREFORE
2235 BECAUSE
2296 CIRCLED MINUS
22BF RIGHT TRIANGLE
2318 PLACE OF INTEREST SIGN
23CE RETURN SYMBOL
2423 OPEN BOX
2460 CIRCLED DIGIT ONE
2461 CIRCLED DIGIT TWO
2462 CIRCLED DIGIT THREE
2463 CIRCLED DIGIT FOUR
2464 CIRCLED DIGIT FIVE
2465 CIRCLED DIGIT SIX
2466 CIRCLED DIGIT SEVEN
2467 CIRCLED DIGIT EIGHT
2468 CIRCLED DIGIT NINE
2469 CIRCLED NUMBER TEN
246A CIRCLED NUMBER ELEVEN
246B CIRCLED NUMBER TWELVE
246C CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTEEN
246D CIRCLED NUMBER FOURTEEN
246E CIRCLED NUMBER FIFTEEN
246F CIRCLED NUMBER SIXTEEN
2470 CIRCLED NUMBER SEVENTEEN
2471 CIRCLED NUMBER EIGHTEEN
2472 CIRCLED NUMBER NINETEEN
2473 CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY
24D0 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER A
24D1 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER B
24D2 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER C
24D3 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER D
24D4 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER E
24D5 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER F
24D6 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER G
24D7 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER H
24D8 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER I
24D9 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER J
24DA CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER K
24DB CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER L
24DC CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER M
24DD CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER N
24DE CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER O
24DF CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER P
24E0 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER Q
24E1 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER R
24E2 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER S
24E3 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER T
24E4 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER U
24E5 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER V
24E6 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER W
24E7 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER X
24E8 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER Y
24E9 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER Z
24EB NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER ELEVEN
24EC NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER TWELVE
24ED NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTEEN
24EE NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER FOURTEEN
24EF NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER FIFTEEN
24F0 NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER SIXTEEN
24F1 NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER SEVENTEEN
24F2 NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER EIGHTEEN
24F3 NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER NINETEEN
24F4 NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY
24F5 DOUBLE CIRCLED DIGIT ONE
24F6 DOUBLE CIRCLED DIGIT TWO
24F7 DOUBLE CIRCLED DIGIT THREE
24F8 DOUBLE CIRCLED DIGIT FOUR
24F9 DOUBLE CIRCLED DIGIT FIVE
24FA DOUBLE CIRCLED DIGIT SIX
24FB DOUBLE CIRCLED DIGIT SEVEN
24FC DOUBLE CIRCLED DIGIT EIGHT
24FD DOUBLE CIRCLED DIGIT NINE
24FE DOUBLE CIRCLED NUMBER TEN
25A0 BLACK SQUARE
25A1 WHITE SQUARE
25B1 WHITE PARALLELOGRAM
25B2 BLACK UP-POINTING TRIANGLE
25B3 WHITE UP-POINTING TRIANGLE
25B6 BLACK RIGHT-POINTING TRIANGLE
25B7 WHITE RIGHT-POINTING TRIANGLE
25BC BLACK DOWN-POINTING TRIANGLE
25BD WHITE DOWN-POINTING TRIANGLE
25C0 BLACK LEFT-POINTING TRIANGLE
25C1 WHITE LEFT-POINTING TRIANGLE
25C6 BLACK DIAMOND
25C7 WHITE DIAMOND
25C9 FISHEYE
25CB WHITE CIRCLE
25CE BULLSEYE
25CF BLACK CIRCLE
25D0 CIRCLE WITH LEFT HALF BLACK
25D1 CIRCLE WITH RIGHT HALF BLACK
25D2 CIRCLE WITH LOWER HALF BLACK
25D3 CIRCLE WITH UPPER HALF BLACK
25E6 WHITE BULLET
25EF LARGE CIRCLE
2600 BLACK SUN WITH RAYS
2601 CLOUD
2602 UMBRELLA
2603 SNOWMAN
2605 BLACK STAR
2606 WHITE STAR
260E BLACK TELEPHONE
2616 WHITE SHOGI PIECE
2617 BLACK SHOGI PIECE
261E WHITE RIGHT POINTING INDEX
2640 FEMALE SIGN
2642 MALE SIGN
2660 BLACK SPADE SUIT
2661 WHITE HEART SUIT
2662 WHITE DIAMOND SUIT
2663 BLACK CLUB SUIT
2664 WHITE SPADE SUIT
2665 BLACK HEART SUIT
2666 BLACK DIAMOND SUIT
2667 WHITE CLUB SUIT
2668 HOT SPRINGS
2669 QUARTER NOTE
266A EIGHTH NOTE
266B BEAMED EIGHTH NOTES
266C BEAMED SIXTEENTH NOTES
266D MUSIC FLAT SIGN
266E MUSIC NATURAL SIGN
266F MUSIC SHARP SIGN
2713 CHECK MARK
2756 BLACK DIAMOND MINUS WHITE X
2776 DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED DIGIT ONE
2777 DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED DIGIT TWO
2778 DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED DIGIT THREE
2779 DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED DIGIT FOUR
277A DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED DIGIT FIVE
277B DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED DIGIT SIX
277C DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED DIGIT SEVEN
277D DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED DIGIT EIGHT
277E DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED DIGIT NINE
277F DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER TEN
2934 ARROW POINTING RIGHTWARDS THEN CURVING UPWARDS
2935 ARROW POINTING RIGHTWARDS THEN CURVING DOWNWARDS
⦿ 29BF CIRCLED BULLET
29FA DOUBLE PLUS
29FB TRIPLE PLUS
3003 DITTO MARK
3006 IDEOGRAPHIC CLOSING MARK
3007 IDEOGRAPHIC NUMBER ZERO
3012 POSTAL MARK
3013 GETA MARK
3020 POSTAL MARK FACE
303C MASU MARK
303D PART ALTERNATION MARK
309F HIRAGANA DIGRAPH YORI
30FF KATAKANA DIGRAPH KOTO
3231 PARENTHESIZED IDEOGRAPH STOCK
3232 PARENTHESIZED IDEOGRAPH HAVE
3239 PARENTHESIZED IDEOGRAPH REPRESENT
3251 CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY ONE
3252 CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY TWO
3253 CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY THREE
3254 CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY FOUR
3255 CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY FIVE
3256 CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY SIX
3257 CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY SEVEN
3258 CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY EIGHT
3259 CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY NINE
325A CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTY
325B CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTY ONE
325C CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTY TWO
325D CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTY THREE
325E CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTY FOUR
325F CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTY FIVE
32A4 CIRCLED IDEOGRAPH HIGH
32A5 CIRCLED IDEOGRAPH CENTRE
32A6 CIRCLED IDEOGRAPH LOW
32A7 CIRCLED IDEOGRAPH LEFT
32A8 CIRCLED IDEOGRAPH RIGHT
32B1 CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTY SIX
32B2 CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTY SEVEN
32B3 CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTY EIGHT
32B4 CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTY NINE
32B5 CIRCLED NUMBER FORTY
32B6 CIRCLED NUMBER FORTY ONE
32B7 CIRCLED NUMBER FORTY TWO
32B8 CIRCLED NUMBER FORTY THREE
32B9 CIRCLED NUMBER FORTY FOUR
32BA CIRCLED NUMBER FORTY FIVE
32BB CIRCLED NUMBER FORTY SIX
32BC CIRCLED NUMBER FORTY SEVEN
32BD CIRCLED NUMBER FORTY EIGHT
32BE CIRCLED NUMBER FORTY NINE
32BF CIRCLED NUMBER FIFTY
32D0 CIRCLED KATAKANA A
32D1 CIRCLED KATAKANA I
32D2 CIRCLED KATAKANA U
32D3 CIRCLED KATAKANA E
32D4 CIRCLED KATAKANA O
32D5 CIRCLED KATAKANA KA
32D6 CIRCLED KATAKANA KI
32D7 CIRCLED KATAKANA KU
32D8 CIRCLED KATAKANA KE
32D9 CIRCLED KATAKANA KO
32DA CIRCLED KATAKANA SA
32DB CIRCLED KATAKANA SI
32DC CIRCLED KATAKANA SU
32DD CIRCLED KATAKANA SE
32DE CIRCLED KATAKANA SO
32DF CIRCLED KATAKANA TA
32E0 CIRCLED KATAKANA TI
32E1 CIRCLED KATAKANA TU
32E2 CIRCLED KATAKANA TE
32E3 CIRCLED KATAKANA TO
32E5 CIRCLED KATAKANA NI
32E9 CIRCLED KATAKANA HA
32EC CIRCLED KATAKANA HE
32ED CIRCLED KATAKANA HO
32FA CIRCLED KATAKANA RO
337B SQUARE ERA NAME HEISEI
337C SQUARE ERA NAME SYOUWA
337D SQUARE ERA NAME TAISYOU
337E SQUARE ERA NAME MEIZI
33CD SQUARE KK
4EDD CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4EDD

Characters as reference marks (cl-20)

Any character may participate in reference marks.

Ornamented character complexes (cl-21)

Any character may participate in ornamented character complex.

Simple-ruby character complexes (cl-22)

Any character may participate in simple-ruby character complex.

Jukugo-ruby character complexes (cl-23)

Any character may participate in jukugo-ruby character complex.

Grouped numerals (cl-24)

Character UCS Name Remark
0020 SPACE quarter em width
, 002C COMMA quarter em width or half-width
. 002E FULL STOP decimal point
quarter em width or half-width
0 0030 DIGIT ZERO half-width
1 0031 DIGIT ONE half-width
2 0032 DIGIT TWO half-width
3 0033 DIGIT THREE half-width
4 0034 DIGIT FOUR half-width
5 0035 DIGIT FIVE half-width
6 0036 DIGIT SIX half-width
7 0037 DIGIT SEVEN half-width
8 0038 DIGIT EIGHT half-width
9 0039 DIGIT NINE half-width

Unit symbols (cl-25)

Character UCS Name Remark
0020 SPACE quarter em width
( 0028 LEFT PARENTHESIS
) 0029 RIGHT PARENTHESIS
/ 002F SOLIDUS one third em width, half-width or proportional
1 0031 DIGIT ONE half-width or proportional
2 0032 DIGIT TWO half-width or proportional
3 0033 DIGIT THREE half-width or proportional
4 0034 DIGIT FOUR half-width or proportional
A 0041 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A proportional
B 0042 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER B proportional
C 0043 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER C proportional
D 0044 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER D proportional
E 0045 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E proportional
F 0046 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER F proportional
G 0047 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER G proportional
H 0048 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER H proportional
I 0049 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I proportional
J 004A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER J proportional
K 004B LATIN CAPITAL LETTER K proportional
L 004C LATIN CAPITAL LETTER L proportional
M 004D LATIN CAPITAL LETTER M proportional
N 004E LATIN CAPITAL LETTER N proportional
O 004F LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O proportional
P 0050 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER P proportional
Q 0051 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Q proportional
R 0052 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER R proportional
S 0053 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER S proportional
T 0054 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER T proportional
U 0055 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U proportional
V 0056 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER V proportional
W 0057 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER W proportional
X 0058 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER X proportional
Y 0059 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Y proportional
Z 005A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z proportional
a 0061 LATIN SMALL LETTER A proportional
b 0062 LATIN SMALL LETTER B proportional
c 0063 LATIN SMALL LETTER C proportional
d 0064 LATIN SMALL LETTER D proportional
e 0065 LATIN SMALL LETTER E proportional
f 0066 LATIN SMALL LETTER F proportional
g 0067 LATIN SMALL LETTER G proportional
h 0068 LATIN SMALL LETTER H proportional
i 0069 LATIN SMALL LETTER I proportional
j 006A LATIN SMALL LETTER J proportional
k 006B LATIN SMALL LETTER K proportional
l 006C LATIN SMALL LETTER L proportional
m 006D LATIN SMALL LETTER M proportional
n 006E LATIN SMALL LETTER N proportional
o 006F LATIN SMALL LETTER O proportional
p 0070 LATIN SMALL LETTER P proportional
q 0071 LATIN SMALL LETTER Q proportional
r 0072 LATIN SMALL LETTER R proportional
s 0073 LATIN SMALL LETTER S proportional
t 0074 LATIN SMALL LETTER T proportional
u 0075 LATIN SMALL LETTER U proportional
v 0076 LATIN SMALL LETTER V proportional
w 0077 LATIN SMALL LETTER W proportional
x 0078 LATIN SMALL LETTER X proportional
y 0079 LATIN SMALL LETTER Y proportional
z 007A LATIN SMALL LETTER Z proportional
Ω 03A9 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER OMEGA proportional
μ 03BC GREEK SMALL LETTER MU proportional
2127 INVERTED OHM SIGN proportional
Å 212B ANGSTROM SIGN proportional
2212 MINUS SIGN
30FB KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT half-width

Western word space (cl-26)

Character UCS Name Remark
0020 SPACE

Western characters (cl-27)

