This specification, developed by [W3C OpenTrack Community Group](http://www.w3.org/community/opentrack/), introduces a data model to support the publication of Athletics data on the Web. This document defines the main concepts and relations of Athletics competitions, including competitors and their results, enabling a common representation of information in this sector.

The OpenTrack model is mapped to existing standards, including BBC Sports Ontology [[SPORT-ONT]], Schema.org [[SCHEMA-ORG]], [[QUDT-SPACETIME]] types and properties. The resulting OpenTrack Vocabulary is a lightweight schema aiming at identifying, defining and exposing data on the Web.

This model and vocabulary is in process of development.

## Introduction This section describes the conceptual model for OpenTrack. As described in [the charter](https://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/charter.html), this model describes data related to Athletics competitions including: Track and Field; Road Running; Race Walking; Cross-Country Running; Mountain Running; and trail Running disciplines. This model will be focus on Athletics competitions, having into account: events; athletes and teams; results; performances; management of start lists; results; and facilities. This document specifies the model in an abstract way and its implementation using the concrete vocabulary, a lightweight schema, based on RDF Schema [[RDF-SCHEMA]] and Schema.org [[SCHEMA-ORG]]. Opentrack vocabulary defines the main concepts and relations about Athletics competitions and competitors, enabling a common representation of information in this realm. Data should be available in a standard format, reachable and manageable by Semantic Web tools. With the objective of a wide use of this model, the schema is very flexible and all examples will be expressed in JSON-LD format. Along with the vocabulary, there is a specific JSON-LD context that will ease the adoption of the vocabulary, even for those who don not have deep knowledge of the Semantic Web. No section should be considered final, and the absence of any content does not imply that such content is out of scope, or may not appear in the future. If you feel something should be covered, please [tell us](https://github.com/w3c/opentrack-cg/issues). ## Structure of this document This specification is divided into two main sections: 1. **Introduction** - this introductory part; 2. **How to** - How to use the model and describe resources using OpenTrack and JSON-LD; 3. **Concepts** - describes the key entities and their attributes, including the concrete data model; 4. **Classification Schemas** - lists of taxonomies and value schemas related to Athletics. ## Background OpenTrack descriptions need homogeneous classes, properties and data types to specify values of properties. This work is based [on existing requirements](http://opentrack.run/standards/), and the rules set up by the IAAF [[IAAF-RULES]] and by WMA [[WMA-RULES]]. OpenTrack vocabulary is aligned with other existing schemas and ontologies focused on sports, such as: Sport Ontology [[SPORT-ONT]], IPTC SportsML [[SPORTSML]] and Schema.org [[SCHEMA-ORG]].
This specification makes use of the compact IRI Syntax; please refer to the [Compact IRIs](http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld/#compact-iris) from [[JSON-LD]]. This specification makes use of the following namespaces: * `rdf`: `http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#` * `rdfs`: `http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#` * `ath` : `http://purl.org/athletics/` * `schema` : `http://schema.org/` * `skos` : `http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#` * `dct` : `http://purl.org/dc/terms/` * `xsd`: `http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#` * `qudt` : `http://qudt.org/2.0/schema/qudt` * `unit` : `http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/` The domain of this specification is Athletics ([http://dbpedia.org/resource/Sport_of_athletics](http://dbpedia.org/resource/Sport_of_athletics)).
## Typographical Conventions The following typographic conventions are used in this specification:
`markup`
Markup (elements, attributes, properties), machine processable values (string, characters, media types), property name, or a file name is in a monospace font.
__*definition*__
A definition of a term, to be used elsewhere in this or other specifications, is in bold and italics.
[hyperlink]()
A hyperlink is underlined and in blue.
[[reference]]()
A document reference (normative or informative) is enclosed in square brackets and links to the references section.
Notes are in light green boxes with a green left border and with a "Note" header in green. Notes are normative or informative depending on the whether they are in a normative or informative section, respectively.
Examples are in light khaki boxes, with khaki left border, and with a
numbered "Example" header in khaki. Examples are always informative.
The content of the example is in monospace font and may be syntax colored.