Character UCS Name Remark
! 0021 EXCLAMATION MARK proportional
" 0022 QUOTATION MARK proportional
# 0023 NUMBER SIGN proportional
$ 0024 DOLLAR SIGN proportional
% 0025 PERCENT SIGN proportional
& 0026 AMPERSAND proportional
' 0027 APOSTROPHE proportional
( 0028 LEFT PARENTHESIS proportional
) 0029 RIGHT PARENTHESIS proportional
* 002A ASTERISK proportional
+ 002B PLUS SIGN proportional
, 002C COMMA proportional
- 002D HYPHEN-MINUS proportional
. 002E FULL STOP proportional
/ 002F SOLIDUS proportional
0 0030 DIGIT ZERO proportional
1 0031 DIGIT ONE proportional
2 0032 DIGIT TWO proportional
3 0033 DIGIT THREE proportional
4 0034 DIGIT FOUR proportional
5 0035 DIGIT FIVE proportional
6 0036 DIGIT SIX proportional
7 0037 DIGIT SEVEN proportional
8 0038 DIGIT EIGHT proportional
9 0039 DIGIT NINE proportional
: 003A COLON proportional
; 003B SEMICOLON proportional
< 003C LESS-THAN SIGN proportional
= 003D EQUALS SIGN proportional
> 003E GREATER-THAN SIGN proportional
? 003F QUESTION MARK proportional
@ 0040 COMMERCIAL AT proportional
A 0041 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A proportional
B 0042 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER B proportional
C 0043 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER C proportional
D 0044 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER D proportional
E 0045 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E proportional
F 0046 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER F proportional
G 0047 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER G proportional
H 0048 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER H proportional
I 0049 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I proportional
J 004A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER J proportional
K 004B LATIN CAPITAL LETTER K proportional
L 004C LATIN CAPITAL LETTER L proportional
M 004D LATIN CAPITAL LETTER M proportional
N 004E LATIN CAPITAL LETTER N proportional
O 004F LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O proportional
P 0050 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER P proportional
Q 0051 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Q proportional
R 0052 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER R proportional
S 0053 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER S proportional
T 0054 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER T proportional
U 0055 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U proportional
V 0056 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER V proportional
W 0057 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER W proportional
X 0058 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER X proportional
Y 0059 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Y proportional
Z 005A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z proportional
[ 005B LEFT SQUARE BRACKET proportional
\ 005C REVERSE SOLIDUS proportional
] 005D RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET proportional
^ 005E CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT proportional
_ 005F LOW LINE proportional
` 0060 GRAVE ACCENT proportional
a 0061 LATIN SMALL LETTER A proportional
b 0062 LATIN SMALL LETTER B proportional
c 0063 LATIN SMALL LETTER C proportional
d 0064 LATIN SMALL LETTER D proportional
e 0065 LATIN SMALL LETTER E proportional
f 0066 LATIN SMALL LETTER F proportional
g 0067 LATIN SMALL LETTER G proportional
h 0068 LATIN SMALL LETTER H proportional
i 0069 LATIN SMALL LETTER I proportional
j 006A LATIN SMALL LETTER J proportional
k 006B LATIN SMALL LETTER K proportional
l 006C LATIN SMALL LETTER L proportional
m 006D LATIN SMALL LETTER M proportional
n 006E LATIN SMALL LETTER N proportional
o 006F LATIN SMALL LETTER O proportional
p 0070 LATIN SMALL LETTER P proportional
q 0071 LATIN SMALL LETTER Q proportional
r 0072 LATIN SMALL LETTER R proportional
s 0073 LATIN SMALL LETTER S proportional
t 0074 LATIN SMALL LETTER T proportional
u 0075 LATIN SMALL LETTER U proportional
v 0076 LATIN SMALL LETTER V proportional
w 0077 LATIN SMALL LETTER W proportional
x 0078 LATIN SMALL LETTER X proportional
y 0079 LATIN SMALL LETTER Y proportional
z 007A LATIN SMALL LETTER Z proportional
{ 007B LEFT CURLY BRACKET proportional
| 007C VERTICAL LINE proportional
} 007D RIGHT CURLY BRACKET proportional
~ 007E TILDE proportional
  00A0 NO-BREAK SPACE proportional
¡ 00A1 INVERTED EXCLAMATION MARK proportional
¢ 00A2 CENT SIGN proportional
£ 00A3 POUND SIGN proportional
¤ 00A4 CURRENCY SIGN proportional
¥ 00A5 YEN SIGN proportional
¦ 00A6 BROKEN BAR proportional
§ 00A7 SECTION SIGN proportional
¨ 00A8 DIAERESIS proportional
© 00A9 COPYRIGHT SIGN proportional
ª 00AA FEMININE ORDINAL INDICATOR proportional
« 00AB LEFT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARK proportional
¬ 00AC NOT SIGN proportional
­ 00AD SOFT HYPHEN proportional
® 00AE REGISTERED SIGN proportional
¯ 00AF MACRON proportional
° 00B0 DEGREE SIGN proportional
± 00B1 PLUS-MINUS SIGN proportional
² 00B2 SUPERSCRIPT TWO proportional
³ 00B3 SUPERSCRIPT THREE proportional
´ 00B4 ACUTE ACCENT proportional
00B6 PILCROW SIGN proportional
· 00B7 MIDDLE DOT proportional
¸ 00B8 CEDILLA proportional
¹ 00B9 SUPERSCRIPT ONE proportional
º 00BA MASCULINE ORDINAL INDICATOR proportional
» 00BB RIGHT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARK proportional
¼ 00BC VULGAR FRACTION ONE QUARTER proportional
½ 00BD VULGAR FRACTION ONE HALF proportional
¾ 00BE VULGAR FRACTION THREE QUARTERS proportional
¿ 00BF INVERTED QUESTION MARK proportional
À 00C0 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH GRAVE proportional
Á 00C1 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH ACUTE proportional
 00C2 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
à 00C3 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH TILDE proportional
Ä 00C4 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH DIAERESIS proportional
Å 00C5 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH RING ABOVE proportional
Æ 00C6 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER AE (ash) proportional
Ç 00C7 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER C WITH CEDILLA proportional
È 00C8 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH GRAVE proportional
É 00C9 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH ACUTE proportional
Ê 00CA LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
Ë 00CB LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH DIAERESIS proportional
Ì 00CC LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I WITH GRAVE proportional
Í 00CD LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I WITH ACUTE proportional
Î 00CE LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
Ï 00CF LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I WITH DIAERESIS proportional
Ð 00D0 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER ETH (Icelandic) proportional
Ñ 00D1 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER N WITH TILDE proportional
Ò 00D2 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH GRAVE proportional
Ó 00D3 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH ACUTE proportional
Ô 00D4 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
Õ 00D5 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH TILDE proportional
Ö 00D6 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH DIAERESIS proportional
× 00D7 MULTIPLICATION SIGN proportional
Ø 00D8 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH STROKE proportional
Ù 00D9 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U WITH GRAVE proportional
Ú 00DA LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U WITH ACUTE proportional
Û 00DB LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
Ü 00DC LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U WITH DIAERESIS proportional
Ý 00DD LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Y WITH ACUTE proportional
Þ 00DE LATIN CAPITAL LETTER THORN (Icelandic) proportional
ß 00DF LATIN SMALL LETTER SHARP S (German) proportional
à 00E0 LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH GRAVE proportional
á 00E1 LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH ACUTE proportional
â 00E2 LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
ã 00E3 LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH TILDE proportional
ä 00E4 LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH DIAERESIS proportional
å 00E5 LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH RING ABOVE proportional
æ 00E6 LATIN SMALL LETTER AE (ash) proportional
æ̀ <00E6, 0300> <LATIN SMALL LETTER AE, COMBINING GRAVE ACCENT> proportional
ç 00E7 LATIN SMALL LETTER C WITH CEDILLA proportional
è 00E8 LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH GRAVE proportional
é 00E9 LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH ACUTE proportional
ê 00EA LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
ë 00EB LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH DIAERESIS proportional
ì 00EC LATIN SMALL LETTER I WITH GRAVE proportional
í 00ED LATIN SMALL LETTER I WITH ACUTE proportional
î 00EE LATIN SMALL LETTER I WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
ï 00EF LATIN SMALL LETTER I WITH DIAERESIS proportional
ð 00F0 LATIN SMALL LETTER ETH (Icelandic) proportional
ñ 00F1 LATIN SMALL LETTER N WITH TILDE proportional
ò 00F2 LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH GRAVE proportional
ó 00F3 LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH ACUTE proportional
ô 00F4 LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
õ 00F5 LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH TILDE proportional
ö 00F6 LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH DIAERESIS proportional
÷ 00F7 DIVISION SIGN proportional
ø 00F8 LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH STROKE proportional
ù 00F9 LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH GRAVE proportional
ú 00FA LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH ACUTE proportional
û 00FB LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
ü 00FC LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH DIAERESIS proportional
ý 00FD LATIN SMALL LETTER Y WITH ACUTE proportional
þ 00FE LATIN SMALL LETTER THORN (Icelandic) proportional
ÿ 00FF LATIN SMALL LETTER Y WITH DIAERESIS proportional
Ā 0100 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH MACRON proportional
ā 0101 LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH MACRON proportional
Ă 0102 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH BREVE proportional
ă 0103 LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH BREVE proportional
Ą 0104 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH OGONEK proportional
ą 0105 LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH OGONEK proportional
Ć 0106 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER C WITH ACUTE proportional
ć 0107 LATIN SMALL LETTER C WITH ACUTE proportional
Ĉ 0108 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER C WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
ĉ 0109 LATIN SMALL LETTER C WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
Č 010C LATIN CAPITAL LETTER C WITH CARON proportional
č 010D LATIN SMALL LETTER C WITH CARON proportional
Ď 010E LATIN CAPITAL LETTER D WITH CARON proportional
ď 010F LATIN SMALL LETTER D WITH CARON proportional
đ 0111 LATIN SMALL LETTER D WITH STROKE proportional
Ē 0112 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH MACRON proportional
ē 0113 LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH MACRON proportional
Ę 0118 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH OGONEK proportional
ę 0119 LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH OGONEK proportional
Ě 011A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH CARON proportional
ě 011B LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH CARON proportional
Ĝ 011C LATIN CAPITAL LETTER G WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
ĝ 011D LATIN SMALL LETTER G WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
Ĥ 0124 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER H WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
ĥ 0125 LATIN SMALL LETTER H WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
ħ 0127 LATIN SMALL LETTER H WITH STROKE proportional
Ī 012A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I WITH MACRON proportional
ī 012B LATIN SMALL LETTER I WITH MACRON proportional
Ĵ 0134 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER J WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
ĵ 0135 LATIN SMALL LETTER J WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
Ĺ 0139 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER L WITH ACUTE proportional
ĺ 013A LATIN SMALL LETTER L WITH ACUTE proportional
Ľ 013D LATIN CAPITAL LETTER L WITH CARON proportional
ľ 013E LATIN SMALL LETTER L WITH CARON proportional
Ł 0141 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER L WITH STROKE proportional
ł 0142 LATIN SMALL LETTER L WITH STROKE proportional
Ń 0143 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER N WITH ACUTE proportional
ń 0144 LATIN SMALL LETTER N WITH ACUTE proportional
Ň 0147 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER N WITH CARON proportional
ň 0148 LATIN SMALL LETTER N WITH CARON proportional
ŋ 014B LATIN SMALL LETTER ENG (Sami) proportional
Ō 014C LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH MACRON proportional
ō 014D LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH MACRON proportional
Ő 0150 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH DOUBLE ACUTE proportional
ő 0151 LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH DOUBLE ACUTE proportional
Π0152 LATIN CAPITAL LIGATURE OE proportional
œ 0153 LATIN SMALL LIGATURE OE proportional
Ŕ 0154 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER R WITH ACUTE proportional
ŕ 0155 LATIN SMALL LETTER R WITH ACUTE proportional
Ř 0158 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER R WITH CARON proportional
ř 0159 LATIN SMALL LETTER R WITH CARON proportional
Ś 015A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER S WITH ACUTE proportional
ś 015B LATIN SMALL LETTER S WITH ACUTE proportional
Ŝ 015C LATIN CAPITAL LETTER S WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
ŝ 015D LATIN SMALL LETTER S WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
Ş 015E LATIN CAPITAL LETTER S WITH CEDILLA proportional
ş 015F LATIN SMALL LETTER S WITH CEDILLA proportional
Š 0160 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER S WITH CARON proportional
š 0161 LATIN SMALL LETTER S WITH CARON proportional
Ţ 0162 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER T WITH CEDILLA proportional
ţ 0163 LATIN SMALL LETTER T WITH CEDILLA proportional
Ť 0164 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER T WITH CARON proportional
ť 0165 LATIN SMALL LETTER T WITH CARON proportional
Ū 016A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U WITH MACRON proportional
ū 016B LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH MACRON proportional
Ŭ 016C LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U WITH BREVE proportional
ŭ 016D LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH BREVE proportional
Ů 016E LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U WITH RING ABOVE proportional
ů 016F LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH RING ABOVE proportional
Ű 0170 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U WITH DOUBLE ACUTE proportional
ű 0171 LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH DOUBLE ACUTE proportional
Ź 0179 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z WITH ACUTE proportional
ź 017A LATIN SMALL LETTER Z WITH ACUTE proportional
Ż 017B LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z WITH DOT ABOVE proportional
ż 017C LATIN SMALL LETTER Z WITH DOT ABOVE proportional
Ž 017D LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z WITH CARON proportional
ž 017E LATIN SMALL LETTER Z WITH CARON proportional
Ɠ 0193 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER G WITH HOOK proportional
ǂ 01C2 LATIN LETTER ALVEOLAR CLICK proportional
Ǎ 01CD LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH CARON proportional
ǎ 01CE LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH CARON proportional
ǐ 01D0 LATIN SMALL LETTER I WITH CARON proportional
Ǒ 01D1 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH CARON proportional
ǒ 01D2 LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH CARON proportional
ǔ 01D4 LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH CARON proportional
ǖ 01D6 LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH DIAERESIS AND MACRON proportional
ǘ 01D8 LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH DIAERESIS AND ACUTE proportional
ǚ 01DA LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH DIAERESIS AND CARON proportional
ǜ 01DC LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH DIAERESIS AND GRAVE proportional
Ǹ 01F8 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER N WITH GRAVE proportional
ǹ 01F9 LATIN SMALL LETTER N WITH GRAVE proportional
ǽ 01FD LATIN SMALL LETTER AE WITH ACUTE (ash) proportional
ɐ 0250 LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED A proportional
ɑ 0251 LATIN SMALL LETTER ALPHA proportional
ɒ 0252 LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED ALPHA proportional
ɓ 0253 LATIN SMALL LETTER B WITH HOOK proportional
ɔ 0254 LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O proportional
ɔ̀ <0254, 0300> <LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O, COMBINING GRAVE ACCENT> proportional
ɔ́ <0254, 0301> <LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O, COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT> proportional
ɕ 0255 LATIN SMALL LETTER C WITH CURL proportional
ɖ 0256 LATIN SMALL LETTER D WITH TAIL proportional
ɗ 0257 LATIN SMALL LETTER D WITH HOOK proportional
ɘ 0258 LATIN SMALL LETTER REVERSED E proportional
ə 0259 LATIN SMALL LETTER SCHWA proportional
ə̀ <0259, 0300> <LATIN SMALL LETTER SCHWA, COMBINING GRAVE ACCENT> proportional
ə́ <0259, 0301> <LATIN SMALL LETTER SCHWA, COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT> proportional
ɚ 025A LATIN SMALL LETTER SCHWA WITH HOOK proportional
ɚ̀ <025A, 0300> <LATIN SMALL LETTER SCHWA WITH HOOK, COMBINING GRAVE ACCENT> proportional
ɚ́ <025A, 0301> <LATIN SMALL LETTER SCHWA WITH HOOK, COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT> proportional
ɜ 025C LATIN SMALL LETTER REVERSED OPEN E proportional
ɞ 025E LATIN SMALL LETTER CLOSED REVERSED OPEN E proportional
ɟ 025F LATIN SMALL LETTER DOTLESS J WITH STROKE proportional
ɠ 0260 LATIN SMALL LETTER G WITH HOOK proportional
ɡ 0261 LATIN SMALL LETTER SCRIPT G proportional
ɤ 0264 LATIN SMALL LETTER RAMS HORN proportional
ɥ 0265 LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED H proportional
ɦ 0266 LATIN SMALL LETTER H WITH HOOK proportional
ɧ 0267 LATIN SMALL LETTER HENG WITH HOOK proportional
ɨ 0268 LATIN SMALL LETTER I WITH STROKE proportional
ɬ 026C LATIN SMALL LETTER L WITH BELT proportional
ɭ 026D LATIN SMALL LETTER L WITH RETROFLEX HOOK proportional
ɮ 026E LATIN SMALL LETTER LEZH proportional
ɯ 026F LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED M proportional
ɰ 0270 LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED M WITH LONG LEG proportional
ɱ 0271 LATIN SMALL LETTER M WITH HOOK proportional
ɲ 0272 LATIN SMALL LETTER N WITH LEFT HOOK proportional
ɳ 0273 LATIN SMALL LETTER N WITH RETROFLEX HOOK proportional
ɵ 0275 LATIN SMALL LETTER BARRED O proportional
ɹ 0279 LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED R proportional
ɺ 027A LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED R WITH LONG LEG proportional
ɻ 027B LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED R WITH HOOK proportional
ɽ 027D LATIN SMALL LETTER R WITH TAIL proportional
ɾ 027E LATIN SMALL LETTER R WITH FISHHOOK proportional
ʁ 0281 LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL INVERTED R proportional
ʂ 0282 LATIN SMALL LETTER S WITH HOOK proportional
ʃ 0283 LATIN SMALL LETTER ESH proportional
ʄ 0284 LATIN SMALL LETTER DOTLESS J WITH STROKE AND HOOK proportional
ʈ 0288 LATIN SMALL LETTER T WITH RETROFLEX HOOK proportional
ʉ 0289 LATIN SMALL LETTER U BAR proportional
ʊ 028A LATIN SMALL LETTER UPSILON proportional
ʋ 028B LATIN SMALL LETTER V WITH HOOK proportional
ʌ 028C LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED V proportional
ʌ̀ <028C, 0300> <LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED V, COMBINING GRAVE ACCENT> proportional
ʌ́ <028C, 0301> <LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED V, COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT> proportional
ʍ 028D LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED W proportional
ʎ 028E LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED Y proportional
ʐ 0290 LATIN SMALL LETTER Z WITH RETROFLEX HOOK proportional
ʑ 0291 LATIN SMALL LETTER Z WITH CURL proportional
ʒ 0292 LATIN SMALL LETTER EZH proportional
ʔ 0294 LATIN LETTER GLOTTAL STOP proportional
ʕ 0295 LATIN LETTER PHARYNGEAL VOICED FRICATIVE proportional
ʘ 0298 LATIN LETTER BILABIAL CLICK proportional
ʝ 029D LATIN SMALL LETTER J WITH CROSSED-TAIL proportional
ʡ 02A1 LATIN LETTER GLOTTAL STOP WITH STROKE proportional
ʢ 02A2 LATIN LETTER REVERSED GLOTTAL STOP WITH STROKE proportional
ˇ 02C7 CARON (Mandarin Chinese third tone) proportional
ˈ 02C8 MODIFIER LETTER VERTICAL LINE proportional
ˌ 02CC MODIFIER LETTER LOW VERTICAL LINE proportional
ː 02D0 MODIFIER LETTER TRIANGULAR COLON proportional
ˑ 02D1 MODIFIER LETTER HALF TRIANGULAR COLON proportional
˘ 02D8 BREVE proportional
˙ 02D9 DOT ABOVE (Mandarin Chinese light tone) proportional
˛ 02DB OGONEK proportional
˝ 02DD DOUBLE ACUTE ACCENT proportional
˞ 02DE MODIFIER LETTER RHOTIC HOOK proportional
˥ 02E5 MODIFIER LETTER EXTRA-HIGH TONE BAR proportional
˥˩ <02E5, 02E9> <MODIFIER LETTER EXTRA-HIGH TONE BAR, MODIFIER LETTER EXTRA-LOW TONE BAR> proportional
˦ 02E6 MODIFIER LETTER HIGH TONE BAR proportional
˧ 02E7 MODIFIER LETTER MID TONE BAR proportional
˨ 02E8 MODIFIER LETTER LOW TONE BAR proportional
˩ 02E9 MODIFIER LETTER EXTRA-LOW TONE BAR proportional
˩˥ <02E9, 02E5> <MODIFIER LETTER EXTRA-LOW TONE BAR, MODIFIER LETTER EXTRA-HIGH TONE BAR> proportional
̀ 0300 COMBINING GRAVE ACCENT (Varia) proportional
́ 0301 COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT (Oxia, Tonos) proportional
̂ 0302 COMBINING CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT proportional
̃ 0303 COMBINING TILDE proportional
̄ 0304 COMBINING MACRON proportional
̆ 0306 COMBINING BREVE (Vrachy) proportional
̈ 0308 COMBINING DIAERESIS (Dialytika) proportional