## How to use OpenTrack with JSON-LD With the objective of a wide use of this model, the schema is very flexible and all examples will be expressed in [[JSON-LD]] format. Along with the vocabulary, there is a specific [[JSON-LD]] context that will ease the adoption of the vocabulary, even for those who don not have deep knowledge of the Semantic Web. This section includes introductory information for those who are not familiar with the semantic technologies. The Opentrack model is expressed under the [RDF](https://www.w3.org/RDF/) paradigm (a graph-oriented representation), so there is more than one format to represent (serialize) the graph of information: RDF/XML, turtle, RDFa, etc. Examples will be represented in [JSON-LD](https://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld/), a JSON-based syntax easy to adopt. In order to ease the adoption of this set of technologies, this document includes several recipes to help developers publish and reuse Athletics information through these mechanisms. ### Terminology * **JSON-LD**. JSON-LD is a lightweight Linked Data format. It is easy for humans to read and write. It is based on the already successful JSON format and provides a way to help JSON data interoperate at Web-scale. JSON-LD is an ideal data format for programming environments, REST Web services, and unstructured databases such as CouchDB and MongoDB. * **JSON-LD Context**. In JSON-LD, a context is used to map terms, i.e., properties with associated values in an JSON document, to URLs. A term is a short word that expands to a URL. Terms may be defined as any valid JSON string other than a JSON-LD keyword. * **Linked Data**. Linked Data is a way to create a network of standards-based machine interpretable data across different documents and Web sites. It allows an application to start at one piece of Linked Data, and follow embedded links to other pieces of Linked Data that are hosted on different sites across the Web. * **IRI (Internationalized Resource Identifier)**. An IRI is something like a unique web address (http://example.org/resource001) that serves for identifying resources. See [JSON-LD Best Practices](https://json-ld.org/spec/latest/json-ld-api-best-practices/#terminology) for more information. ### Filename extension, MIME type and encoding * Recommended document extension: `.jsonld` * MIME Type: `application/ld+json` * Encoding: `UTF-8` ### Basic JSON-LD concepts To illustrate the basic concepts of this Opentrack JSON-LD representation we will use a simple example with the description of an athlete:
{
    "@context" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/contexts/opentrack.jsonld",
    "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/001Farah.jsonld",
    "@type" : "Athlete",
    "name" : "Mohamed Muktar Jama Farah",
    "familyName" : "Farah",
    "givenName" : "Mohamed Muktar Jama",
    "alternateName" : "Mo Farah",
    "url" : "http://www.mofarah.com",
    "gender" : "Male" ,
    "birthDate" : "1983-04-23",
    "image" : "https://example.com/260px-MoPodiumRio2016.png",
    "club" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/club/NEB.jsonld"
} 
There are there keywords that should be always included in our documents: `@context`, `@type` and `@id`. The rest of the **properties are optional**. In case a property value is unknown, the pair key:value will be omitted. #### @context RDF resources (concepts, classes, properties, etc.) are identified by IRIs. For instance, the property `name` used in the example above is identified by `http://schema.org/name`. JSON-LD contexts define keys used within the document can have unambigious meaning, as they bind to the IRIs which describe their meaning. By specifying
    "@context" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/contexts/opentrack.jsonld"
we indicate the context of the document, that is defined in [the linked document](http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/contexts/opentrack.jsonld). So we can use the keys of the context as a simplification for the representation. #### @type `@type` indicates the class of the resource being described. In this example, the resource is an `Athlete` (the context maps `Athlete` to the IRI `http://purl.org/athletics#Athlete`, but we don't care about this now). * We should include always the type to the object we are describing. * In case the resource would have more than a type, several types may be specified within an array:
    "@type" : [ "Athlete", "Coach" ]
#### @id `@id` is used to uniquely identify entities or resources through IRIs. When dereferencing an entity related via a URL, the location should provide a representation of that entity.