̋ 030B COMBINING DOUBLE ACUTE ACCENT proportional
̌ 030C COMBINING CARON proportional
̏ 030F COMBINING DOUBLE GRAVE ACCENT proportional
̘ 0318 COMBINING LEFT TACK BELOW proportional
̙ 0319 COMBINING RIGHT TACK BELOW proportional
̚ 031A COMBINING LEFT ANGLE ABOVE proportional
̜ 031C COMBINING LEFT HALF RING BELOW proportional
̝ 031D COMBINING UP TACK BELOW proportional
̞ 031E COMBINING DOWN TACK BELOW proportional
̟ 031F COMBINING PLUS SIGN BELOW proportional
̠ 0320 COMBINING MINUS SIGN BELOW proportional
̤ 0324 COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW proportional
̥ 0325 COMBINING RING BELOW proportional
̩ 0329 COMBINING VERTICAL LINE BELOW proportional
̪ 032A COMBINING BRIDGE BELOW proportional
̬ 032C COMBINING CARON BELOW proportional
̯ 032F COMBINING INVERTED BREVE BELOW proportional
̰ 0330 COMBINING TILDE BELOW proportional
̴ 0334 COMBINING TILDE OVERLAY proportional
̹ 0339 COMBINING RIGHT HALF RING BELOW proportional
̺ 033A COMBINING INVERTED BRIDGE BELOW proportional
̻ 033B COMBINING SQUARE BELOW proportional
̼ 033C COMBINING SEAGULL BELOW proportional
̽ 033D COMBINING X ABOVE proportional
͡ 0361 COMBINING DOUBLE INVERTED BREVE proportional
Α 0391 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ALPHA proportional
Β 0392 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER BETA proportional
Γ 0393 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER GAMMA proportional
Δ 0394 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER DELTA proportional
Ε 0395 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER EPSILON proportional
Ζ 0396 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ZETA proportional
Η 0397 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ETA proportional
Θ 0398 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER THETA proportional
Ι 0399 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER IOTA proportional
Κ 039A GREEK CAPITAL LETTER KAPPA proportional
Λ 039B GREEK CAPITAL LETTER LAMDA proportional
Μ 039C GREEK CAPITAL LETTER MU proportional
Ν 039D GREEK CAPITAL LETTER NU proportional
Ξ 039E GREEK CAPITAL LETTER XI proportional
Ο 039F GREEK CAPITAL LETTER OMICRON proportional
Π 03A0 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER PI proportional
Ρ 03A1 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER RHO proportional
Σ 03A3 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER SIGMA proportional
Τ 03A4 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER TAU proportional
Υ 03A5 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER UPSILON proportional
Φ 03A6 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER PHI proportional
Χ 03A7 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER CHI proportional
Ψ 03A8 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER PSI proportional
Ω 03A9 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER OMEGA proportional
α 03B1 GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA proportional
β 03B2 GREEK SMALL LETTER BETA proportional
γ 03B3 GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA proportional
δ 03B4 GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA proportional
ε 03B5 GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON proportional
ζ 03B6 GREEK SMALL LETTER ZETA proportional
η 03B7 GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA proportional
θ 03B8 GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA proportional
ι 03B9 GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA proportional
κ 03BA GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA proportional
λ 03BB GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA proportional
μ 03BC GREEK SMALL LETTER MU proportional
ν 03BD GREEK SMALL LETTER NU proportional
ξ 03BE GREEK SMALL LETTER XI proportional
ο 03BF GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON proportional
π 03C0 GREEK SMALL LETTER PI proportional
ρ 03C1 GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO proportional
ς 03C2 GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA proportional
σ 03C3 GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA proportional
τ 03C4 GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU proportional
υ 03C5 GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON proportional
φ 03C6 GREEK SMALL LETTER PHI proportional
χ 03C7 GREEK SMALL LETTER CHI proportional
ψ 03C8 GREEK SMALL LETTER PSI proportional
ω 03C9 GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA proportional
Ё 0401 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER IO proportional
А 0410 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER A proportional
Б 0411 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER BE proportional
В 0412 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER VE proportional
Г 0413 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER GHE proportional
Д 0414 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER DE proportional
Е 0415 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER IE proportional
Ж 0416 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER ZHE proportional
З 0417 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER ZE proportional
И 0418 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER I proportional
Й 0419 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER SHORT I proportional
К 041A CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER KA proportional
Л 041B CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER EL proportional
М 041C CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER EM proportional
Н 041D CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER EN proportional
О 041E CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER O proportional
П 041F CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER PE proportional
Р 0420 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER ER proportional
С 0421 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER ES proportional
Т 0422 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER TE proportional
У 0423 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER U proportional
Ф 0424 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER EF proportional
Х 0425 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER HA proportional
Ц 0426 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER TSE proportional
Ч 0427 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER CHE proportional
Ш 0428 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER SHA proportional
Щ 0429 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER SHCHA proportional
Ъ 042A CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER HARD SIGN proportional
Ы 042B CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER YERU proportional
Ь 042C CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER SOFT SIGN proportional
Э 042D CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER E proportional
Ю 042E CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER YU proportional
Я 042F CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER YA proportional
а 0430 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER A proportional
б 0431 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER BE proportional
в 0432 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER VE proportional
г 0433 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER GHE proportional
д 0434 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER DE proportional
е 0435 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER IE proportional
ж 0436 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER ZHE proportional
з 0437 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER ZE proportional
и 0438 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER I proportional
й 0439 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER SHORT I proportional
к 043A CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER KA proportional
л 043B CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER EL proportional
м 043C CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER EM proportional
н 043D CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER EN proportional
о 043E CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER O proportional
п 043F CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER PE proportional
р 0440 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER ER proportional
с 0441 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER ES proportional
т 0442 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER TE proportional
у 0443 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER U proportional
ф 0444 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER EF proportional
х 0445 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER HA proportional
ц 0446 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER TSE proportional
ч 0447 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER CHE proportional
ш 0448 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER SHA proportional
щ 0449 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER SHCHA proportional
ъ 044A CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER HARD SIGN proportional
ы 044B CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER YERU proportional
ь 044C CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER SOFT SIGN proportional
э 044D CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER E proportional
ю 044E CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER YU proportional
я 044F CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER YA proportional
ё 0451 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER IO proportional
1E3E LATIN CAPITAL LETTER M WITH ACUTE proportional
ḿ 1E3F LATIN SMALL LETTER M WITH ACUTE proportional
1F70 GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH VARIA proportional
ά 1F71 GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH OXIA proportional
1F72 GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH VARIA proportional
έ 1F73 GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH OXIA proportional
2010 HYPHEN proportional
2013 EN DASH proportional
2014 EM DASH proportional
2016 DOUBLE VERTICAL LINE proportional
2018 LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK proportional
2019 RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK proportional
201C LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK proportional
201D RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK proportional
2020 DAGGER proportional
2021 DOUBLE DAGGER proportional
2022 BULLET proportional
2025 TWO DOT LEADER proportional
2026 HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS proportional
2030 PER MILLE SIGN proportional
2032 PRIME proportional
2033 DOUBLE PRIME proportional
203E OVERLINE proportional
203F UNDERTIE (Enotikon) proportional
2042 ASTERISM proportional
2051 TWO ASTERISKS ALIGNED VERTICALLY proportional
20AC EURO SIGN proportional
210F PLANCK CONSTANT OVER TWO PI proportional
2127 INVERTED OHM SIGN proportional
Å 212B ANGSTROM SIGN proportional
2135 ALEF SYMBOL proportional
2153 VULGAR FRACTION ONE THIRD proportional
2154 VULGAR FRACTION TWO THIRDS proportional
2155 VULGAR FRACTION ONE FIFTH proportional
2190 LEFTWARDS ARROW proportional
2191 UPWARDS ARROW proportional
2192 RIGHTWARDS ARROW proportional
2193 DOWNWARDS ARROW proportional
2194 LEFT RIGHT ARROW proportional
2196 NORTH WEST ARROW proportional
2197 NORTH EAST ARROW proportional
2198 SOUTH EAST ARROW proportional
2199 SOUTH WEST ARROW proportional
21C4 RIGHTWARDS ARROW OVER LEFTWARDS ARROW proportional
21D2 RIGHTWARDS DOUBLE ARROW proportional
21D4 LEFT RIGHT DOUBLE ARROW proportional
21E6 LEFTWARDS WHITE ARROW proportional
21E7 UPWARDS WHITE ARROW proportional
21E8 RIGHTWARDS WHITE ARROW proportional
21E9 DOWNWARDS WHITE ARROW proportional
2200 FOR ALL proportional
2202 PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL proportional
2203 THERE EXISTS proportional
2205 EMPTY SET proportional
2207 NABLA proportional
2208 ELEMENT OF proportional
2209 NOT AN ELEMENT OF proportional
220B CONTAINS AS MEMBER proportional
2212 MINUS SIGN proportional
2213 MINUS-OR-PLUS SIGN proportional
221A SQUARE ROOT proportional
221D PROPORTIONAL TO proportional
221E INFINITY proportional
221F RIGHT ANGLE proportional
2220 ANGLE proportional
2225 PARALLEL TO proportional
2226 NOT PARALLEL TO proportional
2227 LOGICAL AND proportional
2228 LOGICAL OR proportional
2229 INTERSECTION proportional
222A UNION proportional
222B INTEGRAL proportional
222C DOUBLE INTEGRAL proportional
222E CONTOUR INTEGRAL proportional
2234 THEREFORE proportional
2235 BECAUSE proportional
223D REVERSED TILDE (lazy S) proportional
2243 ASYMPTOTICALLY EQUAL TO proportional
2245 APPROXIMATELY EQUAL TO proportional
2248 ALMOST EQUAL TO proportional
2252 APPROXIMATELY EQUAL TO OR THE IMAGE OF proportional
2260 NOT EQUAL TO proportional
2261 IDENTICAL TO proportional
2262 NOT IDENTICAL TO proportional
2266 LESS-THAN OVER EQUAL TO proportional
2267 GREATER-THAN OVER EQUAL TO proportional
226A MUCH LESS-THAN proportional
226B MUCH GREATER-THAN proportional
2276 LESS-THAN OR GREATER-THAN proportional
2277 GREATER-THAN OR LESS-THAN proportional
2282 SUBSET OF proportional
2283 SUPERSET OF proportional
2284 NOT A SUBSET OF proportional
2285 NOT A SUPERSET OF proportional
2286 SUBSET OF OR EQUAL TO proportional
2287 SUPERSET OF OR EQUAL TO proportional
228A SUBSET OF WITH NOT EQUAL TO proportional
228B SUPERSET OF WITH NOT EQUAL TO proportional
2295 CIRCLED PLUS proportional
2296 CIRCLED MINUS proportional
2297 CIRCLED TIMES proportional
22A5 UP TACK proportional
22DA LESS-THAN EQUAL TO OR GREATER-THAN proportional
22DB GREATER-THAN EQUAL TO OR LESS-THAN proportional
2305 PROJECTIVE proportional
2306 PERSPECTIVE proportional
2312 ARC proportional
2318 PLACE OF INTEREST SIGN proportional
23CE RETURN SYMBOL proportional
2423 OPEN BOX proportional
2460 CIRCLED DIGIT ONE proportional
2461 CIRCLED DIGIT TWO proportional
2462 CIRCLED DIGIT THREE proportional
2463 CIRCLED DIGIT FOUR proportional
2464 CIRCLED DIGIT FIVE proportional
2465 CIRCLED DIGIT SIX proportional
2466 CIRCLED DIGIT SEVEN proportional
2467 CIRCLED DIGIT EIGHT proportional
2468 CIRCLED DIGIT NINE proportional
2469 CIRCLED NUMBER TEN proportional
246A CIRCLED NUMBER ELEVEN proportional
246B CIRCLED NUMBER TWELVE proportional
246C CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTEEN proportional
246D CIRCLED NUMBER FOURTEEN proportional
246E CIRCLED NUMBER FIFTEEN proportional
246F CIRCLED NUMBER SIXTEEN proportional
2470 CIRCLED NUMBER SEVENTEEN proportional
2471 CIRCLED NUMBER EIGHTEEN proportional
2472 CIRCLED NUMBER NINETEEN proportional
2473 CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY proportional
24D0 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER A proportional
24D1 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER B proportional
24D2 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER C proportional
24D3 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER D proportional
24D4 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER E proportional
24D5 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER F proportional
24D6 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER G proportional
24D7 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER H proportional
24D8 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER I proportional
24D9 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER J proportional
24DA CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER K proportional
24DB CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER L proportional
24DC CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER M proportional
24DD CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER N proportional
24DE CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER O proportional
24DF CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER P proportional
24E0 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER Q proportional
24E1 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER R proportional
24E2 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER S proportional
24E3 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER T proportional
24E4 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER U proportional
24E5 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER V proportional
24E6 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER W proportional
24E7 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER X proportional
24E8 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER Y proportional
24E9 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER Z proportional
24EB NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER ELEVEN proportional
24EC NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER TWELVE proportional
24ED NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTEEN proportional
24EE NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER FOURTEEN proportional
24EF NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER FIFTEEN proportional
24F0 NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER SIXTEEN proportional
24F1 NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER SEVENTEEN proportional
24F2 NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER EIGHTEEN proportional
24F3 NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER NINETEEN proportional
24F4 NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY proportional
24F5 DOUBLE CIRCLED DIGIT ONE proportional
24F6 DOUBLE CIRCLED DIGIT TWO proportional
24F7 DOUBLE CIRCLED DIGIT THREE proportional
24F8 DOUBLE CIRCLED DIGIT FOUR proportional
24F9 DOUBLE CIRCLED DIGIT FIVE proportional
24FA DOUBLE CIRCLED DIGIT SIX proportional
24FB DOUBLE CIRCLED DIGIT SEVEN proportional
24FC DOUBLE CIRCLED DIGIT EIGHT proportional
24FD DOUBLE CIRCLED DIGIT NINE proportional
24FE DOUBLE CIRCLED NUMBER TEN proportional
25A0 BLACK SQUARE proportional
25A1 WHITE SQUARE proportional
25B1 WHITE PARALLELOGRAM proportional
25B2 BLACK UP-POINTING TRIANGLE proportional
25B3 WHITE UP-POINTING TRIANGLE proportional
25B6 BLACK RIGHT-POINTING TRIANGLE proportional
25B7 WHITE RIGHT-POINTING TRIANGLE proportional
25BC BLACK DOWN-POINTING TRIANGLE proportional
25BD WHITE DOWN-POINTING TRIANGLE proportional
25C0 BLACK LEFT-POINTING TRIANGLE proportional
25C1 WHITE LEFT-POINTING TRIANGLE proportional
25C6 BLACK DIAMOND proportional
25C7 WHITE DIAMOND proportional
25CB WHITE CIRCLE proportional
25CE BULLSEYE proportional
25CF BLACK CIRCLE proportional
25D0 CIRCLE WITH LEFT HALF BLACK proportional
25D1 CIRCLE WITH RIGHT HALF BLACK proportional
25D2 CIRCLE WITH LOWER HALF BLACK proportional
25D3 CIRCLE WITH UPPER HALF BLACK proportional
25E6 WHITE BULLET proportional
25EF LARGE CIRCLE proportional
2600 BLACK SUN WITH RAYS proportional
2601 CLOUD proportional
2602 UMBRELLA proportional
2603 SNOWMAN proportional
2605 BLACK STAR proportional
2606 WHITE STAR proportional
260E BLACK TELEPHONE proportional
261E WHITE RIGHT POINTING INDEX proportional
2640 FEMALE SIGN proportional
2642 MALE SIGN proportional
2660 BLACK SPADE SUIT proportional
2661 WHITE HEART SUIT proportional
2662 WHITE DIAMOND SUIT proportional
2663 BLACK CLUB SUIT proportional
2664 WHITE SPADE SUIT proportional
2665 BLACK HEART SUIT proportional
2666 BLACK DIAMOND SUIT proportional
2667 WHITE CLUB SUIT proportional
2669 QUARTER NOTE proportional
266A EIGHTH NOTE proportional
266B BEAMED EIGHTH NOTES proportional
266C BEAMED SIXTEENTH NOTES proportional
266D MUSIC FLAT SIGN proportional
266E MUSIC NATURAL SIGN proportional
266F MUSIC SHARP SIGN proportional
2713 CHECK MARK proportional
2756 BLACK DIAMOND MINUS WHITE X proportional
2776 DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED DIGIT ONE proportional
2777 DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED DIGIT TWO proportional
2778 DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED DIGIT THREE proportional
2779 DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED DIGIT FOUR proportional
277A DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED DIGIT FIVE proportional
277B DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED DIGIT SIX proportional
277C DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED DIGIT SEVEN proportional
277D DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED DIGIT EIGHT proportional
277E DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED DIGIT NINE proportional
277F DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER TEN proportional
2934 ARROW POINTING RIGHTWARDS THEN CURVING UPWARDS proportional
2935 ARROW POINTING RIGHTWARDS THEN CURVING DOWNWARDS proportional
29FA DOUBLE PLUS proportional
29FB TRIPLE PLUS proportional
3251 CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY ONE proportional
3252 CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY TWO proportional
3253 CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY THREE proportional
3254 CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY FOUR proportional
3255 CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY FIVE proportional
3256 CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY SIX proportional
3257 CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY SEVEN proportional
3258 CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY EIGHT proportional
3259 CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY NINE proportional
325A CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTY proportional
325B CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTY ONE proportional
325C CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTY TWO proportional
325D CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTY THREE proportional
325E CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTY FOUR proportional
325F CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTY FIVE proportional
32B1 CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTY SIX proportional
32B2 CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTY SEVEN proportional
32B3 CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTY EIGHT proportional
32B4 CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTY NINE proportional
32B5 CIRCLED NUMBER FORTY proportional
32B6 CIRCLED NUMBER FORTY ONE proportional
32B7 CIRCLED NUMBER FORTY TWO proportional
32B8 CIRCLED NUMBER FORTY THREE proportional
32B9 CIRCLED NUMBER FORTY FOUR proportional
32BA CIRCLED NUMBER FORTY FIVE proportional
32BB CIRCLED NUMBER FORTY SIX proportional
32BC CIRCLED NUMBER FORTY SEVEN proportional
32BD CIRCLED NUMBER FORTY EIGHT proportional
32BE CIRCLED NUMBER FORTY NINE proportional
32BF CIRCLED NUMBER FIFTY proportional

Warichu opening brackets (cl-28)

Character UCS Name Remark
0028 LEFT PARENTHESIS
3014 LEFT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET
005B LEFT SQUARE BRACKET

Warichu closing brackets (cl-29)

Character UCS Name Remark
0029 RIGHT PARENTHESIS
3015 RIGHT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET
005D RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET

Characters in tate-chu-yoko (cl-30)

Any character may participate in tate-chu-yoko composition.

Spacing between Characters

The amount of space between two adjacent characters of given character classes explained in is determined by Table 1. For methods to determine the amounts of space reduction and addition by line adjustments, see and .

See "Table 1 Spacing between characters" (PDF).

Legend of Table 1

  1. The left-most column, labeled "before", lists preceding character classes, and the top row, labeled "after", lists trailing character classes. Each cell indicates the amount of space between two characters of the corresponding character classes at the intersection of a given row and column.

  2. The last row, labeled "line head", lists amounts of space inserted between the line head and a character of the corresponding character class in each column. Likewise, the last column, labeled "line end", lists amounts of space inserted between a character of the corresponding character class in each row and the line end.

  3. The following notations in cells are used to indicate the amount of space or other related information.

    1. blank: Set solid between two adjacent characters (it can be that the preceding character is actually the line head or the trailing character is actually the line end).

    2. × mark: The combination is not allowed due to line breaking rules or other restrictions.

    3. 1/2 be: Insert a half em space, where the em here indicates the size of the preceding character.

    4. 1/2 af: Insert a half em space, where the em here indicates the size of the trailing character.

      Referent for em in half em space.
      Referent for em in half em space.
    5. 1/2 be hang: Identical to "1/2 be" in the amount of space. Ruby text can be extended up to the size of the ruby character over this "1/2 be hang" space as long as it is not reduced due to line adjustments. When it is reduced, ruby text can be extended up to the size of the reduced space and shall not be extended over the other character.

    6. 1/2 af hang: Identical to "1/2 af" in the amount of space. Ruby text can be extended up to the size of the ruby character over this "1/2 af hang" space as long as it is not reduced due to line adjustments. When it is reduced, ruby text can be extended up to the size of the reduced space and shall not be extended over the other character.

    7. 1/4 be: Insert a quarter em space, where the em here indicates the size of the preceding character.

    8. 1/4 af: Insert a quarter em space, where the em here indicates the size of the trailing character.

    9. 1/4 be hang: Identical to "1/4 be" in the amount of space. Ruby text can be extended up to half the size of the ruby character over this "1/4 be hang" space as long as it is not reduced due to line adjustments. When it is reduced, ruby text can be extended up to the size of the reduced space and shall not be extended over the other character.

    10. 1/4 af hang: Identical to "1/4 af" in the amount of space. Ruby text can be extended up to half the size of the ruby character over this "1/4 af hang" space as long as it is not reduced due to line adjustments. When it is reduced, ruby text can be extended up to the size of the reduced space and shall not be extended over the other character.

    11. ruby hang: Set solid. Ruby text can be extended up to the size of the ruby character over the other character (see also 7 of ).

Notes

  1. When opening brackets (cl-01) are followed by a simple-ruby character complex (cl-22) or jukugo-ruby character complex (cl-23), the preferred approach is to allow the ruby text to be extended up to the size of the ruby character over the opening brackets (cl-01). One alternative approach is to not allow ruby text to be extended over opening brackets, and another is to allow it to be extended up to half the size of the ruby character.

  2. The preferred spacing between closing brackets (cl-02) and the line end is a half em. The alternative is to set solid (JIS X 4051 adopts solid setting method, see ).

  3. Character spacing between two consecutive middle dots (cl-05) shall be the sum of a quarter em of the preceding middle dots and a quarter em of the trailing middle dots.

  4. The preferred spacing between middle dots (cl-05) and the line end is a quarter em. The alternative is to set solid (JIS X 4051 adopts solid setting method, see 3.1.9 Positioning of Closing Brackets, Full Stops, Commas and Middle Dots at Line End).