    "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/001Farah.jsonld"
This example describes an `Athlete` that is identified as [http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/001Farah.jsonld](http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/001Farah.jsonld"). The web address will provide information about the entity (the same that is being described in the example). Having these identifiers we will be able to refer this entity from other entity descriptions or documents. Using this mechanism, we can enrich descriptions just linking our descriptions with other IRIs that already identify resources. For instance, the athlete is affiliated to a club:
    "club" : { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/club/NEB.jsonld" }
That club (identified by [http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/club/NEB.jsonld](http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/club/NEB.jsonld)) is described in the same way. There may be exceptions of JSON-LD objects that **do not** have `@id`s associated. We should avoid this case unless we are sure the object defined is useful only in the context of the current description (i.e., no reusable in future descriptions). #### Property values Properties that describe resources may have values of different nature: ##### Literals Some properties only may have **Literals** as value: Texts:
    "alternateName" : "Mo Farah"
Dates:
    "birthDate" : "1983-04-23"
Integers:
    "age" : 25
###### Predefined Values (enumerations) Some properties may have **Enumerations** as value: For instance, `gender` should only take one possible value (either `Male` or `Female`).
    "gender" : "Male"
In this case, the potential values are expressed in the context as aliases, so we can use `Male` instead of `http://schema.org/Male`. ##### Objects As shown above, a resource identified by an IRI may be used as value of a property. In case [the resource](http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/club/NEB.jsonld) is already identified (and described) we can link it directly:
    "club" : { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/club/NEB.jsonld" }
Otherwise we can describe that resource nested in the main object:
    "club" : {
        "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/club/NEB.jsonld",
        "@type": "Club",
        "name": "Newham & Essex Beagles",
        "alternateName": "BeaglesAC",
        "url": "http://www.newhamandessexbeagles.co.uk/",
        "logo": "http://example.org/logo.png",
        "telephone": "(+44) 020 7511 6463",
        "faxNumber": "(+44) 020 7511 4477",
        "address": {
            "name": "Terence McMillan Stadium - Newham Leisure Centre",
            "streetAddress": "281 Prince Regent Lane",
            "addressLocality": "London",
            "postalCode": "E13 8SD",
            "addressCountry": "countrycode:GBR"
        }
    }
See in the previous example that we can include descriptions of other entities nested (i.e., postal address). ##### Arrays Most of the properties may be repeated to describe the same resource. For instance, the athlete may be affiliated to two clubs:
    "club" : { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/club/NEB.jsonld" },
    "club" : { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/club/NOP.jsonld" }
Or:
    "club" : 
        [ 
            { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/club/NEB.jsonld" },
            { "@id" : http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/club/NOP.jsonld" }
        ]
### Multilingual Descriptions String properties may include information about its language, so we can include several representations of the same information in different languages. The property will include information about the textual information using a complex object with two keys: `@value` and `@language`. `@value` contains the string, and `@language` the tag identifying the language (using [Lenguage Tags](https://tools.ietf.org/html/bcp47)).
{
    "@type" : "Place",
    "name" : {
        "@value": "Berlin Olympic Stadium",
        "@language": "en"
    },
    "name": {
        "@value": "Olympiastadion Berlin",
        "@language": "de"
    }
}
### Typed Objects All JSON-LD objects should have a `@type` explicitly indicating the class of the resource. The Opentrack vocabulary includes several classes that can be used, but also other external vocabularies may be used. Classes may be described hierarchically to express differences in the model. For instance, Opentrack defines different types of competitions, with [Competition](#competition) as the core entity that defines a generic competitive sports event. [Competition](#competition) has several subclasses: [Multi Stage Competition](#multi-stage-competition), [Divisional Competition](#divisional-competition), [Multi Round Competition](#multi-round-competition), [Multidiscipline Competition](#multidiscipline-competition) and [Unit Competition](#unit-competition). This means that instances of these subclasses will be also considered a [Competition](#competition). * In case the author does not know the nature of the competition, by default they should use the most generic class (i.e., [Competition](#competition)). * A competition may categorized with more than a type. For instance 2016 Olympic Games is a [MultidisciplineCompetition](#multidisciplinecompetition) (100m, 200m, Throws, basketball, tennis, etc.) and a [DivisionalCompetition](#divisionalcompetition) (divisions are disciplines and categories).
## Overview of the model The model is related to the competition management in Athletics. By using this model systems will be able to describe, collect, process, store and publish Athletics information. In order to represent properly the model, the work was divided in two parts: 1. **Competitors**, athletes and organizations that take part in the competition; and 2. **Competitions** (scheduling and results). ### Competitors
![Competitor Conceptual Model](images/competitor_model.svg)
Competitor Conceptual Model
[Athlete](#athlete)
Person who takes part in Athletics events as individual competitor. Athletes are defined by gender, age, nationality, and other personal information.