  5. In this document, character spacing between a full stop (cl-06) or comma (cl-07) and a following middle dot (cl-05) is the sum of the half em space of the full stop or comma and the quarter em space of the middle dot. On the other hand, JIS X 4051 classifies commas (cl-07) as a subset of closing brackets (cl-02), and, therefore, where a comma (cl-07) is followed by a middle dot (cl-05) in JIS X 4051 the character spacing between them is just the quarter em space of the following middle dot (cl-05).

  6. The preferred spacing between full stops (cl-06) or commas (cl-07) and the line end is a half em. The alternative is to set solid (JIS X 4051 specifies that the space after full stop (cl-06) is a half em and the space after comma (cl-07) is solid, see ).

  7. When a simple-ruby character complex (cl-22) or jukugo-ruby character complex (cl-23) is adjacent to katakana (cl-16), the preferred approach is to allow the ruby text to be extended up to the size of the ruby character over the katakana. However, if it is required to conform to JIS X 4051, ruby text shall not be extended over the katakana because katakana characters belong to the ideographic character class in JIS X 4051.

    There are alternative methods, one of which is to allow ruby text to be extended up to the size of the ruby character over any character including ideographic (cl-19) as well as hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) characters, and another is NOT to allow ruby text to be extended over any character from hiragana (cl-15), katakana (cl-16) and ideographic characters (cl-19).

  8. Ruby text can be extended up to the size of the ruby character over the full-width ideographic space (cl-14). The preferred approach is to apply the same for the full-width line head indent at the beginning of a paragraph. The alternative approach is not to allow ruby text to be extended over the line head indent.

  9. When two adjacent characters belong to the same ornamented character complex (cl-21) run, set them according to the method explained in 3.7.1 Superscripts and Superscripts. When two adjacent characters belong to two distinct ornamented character complex runs, set them solid.

  10. When two adjacent characters belong to the same simple-ruby character complex (cl-22) run, set them according to the method explained in or . When two adjacent characters belong to two distinct simple-ruby character complex runs, set them solid.

  11. When two adjacent characters belong to the same jukugo-ruby character complex (cl-23) run, set them according to the method explained in . When two adjacent characters belong to two distinct simple-ruby character complex runs, set them solid.

  12. Character spacing between a preceding unit symbol (cl-25) and a trailing middle dot (cl-05) shall be a quarter em of the trailing character. Note that KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT "・" can be used either as a unit symbol (cl-25) or as a middle dot. When it is used as a unit symbol (cl-25), both preceding and trailing spacing of KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT "・" shall be zero.

  13. There shall be no visible space occupied by Western word space (cl-26) at the line head and that of warichu (inline cutting note), the line end and that of warichu (inline cutting note). If the condition is changed for the same text, restore the default visible space for Western word space (cl-26).

  14. In principle iteration marks (cl-09) should be placed neither at the line head nor at the head of an inline cutting note. When it happens with IDEOGRAPHIC ITERATION MARK "々", there are three ways to deal with this situation.

    1. Follow the principle by applying some sort of line adjustment. In this case, IDEOGRAPHIC ITERATION MARK "々" remains in iteration marks (cl-09).

    2. Allow IDEOGRAPHIC ITERATION MARK "々" to be placed either at the line head or at the head of an inline cutting note. In this case, the character shall be treated as part of the ideographic characters (cl-19) class.

    3. Replace IDEOGRAPHIC ITERATION MARK "々" with the corresponding character.

      line end: 国

      line head: 々

      <is replaced with>

      line end: 国

      line head: 国

      line end: 人

      line head: 々

      <is replaced with>

      line end: 人

      line head: 人

  15. In principle, a prolonged sound mark (cl-10) should be placed neither at the head of a line nor that of an inline cutting note. If it were allowed, the character shall be treated as part of the katakana (cl-16) class.

  16. In principle, small kana (cl-11) should be placed neither at the head of a line nor that of an inline cutting note in principle. If it were to be allowed, HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL * shall be treated as part of the hiragana (cl-15) class, and KATAKANA LETTER SMALL * as part of the katakana (cl-16) class.

  17. The preferred character spacing between the line head and opening opening brackets (cl-01) is zero. An alternative way is not to remove a conditional half em space accompanying the characters (see including methods of positioning of opening brackets at the beginning of paragraphs).

Possibilities for Line-breaking between Characters

Line break opportunities between two adjacent characters of given character classes explained in shall be determined by Table 2.

See "Table 2 Possibility of separation between characters" (PDF).

Legend of Table 2

  1. The left-most column, labeled "before", lists preceding character classes, and the top row, labeled "after", lists trailing character classes. Each cell indicates the type of line break opportunity between two adjacent characters of the corresponding character classes at a given row and column.

  2. The type of line break opportunity is indicated in each cell in the table using the following notation.

    1. blank: A line is allow to end between the two characters (breakable).

    2. not: A line is not allowed to end between the two characters (unbreakable).

    3. × mark: the combination is not allowed due to line breaking rules or other restrictions.

Notes

  1. If IDEOGRAPHIC ITERATION MARK "々" is allowed to appear at the line head or that of inline cutting note, the character shall be treated as a member of the ideographic character (cl-19) class. (For how it behaves in combination with other character classes, see the cells for ideographic characters (cl-19).)

  2. If a prolonged sound mark (cl-10) is allowed to appear at the head of a line or that of inline cutting note, the character shall be treated as a member of the katakana (cl-16) class. (For how it behaves in combination with other character classes, see the cells for katakana (cl-16).)

  3. If small kana (cl-11) are allowed to appear at the head of a line or that of inline cutting note, the character shall be treated as a member of the hiragana (cl-15) or katakana (cl-16) classes accordingly, depending on the script type of the character. (For how it behaves in combination with other character classes, see the cells for hiragana (cl-15) or katakana (cl-16).)

  4. For the default one em space after dividing punctuation marks (cl-04) at the end of a sentence, full-width ideographic space (cl-14) can be used. See for more detail on how to deal with this case.

  5. There is no line break opportunity between following couple of consecutive inseparable characters (cl-08) as follows:

    • EM DASH "―", EM DASH "―"

    • HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS "…", HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS "…"

    • TWO DOT LEADER "‥", TWO DOT LEADER "‥"

    • VERTICAL KANA REPEAT MARK UPPER HALF "〳", VERTICAL KANA REPEAT MARK LOWER HALF "〵"

    • VERTICAL KANA REPEAT WITH VOICED SOUND MARK UPPER HALF "〴", VERTICAL KANA REPEAT MARK LOWER HALF "〵"

    When the combination of preceding inseparable characters (cl-08) and the trailing inseparable characters (cl-08) is different each other, the two characters are separable. For example, when two EM DASH "―" appears consecutively, these two characters are inseparable, and consecutive EM DASH "―" and HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS "…" are separable.

  6. There is no line break opportunity between two consecutive characters belonging to the same ornamented character complex (cl-21). If two consecutive characters belong to different ornamented character complexes (cl-21), a line break opportunity exists between them.

  7. There is no line break opportunity between two consecutive characters belonging to the same simple-ruby character complex (cl-22). If two consecutive characters belong to different simple-ruby character complexes (cl-22), a line break opportunity exists between them.

  8. A line break opportunity exists between two consecutive base characters belonging to different jukugo-ruby character complexes (cl-23). There is also a line break opportunity between two consecutive base characters belonging to the same jukugo-ruby character complex (cl-23) and between two runs of ruby text accompanying the corresponding base characters. However, a base character and the accompanying ruby text shall be indivisible, hence there is no line break opportunity between any two consecutive ruby characters in a run of ruby text accompanying a base character.

  9. There is no line break opportunity between preceding grouped numerals (cl-24) and trailing postfixed abbreviations (cl-13). The alternative approach is to allow a line to break before trailing PERCENT SIGN "%", in which case PERCENT SIGN "%" shall be treated as a member of the ideographic character (cl-19) class.

  10. There are two approaches: one is to allow a line to break between preceding grouped numerals (cl-24) and trailing Western characters (cl-27), and the other is not to.

  11. A line break opportunity generally exists between preceding Western characters (cl-27) and trailing postfixed abbreviations (cl-13), unless the preceding Western character (cl-27) is used as a symbol of a quantity or a European numeral, in which case a line break is not allowed between them.

  12. There is no line break opportunity between two consecutive Western characters (cl-27). In order to break a line in the middle of a Western word, it needs to be divided into two syllables first. Then a line can be broken between the two by adding HYPHEN "-" at the line end.

  13. There is no line break opportunity between two consecutive characters belonging to the same set of characters in tate-chu-yoko (cl-30). If two consecutive characters belong to different sets of characters in tate-chu-yoko (cl-30), there a line break opportunity exists between them.

Addendum

As noted in and , there are several conventions for line-start prohibition, line-end prohibition and unbreakable character rules. The following lists four levels of convention. Note that breaking a line after opening brackets (cl-01) and before closing brackets (cl-02), full stops (cl-06) or commas (cl-07) is prohibited at all levels. Likewise, those rules common to all levels are not listed below.

  1. Very loose (Newspapers)

    Breaking a line is allowed before or after the following character classes even though Table 2 prohibits it.

  2. Loose (Magazines)

    Breaking a line is allowed before or after the following character classes (or characters) even though Table 2 prohibits it.

  3. Strict (Default, general publications)

    Breaking a line is allowed before or after the following character classes (or characters) even though Table 2 prohibits it.

  4. Very strict (General publications)

    Breaking a line is not allowed for any place where Table 2 prohibits it (no alternate rule explained in is applied.).

    The difference between the strict and the very strict rules described above is as follows. The very strict line-breaking rule is the convention that attaches greater importance to the line-start prohibition and unbreakable character rules, and therefore it is more likely to lead to the need for line adjustment processing. In comparison, the strict line-breaking rule is the convention that weakens line-start prohibition in order to avoid line adjustment as much as possible to make it easier to achieve solid setting. In other words, the very strict rule is for the best appearance at the line head, while the strict rule is best to avoid inter-character space adjustment.

Opportunities for Inter-character Space Reduction during Line Adjustment

The following tables indicate if an opportunity exists for inter-character space reduction during line adjustment between two adjacent characters of given character classes as explained in . (For more detail on line adjustment, see .) In the process of line adjustment by inter-character space reduction, the first place to look (the first stage of inter-character space reduction in priority order) is for Western word spaces (cl-26), each of which is reducible equally, to leave a minimum of a quarter em space (or a one fifth em space) with respect to the corresponding character size. The tables are for the second and subsequent stages of inter-character space reduction in priority order, assuming the first stage of the reduction for Western word spaces (cl-26) is already done. The default unadjusted space between two adjacent characters of given character classes shall be determined according to .

There are several conventions for line adjustment, especially when it is to be achieved by inter-character space reduction. Table 3 follows the method adopted by this document, Table 4 supplies an alternative way specified by JIS X 4051, and Table 5, taking partially different approaches from the previous two, represents yet another method which can be seen in books or other publications.

See "Table 3 Opportunity of inter-character space reduction" (PDF).

See "Table 4 Opportunity of inter-character space reduction (the method specified by JIS X 4051)" (PDF).

See "Table 5 Opportunity of inter-character space reduction (the method adopted by books)" (PDF).

Legend of Tables 3, 4 and 5

  1. The left-most column, labeled "before", lists preceding character classes, and the top row, labeled "after", lists trailing character classes. Each cell indicates the type of opportunities of inter-character space reduction between two adjacent characters of the corresponding character classes at a given row and column.

  2. The cells in the row "line head" or the column "line end" should read if there exists opportunity for space reduction at line head or line end respectively. Tables 3, 4 and 5 all prohibit space reduction at line head. While Table 4 prohibits space reduction at line end too, Tables 3 and 5 allow it for several character classes at line end.

  3. The type of opportunity for space reduction is indicated in each cell in the tables using the following notation.

    1. Cells with a white background: No opportunity for space reduction because the two characters are set solid and there is no adjustable space between them, or because it is prohibited by rule to reduce the inter-character space for the given combination.

      1. Blank: No opportunity for space reduction because the given combination of characters is set solid (or there is no space before or after the given character at line head or at line end respectively).

      2. × mark:The combination is not allowed due to line breaking rules or other restrictions.

      3. 1/2: The amount of inter-character space shall be a half em, and this space shall not be reduced (no opportunity of inter-character space reduction).

      4. 1/4: The amount of inter-character space shall be a quarter em, and this space shall not be reduced (no opportunity of inter-character space reduction).

    2. Cells with a colored or gray background: An opportunity for inter-character space reduction exists.

      1. Priority order in space reduction: The second highest and subsequent priorities of inter-character space reduction are indicated by the given background colors of the cells. The cells with the colors in the left are higher in priority than ones in the right. Space reduction shall be processed in this order.

        Priority order in space reduction.
        Priority order in space reduction.
      2. Amount of space reducible: the amount of space to be reduced is indicated using the following notation.

        1. 1/2–0: A half em space by default, which is reducible equally, with respect to the corresponding character size, with no minimum space required (set solid).

        2. 1/2–1/4: A half em space by default, which is reducible equally, with respect to the corresponding character size, to leave a minimum of a quarter em space.

        3. 1/2=0: A half em space by default, which can be removed to set solid (it is not allowed to leave any intermediate size of space between zero to a half em, such as a quarter em space).

        4. 1/4–0: A quarter em space by default, which is reducible equally, with respect to the corresponding character size, with no minimum space required (set solid).

        5. 1/4–1/8: A quarter em space by default, which is reducible equally, with respect to the corresponding character size, to leave a minimum of a one eighth em space.

Note that JIS X 4051 specifies to not leave any space after the closing brackets (cl-02) or commas (cl-07) at the line end. Therefore, Table 4 also indicates that there is no opportunity for space reduction after closing brackets (cl-02) and commas (cl-07) at the line end. Likewise, because middle dots (cl-05) at the line end are supposed to have no space, Table 4 indicates there is no opportunity for space reduction for middle dots (cl-05) at the line end. On the other hand, while JIS X 4051 specifies to pad with a half em space after full stops (cl-06) at the line end, which is not allowed to reduce this space for line adjustment, Table 3 and 5 allow the removal of the default half em space after closing brackets (cl-02), full stops (cl-06) and commas (cl-07) at the line end for line adjustment. Table 3 further allows the removal of the default quarter em space padding before and after middle dots (cl-05) at the line end for line adjustment, while Table 5 does not.

Notes

  1. The default unadjusted space when a middle dot (cl-05) is followed by a middle dot (cl-05), is the sum of the conditional quarter em space accompanying the preceding middle dot (cl-05) and the conditional quarter em space accompanying the trailing middle dot (cl-05). Tables 3 and 4 allow these two quarter em spaces to be reduced, to leave no space as a minimum. The priority order in space reduction is the fourth in Table 3, and it is the second priority in Table 4.

  2. The default unadjusted space when a full stop (cl-06) is followed by a middle dot (cl-05), is the sum of the conditional half em space accompanying the preceding full stop (cl-06) and the conditional quarter em space accompanying the trailing middle dot (cl-05). Tables 3 and 4 allow the quarter em space accompanying the trailing middle dot (cl-05) to be reduced, to leave no space as a minimum. The priority order in space reduction is the fourth in Table 3, and it is the second priority in Table 4.

  3. The default unadjusted space when a comma (cl-07) is followed by a middle dot (cl-05), is the sum of the conditional half em space accompanying the preceding comma (cl-07) and the conditional quarter em space accompanying the trailing middle dot (cl-05) (in Table 4, the conditional half space accompanying preceding comma (cl-07) and the conditional quarter space accompanying trailing middle dot (cl-05) can be reduced to solid setting). Table 5 allows the conditional half em space accompanying preceding comma (cl-07) to be reduced to a quarter space as a minimum. The priority order in space reduction for the conditional space accompanying middle dots (cl-05) is the fourth in Table 3 and the second in Table 4. The priority order in space reduction for the conditional space accompanying comma (cl-07) is the fifth in Table 3 and the third in Table 5.

  4. There is no opportunity for space reduction for a Western word space (cl-26) at the line head and at the line end since there is supposed to be no visible space. The same applies to the Western word space (cl-26) at the line head or the line end of warichu (inline cutting note). If the condition is changed for the same text, restore the default visible space for Western word space (cl-26).

  5. Table 3, and only Table 3, allows the preceding and trailing conditional quarter em space accompanying middle dots (cl-05) to be reduced to leave no space. The priority order is the third.

Opportunities for Inter-character Space Expansion during Line Adjustment

The following table indicates if an opportunity exists for inter-character space expansion during line adjustment between two adjacent characters of given character classes as explained in . (For more detail on line adjustment, see .) In the process of line adjustment by inter-character space expansion, the first place to look (the first stage of inter-character space expansion in priority order) is for Western word spaces (cl-26), each of which is expandable equally, to take up and maximum of a half em space with respect to the corresponding character size. The tables are for the second and subsequent stages of inter-character space expansion in priority order, assuming the first stage of the expansion for Western word spaces (cl-26) is already done. The default unadjusted space between two adjacent characters of given character classes shall be determined according to .

See "Table 6 Opportunity of inter-character space expansion" (PDF).

Legend of Table 6

  1. The left-most column, labeled "before", lists preceding character classes, and the top row, labeled "after", lists trailing character classes. Each cell indicates the type of opportunities for inter-character space expansion between two adjacent characters of the corresponding character classes at a given row and column. Note that there are no cells involving "line head" or "line end" because there is no opportunity for inter-character space expansion before any character at the line head or after any character at the line end.

  2. The type of opportunity for space expansion is indicated in each cell in the table using the following notation.

    1. Cells with a white background: No opportunity for space expansion.

      1. Blank: Inter-character space expansion is not allowed because there is no line break opportunity between the given combination of characters.

      2. × mark: The combination is not allowed due to line breaking rules or other restrictions.

    2. Cells with a colored or gray background: An opportunity exists for inter-character space expansion.

      1. Priority order in space expansion: The second highest and subsequent priorities of inter-character space expansion are indicated by the given background colors of the cells. The cells with the colors in the left are higher in priority than ones in the right. Space expansion shall be processed in this order. When the 4th step is needed, add same space value to the spaces of 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th steps.

        Priority order in space expansion.
        Priority order in space expansion.
      2. Amount of space expandable: The amount of space to be expanded is indicated using the following notation.

        1. 1/4–1/2: A quarter em space by default, which is expandable equally, with respect to the corresponding character size, to take up to a maximum of a half em space. However if Table 5 of is adopted as the method of inter-character space reduction for line adjustment, this quarter em space shall not be expanded.

        2. 1/4: No inter-character space by default, which is expandable equally, with respect to the corresponding character size, to take up to a maximum of a quarter em space.

        3. blank: Expandable equally with respect to the corresponding character size, only after no other expandable inter-character space is left.

Notes

  1. If the IDEOGRAPHIC ITERATION MARK "々" is allowed to appear at the head of a line or that of inline cutting note, the character shall be treated as a member of the ideographic character (cl-19) class. (For how it behaves in combination with other character classes, see the cells for ideographic characters (cl-19).)

  2. If a prolonged sound mark (cl-10) is allowed to appear at the line head or that of inline cutting note, the character shall be treated as a member of the katakana (cl-16) class. (For how it behaves in combination with other character classes, see the cells for katakana (cl-16).)

  3. If small kana (cl-11) are allowed to appear at the head of a line or that of inline cutting note, the character shall be treated as a member of the hiragana (cl-15) or katakana (cl-16) class accordingly, depending on the script type of the character. (For how it behaves in combination with other character classes, see the cells for hiragana (cl-15) or katakana (cl-16).)

  4. A third order opportunity exists for inter-character space expansion, to take up to a maximum of a quarter em space, with respect to the corresponding character size, between two consecutive inseparable characters (cl-08) which are of different kinds.

  5. A third order opportunity exists for inter-character space expansion, to take up to a maximum of a quarter em space, with respect to the corresponding character size, between the two consecutive characters which belong to different ornamented character complexes (cl-21)

  6. A third order opportunity exists for inter-character space expansion, to take up to a maximum of a quarter em space, with respect to the corresponding character size, if the two consecutive characters belong to different simple-ruby character complexes (cl-22). If not, inter-character space expansion is not allowed.

  7. A third order opportunity exists for inter-character space expansion, to take up to a maximum of a quarter em space, with respect to the corresponding character size, if the two consecutive base characters belonging to different jukugo-ruby character complexes (cl-23). If not, inter-character space expansion is not allowed.

  8. There is no opportunity for inter-character space expansion between a preceding grouped numeral (cl-24) and a trailing postfixed abbreviation (cl-13), unless the alternative approach is chosen which allows a line to break between a preceding grouped numeral (cl-24) and the trailing PERCENT SIGN "%", where PERCENT SIGN "%" shall be treated as a member of the ideographic character (cl-19) class, in front of which inter-character space is expandable.

  9. There is an alternative way to give a third order opportunity for inter-character space expansion, to take up to a maximum of a quarter em space, with respect to the corresponding character size, between a preceding grouped numeral (cl-24) and a trailing Western character (cl-27).

  10. A third order opportunity exists for inter-character space expansion between a preceding Western character (cl-27) and a trailing postfixed abbreviation (cl-13), unless the preceding Western character (cl-27) is used as a symbol of a quantity or a European numeral, in which case no inter-character space expansion is allowed between them.

  11. There is an alternative way to give a fourth order opportunity for inter-character space expansion with respect to the corresponding character size, between two consecutive Western characters (cl-27).

  12. A third order opportunity exists for the inter-character space expansion, to take up to a maximum of a quarter em space, with respect to the corresponding character size, if two consecutive characters belong to different runs of characters in tate-chu-yoko (cl-30). If not, inter-character space expansion is not allowed.

Positioning of Jukugo-ruby

Positioning of ruby characters is explained in [], including that of jukugo-ruby, however it is limited to the basic principles. This appendix provides supplementary notes on jukugo-ruby distribution in terms of the structure of a kanji compound word (jukugo) and the type of script of the characters adjacent to the kanji compound word. All explanations hereafter in this appendix assume we are going to compose ruby characters with 'katatsuki' distribution (top-alignment in vertical writing mode).

Principles of Jukugo-Ruby Distribution: Part 1

The following are principles of jukugo-ruby distribution, taking account of the structure of a kanji compound word and the type of script of the adjacent characters surrounding the compound word.

  1. Because the purpose of ruby annotation, including jukugo-ruby, is to supply the reading of each base kanji character, attach each run of ruby text which represents the reading to the corresponding base kanji character.

    If each run of ruby characters representing the reading of a given base ideographic character (cl-19) participating in a kanji compound word is less than or equal to two, attach each ruby text to the corresponding base ideographic character (cl-19) (see Fig. F.1). The following figures supply a pair of examples of the same text per line, with and without character frames displayed. Ruby characters and base characters in the same color indicate that they correspond to each other. Those ideographic characters (cl-19) which are not part of the jukugo-ruby, and which, therefore, ruby characters are not allowed to overhang, are presented in yet different colors.

    Jukugo-ruby distribution 1.
    Jukugo-ruby distribution 1.
  2. Because the intention when using jukugo-ruby is to handle the kanji compound word (jukugo) as one object, a run of ruby text for a base ideographic character (cl-19) is allowed to overhang the adjacent base character participating to the same compound word, up to a maximum of one em in the ruby character size (alternatively, the maximum size for the ruby overhang can be one and a half em, but the explanation hereafter assumes the maximum overhang to be one em in the ruby size.).

  3. When the number of ruby characters is so great that the length of the ruby text is longer than that of the base characters forming the kanji compound word, the decision to what extent the ruby text can overhang the adjacent characters, if allowed, shall be made according to the methods explained in . The explanation hereafter adopts one of the methods that prohibits any ruby text to overhang ideographic characters (cl-19) but allows ruby to overhang the characters of a certain character class such as hiragana (cl-15) or katakana (cl-16), up to a maximum of one em in the ruby character size.

Principles of Jukugo-Ruby Distribution: Part 2

In letterpress printing, ruby text was composed according to "principles part one" in the previous section, but on a case by case basis. Therefore, ruby texts were often composed differently for the same kanji compound word in the same situation. In some cases they differed according to the person in charge of the composition. In this section, one consistent method of ruby composition is presented as "principles part two", which is established with reference to those adopted in books and other publications.

  1. As long as jukugo-ruby can fit the kanji compound word by allowing ruby characters to overhang an adjacent base character that is part of the same compound word or those characters adjacent to the compound word which are of a certain character class such as hiragana (cl-15), inter-character spacing between base characters in the kanji compound word and that between the kanji compound word and the adjacent characters, should not be expanded.

  2. When a base character is accompanied by three or more ruby characters, decide the positioning of the ruby characters in the following order.

    1. Let a run of ruby text for a given base character overhang either or both of the adjacent base characters up to a maximum of one em in the ruby character size. The first choice should be the succeeding base character. For example, suppose we have a kanji compound word consisting of three ideographic characters, each of which is accompanied by three, two and one ruby characters respectively. In this case, let the third character for the first base character overhang the second base character, by letting the second ruby character for the second base character overhang the third base character (see ). In cases where there is no possible arrangement of ruby characters that follows the first choice, let them overhang the preceding base characters as in the following illustrations. shows examples where the succeeding base characters overhang, while are examples where the preceding base characters overhang since there is no arrangement of ruby characters to take the succeeding ones.

      Jukugo-ruby distribution 2.
      Jukugo-ruby distribution 2.
      Jukugo-ruby distribution 3 (ruby characters to overhang the succeeding base characters).
      Jukugo-ruby distribution 3 (ruby characters to overhang the succeeding base characters).
      Jukugo-ruby distribution 4 (ruby characters to overhang the preceding base characters).
      Jukugo-ruby distribution 4 (ruby characters to overhang the preceding base characters).
    2. When there is no possible arrangement of ruby characters even by allowing them to overhang the base characters participating to the same kanji compound word, at maximum by one em in ruby character size, then look at the adjacent characters in the main text surrounding the kanji compound word if they are of such character classes which ruby characters are allowed to overhang as in hiragana (cl-15). If they are, allow ruby characters to overhang these characters. The same principle applies here as to the choice of the adjacent (base or non-base) character to be the succeeding one in priority. For example, suppose we have a kanji compound word consisting of two ideographic characters, each of which is accompanied by three and two ruby characters respectively. In this case, let the third ruby character for the first base character overhang the second base character, by letting the second ruby character for the second base character overhang the succeeding non-base character of hiragana (cl-15) class or the like (see ). The following are some examples. shows examples of ruby characters that overhang the succeeding non-base characters and are examples of ruby characters that overhang the preceding non-base characters since there is no possible arrangement to allow ruby characters to take the succeeding ones. The last illustration shows examples of ruby characters that overhang both of the non-base characters adjacent to the kanji compound word (see ).

      Jukugo-ruby distribution 5.
      Jukugo-ruby distribution 5.
      Jukugo-ruby distribution 6 (examples of ruby characters to overhang the succeeding non-base characters).
      Jukugo-ruby distribution 6 (examples of ruby characters to overhang the succeeding non-base characters).
      Jukugo-ruby distribution 7 (examples of ruby characters to overhang the preceding non-base characters).
      Jukugo-ruby distribution 7 (examples of ruby characters to overhang the preceding non-base characters).
      Jukugo-ruby distribution 8 (examples of ruby characters to overhang both of non-base characters).
      Jukugo-ruby distribution 8 (examples of ruby characters to overhang both of non-base characters).
    3. If the succeeding character in the main text adjacent to the kanji compound word accompanied by ruby characters is of a character class which does not allow ruby to overhang, as with ideographic characters (cl-19), then look at the preceding character and allow ruby to overhang the character if it is of a character class that allows it. If the examples shown in or had ideographic characters (cl-19) next to the kanji compound word accompanied by ruby characters, let ruby characters overhang the preceding character in all cases but two examples with "居候" and "古代紫" (see ).

      Jukugo-ruby distribution 9 (examples of ruby characters to overhang the preceding non-base characters).
      Jukugo-ruby distribution 9 (examples of ruby characters to overhang the preceding non-base characters).
    4. When both of the preceding and succeeding characters adjacent to the kanji compound word accompanied by ruby characters are of character classes which do not allow ruby to overhang, or there are too many ruby characters and it is impossible to fit them in using the approaches described above, the last thing to consider is to fit them in by expanding the inter-character spacing of the kanji compound word. There could be various methods, depending on what priorities are chosen, and in fact many different ways have been adopted. The following section will explain one of these methods.

To sum up the aforementioned, first try to let ruby characters overhang other base characters associated with the same kanji compound word, then look for adjacent non-base characters to see if they allow ruby to overhang. Finally when both approaches still cannot settle the positioning of the ruby characters, combine the method of expanding inter-character spacing of the compound word with the previous two.