[Sports Team](#sports-team)
A group of people who takes part in a competition as a whole, competing against other groups of people. Both athletes and teams can be affiliated to [Organizations](#organizations) such as clubs, schools, university, and/or federations.
[Governing Body](#governing-body)
Sports Governing Bodies in charge of governing and rule Athletics in specific territories. Athletics Federations are Sports Governing Bodies that may be attached to other higher-level federations. **[Athletes](#athlete)**, **[Teams](#teams)**, **[Clubs](#clubs)** and other [Organizations](#organization) may be attached to Governing Bodies.
### Competitions
![Competition Conceptual Model](images/competition_model.svg)
Athletics competition model
[Competition](#competition)
Competitions are organized occasions where Athletics events are planed and take place at a specific location during a period of time. Most Athletics events are part of a bigger meeting, or competition (sub events and super events). These competitions can be organized periodically ([Competition Series](#competition-series)), such as the Summer Olympic Games. These events may have of different nature, depending on the disciplines, schedule, competitors, and scope (e.g., championships tournaments, leagues, fund-raising road races, etc.). Athletics competitions may divided in several (sub)events such as in [Summer Olympic Games](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Athletics_at_the_Summer_Olympics) that include 24 independent event disciplines for men and 23 for women); they may include several stages like the Diamond League); also competitions may be composed of several disciplines.
[Venue](#venue)
Place or location where events and competitions are held.
[Category](#category)
Specific category, or intended competitive audience, within an event (e.g., Senior Men, U18 Women, etc.).
[Competitor](#competitor)
Competitor is the action of taking part in a competition. Competitor is either an athletes or a team that take part in an Athletics event, identified by specific information such as bib number, and best performance for the specific discipline of the event. This entry information is relative to the competition and relevant for **[Results](#results)**.
[Results](#results)
Results is a list of competitors (entries in the competition) with their [Performances](#performance) after an event or a concrete round. It serves as ranking for each stage of the competition. Result list items will include information about the impact of the performance in the competition (i.e., records, disqualifications, competition 'under protest', etc.).
[Performance](#performance)
Resulting competitor's accomplishment recognized by judges after a competition round. Measurements depend on the type of discipline (i.e., running performances are measured as time, jumps and throws are measured in centimetres). It may include information about the conditions in which competitor got the performance (e.g., wind speed).

See below all the concepts and their attributes explained in detail, including the specific class and properties that serve to describe Athletics resources. Concepts include examples of implementation.

Concepts

Athlete

An Athlete is a **[Person](#person)** who participates in Athletics events. * Class: `Athlete` (`ath:Athlete`) * subClassOf: `schema:Person` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `identifier` | `schema:identifier` | Unique character string to identify a person as an athlete. | Text | | `name` | `schema:name` | Athlete's full name. | Text | | `familyName` | `schema:familyName` | Athlete's family name; surname. | Text | | `givenName` | `schema:givenName` |Athlete's given name; first name. | Text | | `prevFamilyName` | `ath:previousFamilyName` | Athlete's former family name; surname. | Text | | `prevGivenName` | `ath:previousGivenName` | Athlete's former given name; first name. | Text | | `alternateName` | `schema:alternateName` | An alias to name an athlete. | Text | | `address` | `schema:address` | Main residence address of an athlete. | [Postal Address](#postal-address) or Text | | `image` | `schema:image` | Picture of an athlete. | URL | | `email` | `schema:email` | Email address. | Text | | `url` | `schema:url` | Webpage URL about an athlete. | URL | | `award` | `schema:award` | Award or prize given to an athlete. | Text | | `gender` | `schema:gender` | Athlete's gender. | [Gender Type](#gender-type) | | `height` | `schema:height` | Athlete's height. | [Distance](#distance) | | `weight` | `schema:weight` | Athlete's weight. | [Mass](#mass) | | `nationality` | `schema:nationality` | Athlete's