Principles of Jukugo-Ruby Distribution with Inter-Character Space Expansion

Principles for a method of jukugo-ruby distribution which allows inter-character spacing to expand, are as follows.

  1. Try first to let ruby characters overhang other base characters associated with the same kanji compound word. If ruby still does not fit, then look for adjacent non-base characters that allow ruby to overhang. Lastly when both approaches still cannot settle the positioning of the ruby characters, combine the method of expanding inter-character spacing of the compound word with the previous two.

  2. Inter-character spacing can be expanded only for those base characters which are accompanied by more than two ruby characters.

  3. The total amount of inter-character spacing should be determined as follows.

    Total inter-character space = (the sum of the length of those ruby characters forced out from the corresponding base character) - (the sum of the length of those ruby characters which overhang other base characters) - (the sum of the length of those ruby characters which overhang other non-base characters).

  4. Distribute the amount of space across those base characters accompanied by more than two ruby characters in accordance with the number of ruby characters (or the length of ruby characters when set solid).

  5. For each base character, expand the preceding and succeeding inter-character space equally by half of the assigned space. Note that, depending on the position of the base character, it could be the expansion of inter-character spacing between two base characters, or it could be the expansion between the base character and a non-base character.

  6. In a special case where a jukugo-ruby character complex is at the line-head and the base character and the ruby character at the line-head are supposed to be aligned, expand only the succeeding inter-character space of the base character by all of the assigned space. Similarly, when a jukugo-ruby character complex is at the line-end and the base character and the ruby character at the line-end are supposed to be aligned, expand the preceding inter-character space of the base character by all of the assigned space.

Examples of Jukugo-Ruby Distribution with Inter-Character Space Expansion

The following are examples of jukugo-ruby distribution in accordance with the principles mentioned in the previous section.

The jukugo-ruby shown in requires expansion of inter-character spacing by one ruby character. Expand the preceding and succeeding inter-character spacing for the base character "峻" accompanied by three ruby characters by a quarter em each in base character size.

Jukugo-ruby distribution with inter-character space expansion 1.
Jukugo-ruby distribution with inter-character space expansion 1.

The jukugo-ruby shown in requires expansion of inter-character spacing by one ruby character. Expand the preceding and the succeeding inter-character spacing for the base character "候" accompanied by four ruby characters by a quarter em each in base character size.

Jukugo-ruby distribution with inter-character space expansion 2.
Jukugo-ruby distribution with inter-character space expansion 2.

are examples with the same jukugo-ruby as in and except their positions in the lines are at the line-head or at the line-end, where the base character and the ruby character at the line-head or at the line-end are both aligned.

Jukugo-ruby distribution with inter-character space expansion 3 (examples at the line-head and at the line-end).
Jukugo-ruby distribution with inter-character space expansion 3 (examples at the line-head and at the line-end).

Examples shown in are those with two base characters accompanied by six ruby characters. Distribution of ruby varies depending on the position of ideographic characters (cl-19) and whether it is adjacent to the kanji compound word.

Jukugo-ruby distribution with inter-character space expansion 4.
Jukugo-ruby distribution with inter-character space expansion 4.

Examples shown in are those with three base characters accompanied by eight ruby characters. Distribution of ruby varies depending on the position of ideographic characters (cl-19) and whether it is adjacent to the kanji compound word.

Jukugo-ruby distribution with inter-character space expansion 5.
Jukugo-ruby distribution with inter-character space expansion 5.

Examples shown in are those with three base characters accompanied by nine ruby characters. Distribution of ruby varies depending on the position of ideographic characters (cl-19) and whether it is adjacent to the kanji compound word.

Jukugo-ruby distribution with inter-character space expansion 6.
Jukugo-ruby distribution with inter-character space expansion 6.

Terminology

The definitions with (JIS Z 8125) and (JIS X 4051) at the end are those adopted for the corresponding terms by JIS Z 8125 ("Graphic arts - Glossary - Digital printing terms") and JIS X 4051 ("Formatting rules for Japanese documents") respectively.

Terminology Japanese Romanized transliteration Definition
back matter 後付 atozuke Appendices, supplements, glossary of terms, index and/or bibliography, and so on, appended at the end of a book.
base character 親文字 oya moji A character to be annotated by ruby, ornament characters, or emphasis dots.
base line 並び線 narabi sen A virtual line on which almost all glyphs in Western fonts are designed to be aligned. (JIS Z 8125)
bibliography 参考文献 sankō bunken A list of works and papers related to the subjects in the text. (JIS Z 8125)
blank page 白ページ shiro pēji An empty page.
bleed 裁切り tachikiri To print a picture or a tint to run off the edge of a trimmed page. (JIS Z 8125)
block direction 行送り方向 gyō okuri hōkō The direction lines progress, one after the other. (JIS Z 8125)
block heading 別行見出し betsugyōmidashi A kind of heading styles. The heading is set as an independent line from basic text. (JIS Z 8125)
bold 太字 futoji A kind of font style. Similer to bold in western typograpy.
bound on the left-hand side 左綴じ hidari toji Binding of a book to be opened from the left.
bound on the right-hand side 右綴じ migi toji Binding of a book to be opened from the right.
bousen (sideline) 傍線 bōsen A line drawn by the left or right side of a character or a run of text in vertical writing mode. (JIS Z 8125)
break (a line) (2行に)分割 bunkatsu To place the first of two adjacent characters at the end of a line and the second at the head of a new line.
caption キャプション kyapushon A title or a short description accompanying a picture, an illustration, or a table. (JIS Z 8125)
cell こま koma Each element area of tables, cell.
cell contents こま内容 komanaiyō The content of each cell in tables. (JIS X 4051)
cell padding こま余白 komayohaku Spaces between line and cell in tables. (JIS X 4051)
centering 中央そろえ chūō soroe To align the center of a run of text that is shorter than a given line length to the center of a line. (JIS Z 8125)
character advance 字幅 jihaba Size of a character frame in the inline direction, generally indicated as a ratio of the size of a full-width character, as in full-width, half-width, or quarter em width. Character advance is the width of a given character in horizontal writing-mode, while it is the height in vertical writing-mode.
character frame (文字の)外枠 sotowaku Rectangular area occupied by a character when it is set solid.
character shape 字形 jikei Incarnation of a character by handwriting, printing or rendering to a computer screen. (JIS Z 8125)
character size 文字サイズ moji saizu Dimensions of a character. Unless otherwise noted, it refers to the size of a character frame in the block direction.
characters not ending line 行末禁則文字 gyōmatsu kinsoku moji Any character for which "line-end prohibition rule" is invoked. (JIS Z 8125)
characters not starting line 行頭禁則文字 gyōtō kinsoku moji Any character for which "line-start prohibition rule" is invoked. (JIS Z 8125)
chronological history 年譜 nenpu Chronological tabels about the histories of persons or organizations.
chronological table 年表 nenpyō Chronologocal tables about histrical incidents. There are special types of chronological tables besides general ones, focused to specific view points and aspects.
chu-boso-kei 中細罫 chūbosokei Middle width line, usually about 0.25mm.
column dan A partition on a page in multi-column format. (JIS Z 8125)
column gap 段間 dankan Amount of space between columns on a page. (JIS Z 8125)
column spanning 段抜き dannuki A setting style of illustrations, tables, etc., over hanging to multiple columns. (JIS Z 8125)
column spanning heading 段抜きの見出し dannuki no midashi Headings using multiple columns.
composition 組版 kumihan Process of arrangement of text, figures and/or pictures, etc on a page in a desired layout (design) in preparation for printing.
compound word (jukugo) 熟語 jukugo A combination of two or more kanji characters which makes one word.
continuous pagination 通しノンブル tōshi nonburu
a) To number the pages of a book continuously across all those in the front matter, the text and the back matter.
b) To number the pages continuously across those of all books, such as a series published in separate volumes. Also to number the pages continuously across those of all issues of a periodical published in a year, aside from pagination per issue.
(JIS Z 8125)
cut-in heading 窓見出し madomidashi A style of headings. Headings do not occupy the full lines, but share lines area with following main text lines.
descender line ディセンダライン disenda rain A descender is the part of a letter extending below the base line, as in 'g', 'j', 'p', 'q', or 'y'. A descender line is a virtual line drawn at the bottom of descender parallel to base line.
double running head method 両柱方式 ryōbashira hōshiki A method that prints running heads on both even and odd pages. (JIS Z 8125)
emphasis dots 圏点 kenten Symbols attached alongside a run of base characters to emphasize them. (JIS Z 8125)
endnote 後注 kōchū A set of notes placed at the end of a part, chapter, section, paragraph and so on, or at the end of a book. (JIS Z 8125)
European numerals アラビア数字 arabia sūji Any of the symbols in [0-9] used to represent numbers. (JIS Z 8125)
even inter-character spacing 均等割り kintō wari A text setting with uniform inter-character spacing per line so that each line is aligned on the same line-head and line-end. (JIS Z 8125)
even tsumegumi 均等詰め kintō zume Adjustment of inter-character space by subtracting the same amount of space. (JIS Z 8125)
face tsumegumi 字面詰め jizura zume Adjustment of inter-character space by subtracting space to the extent that two letter faces are placed adjacent. (JIS Z 8125)
fixed inter-character spacing アキ組 aki gumi A text setting with a uniform inter-character spacing. (JIS Z 8125)
fixed-width モノスペース monosupēsu A characteristic of a font where the same character advance is assigned for all glyphs. (JIS Z 8125)
font フォント fonto A set of character glyphs of a given typeface. (JIS Z 8125)
foot chi
a) The bottom part of a book or a page.
b) The bottom margin between the edge of a trimmed page and the hanmen (text area)
(JIS Z 8125)
footnote 脚注 kyakuchū A note in a smaller face than that of main text, placed at the bottom of a page. (JIS Z 8125)
fore-edge 小口 koguchi
a) The three front trimmed edges of pages in a book.
b) The opposite sides of the gutter in a book.
(JIS Z 8125)
front matter 前付 maezuke The first part of a book followed by the text, usually consisting of a forward, preface, table of contents, list of illustrations, acknowledgement and so on.
full-width 全角 zenkaku
a) Relative index for the length which is equal to a given character size.
b) Character frame which character advance is equal to the amount referred to as a). A full-width character frame is square in shape by definition.
furigana 振り仮名 furigana A method of ruby annotation using kana characters to indicate how to read kanji characters. This term derives from a Japanese verb "furu (to attach alongside)" and "kana", and has been used synonymously with "ruby". This document prefers to use the term "ruby".
furikanji 振り漢字 furikanji A method of ruby annotation using Kanji characters for ruby instead of kana characters.
furiwake 振分け furiwake A method of placing multiple runs of text in a line. (JIS Z 8125)
general-ruby 総ルビ sō rubi A method of ruby annotation that attaches ruby text for all Kanji characters in the text. (JIS Z 8125)
group-ruby グループルビ gurūpu rubi A method of ruby character distribution such that the length of ruby text matches to that of the base text by giving the same adjusted amount of space between ruby characters.
gutter のど nodo
a) The binding side of a spread of a book.
b) the margin between the binding edge of a book and the hanmen (text area).
c) The part of a book where all pages are bound together to the book spine.
(JIS Z 8125)
gyodori 行取り gyōdori To keep block direction area for headings and so on, along with line units in kihon-hanmen. The width of the gyodori space is calculated with following fomula: line width × number of lines + line gap × (number of lines − 1). However, deceptively, in middle of page or column, the line gaps before and after seem to be added to the gyodori space, and in the start of page or column, the line gap after seems to be added to the gyodori space.
half em 二分 nibu Half of the full-width size. (JIS Z 8125)
half em space 二分アキ nibu aki Amount of space that is half size of em space.
half-width 半角 hankaku Character frame which has a character advance of a half em.
han-tobira 半扉 hantobira A simplified version of naka-tobira, the verso side of which text of the new part starts. (JIS Z 8125)
hanmen (page content area) 版面 hanmen Actual printed area in a page excluding the margins. (note: Running heads and page numbers are not part of hanmen.) (JIS Z 8125)
head ten
a) The top part of a book or a page.
b) The top margin between the top edge of a trimmed page and the hanmen (text area)
(JIS Z 8125)
heading 見出し midashi
a) A title of a paper or an article.
b) A title for each section of a book, paper or article.
(JIS Z 8125)
headnote 頭注 tōchū A kind of notes in vertical writing style, head area in kihon-hanmen is kept beforehand, and notes are set with smaller size font than main text.
horizontal writing mode 横組 yokogumi The process or the result of arranging characters on a line from left to right, of lines on a page from top to bottom, and/or of columns on a page from left to right. (JIS Z 8125)
hyphenation ハイフネーション haifunēshon A method of breaking a line by dividing a Western word at the end of a line and adding a hyphen at the end of the first half of the syllable.
ideographic numerals 漢数字 kansūji Ideographic characters representing numbers.
illustrations 図版 zuhan A general term referring to a diagram, chart, cut, figure, picture and the like, to be used for printed materials.
independent pagination 別ノンブル betsu nonburu To number the pages of the front matter, the text and the back matter independently. (JIS Z 8125)
index 索引 sakuin A list of terms or subjects with page numbers for where they are referred to in a single or multiple volumes of a book. (JIS Z 8125)
inline direction 字詰め方向 jizume hōkō Text direction in a line. (JIS Z 8125)
inseparable characters rule 分離禁止 bunri kinshi A line adjustment rule that prohibits inserting any space between specific combinations of characters. (JIS Z 8125)
inter-character space 字間 jikan Amount of space between two adjacent character frames on the same line.
itemization 箇条書き kajō gaki To list ordered or unordered items one under the other. (JIS Z 8125)
Japanese and Western mixed text composition 和欧文混植 waō konshoku To mix Japanese text and Western text in the same composition.
Japanese characters 和文文字 wabun moji Characters used to compose Japanese text.
Japanese gothic face ゴシック体 goshikku tai A Japanese typeface, with strokes almost the same in thickness, and no special ornament on a stroke such as a triangular element commonly seen in the Mincho typeface. Used for text emphasis and/or headings.
jidori 字取り jidori A method of aligning a run of text to both edges which is specified by a position to start and the length calculated by a specified number of a given size of characters. (JIS Z 8125)
Jouyou Kanji Table 常用漢字表 jōyō kanji hyō The official list of Kanji characters "for general use in society. such as in legal and official documents, newspapers, magazines, broadcasting and the like". It was established in 1981 as a reference guide for people in composing contemporary Japanese. It listed 1,945 of Kanji characters together with their orthographic shapes, Japanese native reading (Kun), Chinese derived reading (On) and other useful information.
jukugo-ruby 熟語ルビ jukugo rubi A method of ruby character distribution determined by two functions, one is to provide reading for each Kanji character, the other is to give a united appearance attached to a word.
kabe かべ kabe Main text is bounced before the dannuki headings, illustrations, tables, etc., like balls and walls.
kanbun composition 漢文 kanbun Chinese classic text (or text in the same style) with various auxiliary symbols so that it can be read as Japanese text.
katatsuki (katatsuki-ruby) 肩付き(肩付きルビ) katatsuki (katatsuki rubi) A method of attaching ruby at the upper right of each base character. (JIS Z 8125)
kihon-hanmen 基本版面 kihon hanmen The default dimensions of the main area of a typeset page specified by text direction, number of columns, character size, number of characters in a line, number of lines in a column, inter-line spacing and inter-column spacing. (JIS X 4051)
label name ラベル名 raberumei Text following or followed by numbers for illustrations, tables, headings and running headings. (JIS X 4051)
letter face 字面 jizura Area in which glyph is drawn. (JIS Z 8125)
letterpress printing 活字組版 katsuji kumihan The traditional printing method using movable type.
line adjustment 行の調整処理 gyō no chōsei shori A method of aligning both edges of all lines to be the same given length by removing or adding adjustable spaces.
line adjustment by hanging punctuation ぶら下げ組 burasage gumi A line breaking rule to avoid commas or full stops at a line head (which is prohibited in Japanese typography) by taking them back to the end of the previous line beyond the specified line length. (JIS Z 8125)
line adjustment by inter-character space expansion 追出し処理 oidashi shori A line breaking rule that aligns both edges of a line by expanding inter-character spaces. (JIS Z 8125).
line adjustment by inter-character space reduction 追込み処理 oikomi shori A line breaking rule that aligns both edges of a line by removing adjustable spaces such as conditional spaces for punctuation marks. (JIS Z 8125).
line breaking rules 禁則処理 kinsoku shori A set of rules to avoid prohibited layout in Japanese typography, such as "line-start prohibition rule", "line-end prohibition rule", inseparable or unbreakable character sequences and so on. (JIS Z 8125)
line end 行末 gyōmatsu The position at which a line ends. (JIS Z 8125)
line end alignment 行末そろえ gyōmatsu soroe To align a run of text to the line end. (JIS Z 8125)
line end indent 字上げ jiage To reserve a certain amount of space before the default position of a line end. (JIS Z 8125)
line feed 行送り gyō okuri The distance between two adjacent lines measured by their reference points. (JIS Z 8125)
line gap 行間 gyōkan The smallest amount of space between adjacent lines.
line head 行頭 gyōtō The position at which a line starts. (JIS Z 8125)
line head alignment 行頭そろえ gyōtō soroe To align a run of text to the line head. (JIS Z 8125)
line head indent 字下げ jisage To reserve a certain amount of space after the default position of a line head. (JIS Z 8125)
line length 行長 gyōchō Length of a line with a pre-defined number of characters. When the line is indented at the line head or the line end, it is length of the line from the specified amount of line head indent to the specified amount of line end indent.
line-end prohibition rule 行末禁則 gyōmatsu kinsoku A line breaking rule that prohibits specific characters at a line end. (JIS Z 8125)
line-start prohibition rule 行頭禁則 gyōtō kinsoku A line breaking rule that prohibits specific characters at a line head. (JIS Z 8125)
main text 本文 honbun
a) The principal part of a book, usually preceded by the front matter, followed by the back matter.
b) The principal part of an article excluding figures, tables, heading, notes, leads and so on.
c) The content of a page excluding running heads and page numbers.
d) The net contents of a book excluding covers, end papers, insets and so on.
(JIS Z 8125)
matrix 母型 bokei A metal mold from which movable type is cast.
mawarikomi 回り込み mawarikomi Text setting style to fill the left line direction space, which is happen to appear because of the arragnement of illustrations, tables, etc. (JIS Z 8125)
Mincho typeface 明朝体 minchōtai A major style of Japanese font. Horizontal lines are thin and vertical lines are thick. At the start position and the end position, there are triangular figure representing press of brush. Kana are designed to balance the Kanji design. In Japanese text setting, Mincho typeface is most frequently used for main text, especially for long text. Similar to "serif" of Western typography.
mixed text composition 混植 konshoku
a) To interleave Japanese text with Western text in a line (Japanese and Western mixed text composition).
b) To compose text with different sizes of characters (mixed size composition).
c) To compose text with different typefaces (mixed typeface composition).
(JIS Z 8125)
mono-ruby モノルビ mono rubi A method of ruby distribution where a run of ruby text is attached to each base character. (JIS Z 8125)
multi-column format 段組 dangumi A format of text on a page where text is divided into two or more sections (columns) in the inline direction and each column is separated by a certain amount of space (column space). (JIS Z 8125)
multivolume work 多巻物 takanmono A set of work published in two or more volumes, as in the complete work or the first/last half volumes.
naka-tobira 中扉 naka tobira A recto or a page inserted to divide two different parts in a book. It often has a title or other text to describe the new part. (JIS Z 8125)
nakatsuki (nakatsuki-ruby) 中付き(中付きルビ) nakatsuki (nakatsuki rubi) A method of ruby character distribution where each ruby character is aligned to the vertical center of the corresponding base character in vertical writing mode, or to the horizontal center of the base character in horizontal writing mode. (JIS Z 8125)
new column 改段 kaidan In multi-column setting, to change to new column before the end of current column.
new recto 改丁 kaichō To start a new heading or something on a odd page. (JIS Z 8125)
note chū Explanatory information added to terms, figures or tables. (JIS Z 8125)
number of characters per line 字詰め jizume Number of characters in a line to specify the length of lines. (JIS Z 8125)
number of columns 段数 dansū Number of columns on a page. (JIS Z 8125)
omote-kei 表罫 omotekei Thin width line. Usually about 0.12mm. (JIS Z 8125)
one em space 全角アキ zenkaku aki Amount of space that is full-width size.
one third em 三分 sanbu One third of the full-width size. (JIS Z 8125)
one third em space 三分アキ sanbu aki Amount of space that is one third size of em space.
one-third-ruby 三分ルビ sanbu rubi Ruby characters, narrow enough so that three can fit within the width of a full-width base character.
original pattern 原図 genzu An original drawn pattern of a character image to be used for a printing type or a digitized glyph.
ornament characters 添え字 soeji A superscript or subscript attached to a base character. (JIS Z 8125)
page ページ pēji A side of a sheet of paper in a written work such as a book. (JIS Z 8125)
page break 改ページ kai pēji To end a page even if it is not full and to start a new page with the next paragraph, a new heading and so on. (JIS Z 8125)
page format 組体裁 kumi teisai The layout and presentation of a page with text, graphics and other elements for a publication such as a book.
page number ノンブル nonburu A sequential number to indicate the order of pages in a publication. (JIS Z 8125)
para-ruby パラルビ para rubi A method of ruby annotation where ruby text is only attached to selected Kanji characters in the text. (JIS Z 8125)
paragraph 段落 danraku A group of sentences to be processed for line composition. A paragraph consists of one or more lines. (JIS Z 8125)
paragraph break 改行 kaigyō To start a new line to indicate a new paragraph.
paragraph format 段落整形 danraku seikei A format of a paragraph, as in line head indent or line end indent.
parallel-note 並列注 heiretsuchū Areas of notes are kept when the kihon-hanmen is designed. Related notes are set in these areas, with page unit or spread unit. Parallel-note is the general name for head note (in vertical writing mode), foot note (in vertical writing mode) and side note (in horizontal writing mode).
point ポイント pointo A measurement unit of character size. 1 point is equal to 0.3514mm (see JIS Z 8305). There is another unit to measure character sizes called Q, where 1Q is equivalent to 0.25mm.
printing types 活字 katsuji Movable type used for letterpress printing.
proportional プロポーショナル puropōshonaru A characteristic of a font where character advance is different per glyph. (JIS Z 8125)
punctuation marks 約物 yakumono A general term referring to the symbols used in text composition to help make the meaning of text clearer, as in commas, full stops, question marks, brackets, diereses and so on. (JIS Z 8125)
quarter em 四分 shibu Quarter size of full-width.
quarter em space 四分アキ shibu aki Amount of space that is a quarter of an em space in size.
quarter em width 四分角 shibu kaku Character frame which has a character advance of a quarter em. (JIS X 4051)
quotation 引用文 in-yōbun Excerps from other published works. (JIS Z 8125)
reference marks 合印 aijirushi A symbol or short run of text attached to a specific part of text, to which notes are provided followed by the corresponding marks.
reverse pagination 逆ノンブル gyaku nonburu Numbering pages of a book backwards. (JIS Z 8125)
Roman numerals ローマ数字 rōma sūji Numerals represented by upper case or lower case of Latin letters. (JIS Z 8125)
ruby ルビ rubi Supplementary small characters indicating pronunciation, meaning, etc. for the character or the block of characters they annotate. (JIS Z 8125) (Sometimes these annotations are referred to as "furigana".)
run-in heading 同行見出し dōgyōmidashi A kind of heading style to continue main text just after the heading without line break.
running head hashira A page element which contains information on the title of the book, chapter, section and so on, printed outside the area of the hanmen. (JIS Z 8125)
second level heading 中見出し nakamidashi Second level and middle size heading between first level heading and third level heading. (JIS Z 8125)
sidenote 傍注 bōchū A kind of notes, in vertical writing mode with spread unit, and related notes are set from the left end of left page with smaller size font than the main text. A kind of notes, in horizontal writing mode, the realm is kept beforhand in right side or fore-edge side of kihon-hanmen, and related notes are set in the realm with smaller size font than main text.
single line alignment method そろえ soroe To align a run of text that is shorter than a given line length to designated positions.
single running head method 片柱方式 katabashira hōshiki A method that puts running heads only on odd pages. (JIS Z 8125)
small kana 小書きの仮名 kogaki no kana Kana with smaller letter faces to be used mainly for representing contracted sounds or prolonged vowels. (JIS Z 8125)
solid setting ベタ組 beta gumi To arrange characters with no inter-character space between adjacent character frames.
space アキ aki Amount of space between adjacent characters or lines. It also refers to the blank area between the edges of a hanmen or an illustration and text or other hanmen elements.
spread 見開き mihiraki Any two facing pages when opening a book and the like. (JIS Z 8125)
subscript (inferior) 下付き shitatsuki Smaller face of characters, attached to the lower right or the lower left of a normal size character. (JIS Z 8125)
subtitle 副題 fukudai Secondary title for headings, subtile. (JIS X 4051)
superscript (superior) 上付き uwatsuki Smaller face of characters, attached to the upper right or the upper left of a normal size character. (JIS Z 8125)
tab setting タブ処理 tabu shori A method of line composition to align one or more runs of text to designated positions on a line.
table hyō Formatted data consisting of characters or numbers, arranged in cells and sometimes divided by lines, in order to present the data in a way that is easier to understand. (JIS Z 8125)
table of contents 目次 mokuji A list of headings of contents of a book in page order or arranged by subjects, with page numbers on which each section begins. (JIS Z 8125)
tate-chu-yoko 縦中横 tate chū yoko To typeset a (small) group of characters horizontally within a vertical line of main text.
tentsuki 天付き tentsuki
a) To remove conditional space from opening brackets at a line head to align the line head to the ones of the adjacent lines.
b) Not to add the default line head indent for the first line of a paragraph so as to align all line heads.
(JIS Z 8125)
text direction 組方向 kumi hōkō Horizontal setting or vertical setting. (JIS Z 8125)
third level heading 小見出し komidashi Headings for smallest or minimum unit of main text in books.
top level heading 大見出し ōmidashi Headings for largest or muximum unit of main text in books.
Touyou Kanji Table 当用漢字表 tōyō kanji hyō The official list of Kanji characters established in 1946, which was designed to restrict the Kanji characters for general use in society to only those 1850 specified in the list. The list together with other related tables was superseded by the Jouyou Kanji Table.
trim size 仕上りサイズ shiagari saizu Dimensions of a full page in a publication, including margins. (JIS Z 8125)
tsumegumi 詰め組 tsumegumi Adjustment of inter-character space by making the distance between the letter face of adjacent characters shorter than that produced by solid setting. (JIS Z 8125)
type-picking 文選 bunsen To select metal type for characters needed to print a manuscript. (Metal type is stored in a type case, but because the number of Japanese characters is very large, an extra operation was invented that involves collecting type in a so-called 'bunsen box' before typesetting a manuscript using a composing stick.)
typeface 書体 shotai A set of letters or symbols, which are designed to have coherent patterns to be used for printing or rendering to a computer screen. (JIS Z 8125)
unbreakable characters rule 分割禁止 bunkatsu kinshi A line breaking rule that prohibits breaking a line between consecutive dashes or leaders, or between other specific combinations of characters.
underline 下線 kasen A line drawn under a character or a run of text in horizontal writing mode. (JIS Z 8125)
ura-kei 裏罫 urakei Thick width line. Usually about 0.4mm. (JIS Z 8125)
vertical writing mode 縦組 tate gumi The process or the result of arranging characters on a line from top to bottom, of lines on a page from right to left, and/or of columns on a page from top to bottom. (JIS Z 8125)
warichu (inline cutting note) 割注 warichū A note of two or more lines inserted in the text. It includes brackets which surround the note (JIS Z 8125)
weight ウェイト weito A measurement of the thickness of fonts. (JIS Z 8125)
widow ウィドウ widō The term in Western text layout to describe that the last line of a paragraph with only a few words appears at the top of a new page or a column. (JIS Z 8125)
widow adjustment 段落末尾処理 danraku matsubi shori A method of line composition to adjust lines in a paragraph so that the last line consists of more than a given number of characters.

References

Acknowledgements

This document has been developed with contributions from participants of the Japanese Layout Task Force.

Revision Log

The following changes were made since the previous publication.

A detailed list of changes, including diffs, can be found in the github commit log.