nationality. | [Country](#country) | | `birthDate` | `schema:birthDate` | Date of birth. | [Date](#date) | | `deathDate` | `schema:deathDate` | Date of death. | [Date](#date) | | `birthPlace` | `schema:birthPlace` | Locality and country of birth (e.g. "Tallinn, Estonia") | [Place](#place) | | `coach` | `schema:coach` | Athlete's main coach. | [Person](#person) | | `sponsor` | `schema:sponsor` | Athlete's sponsor. | [Person](#person) or [Organization](#organizations) | | `affiliation` | `schema:affiliation` | Organization ([Sports Club](#sports-club), [Sports Governing Body](#sports-governing-body), school, university, etc.) which an athlete is affiliated to. | [Organization](#organization) | | `memberOf` | `schema:memberOf` | Team which an athlete is part of (for instance, a National Team). | [Sports Team](#sports-team) | | `performance` | `ath:sportsPerformance` | Athlete's records and best performances. | [Performance](#performance) | | `captainOf` | `ath:captainOf` | Team which an athlete is captain of. | [Sports Team](#sports-team) |
{
    "@context": "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/contexts/opentrack.jsonld",
    "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/001Farah.jsonld",
    "@type" : "Athlete",
 
    "name" : "Mohamed Muktar Jama Farah",
    "familyName" : "Farah",
    "givenName" : "Mohamed Muktar Jama",
    "alternateName" : "Mo Farah",
    "url" : "http://www.mofarah.com",
    "gender" : "Male" ,
    "image" : "https://example.com/260px-MoPodiumRio2016.png",
    "nationality" : "countrycode:GBR",
    "email" : "fakeemail@example.com",
    "height" : {
        "@type" : "QuantitativeValue",
        "value" : "1.75",
        "unitCode" : "MTR"
    },
    "weight" : {
        "@type" : "QuantitativeValue",
        "value" : "65.0",
        "unitCode" : "KGM"
    },
    "birthPlace" : "Mogadishu, Somalia" ,
    "birthDate" : "1983-04-23",
    "coach" : {
        "name" : "Alberto Salazar"
    },
    "sponsor" : {
        "@type" : "Organization",
        "name" : "Nike Oregon Project",
        "url" : "https://nikeoregonproject.com"         
    },
    "affiliation" : 
        [
            { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/club/NEB.jsonld" },
            { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/club/NOP.jsonld" }
        ],
    "memberOf" : 
        [
            { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/team/GBR2012.jsonld" },
            { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/team/GBR2016.jsonld" }
        ],
    "affiliation" :
        [
           { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/GBR.jsonld" },
           { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/USATF.jsonld" }
        ],
    "bestPerformance" :
        [
           { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/performance/001Farah.jsonld#HMarathon" },
           { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/performance/001Farah.jsonld#1500m" },
           { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/performance/001Farah.jsonld#3000m" }
        ]
}
### Sports Team A Sports Team is a group of [Athletes](#athlete) who play a particular sport or game together against other similar groups of people. In Athletics there are certain events designed for teams competition (e.g., relay races). Teams in those competitions may be composed of [Athletes](#athlete) affiliated to the same or different organization, representing a federation (national, regional team), or just a joint of independent athletes. * class: `Team` (`schema:SportsTeam`) | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `identifier` | `schema:identifier` | Unique character string to identify a team. | Text | | `name` | `schema:name` | Descriptive name of a team. | Text | | `alternateName` | `schema:alternateName` | An alias to name a team. | Text | | `image` | `schema:image` | Picture of a team. | URL | | `logo` | `schema:logo` | Logo or flag of a team. | URL | | `url` | `schema:url` | Webpage URL about a team. | URL | | `memberOf` | `schema:memberOf` | Organization (federation, club, school, etc.) which a team is attached to. | [Organization](#organization) | | `nationality` | `schema:location` | Teams's location represented by its country. | [Country](#country) | | `sponsor` | `schema:sponsor` | Sponsor of a team. | [Person](#persons) or [Organization](#organization) | | `coach` | `schema:coach` | Person who acts as coach for a team. | [Person](#person) | | `sportsPerformance` | `ath:sportsPerformance` | Record and/or best performance of a team (e.g., relay competition best). | [Performance](#performance) | | `captain` | `ath:captain` | Athlete, leader of a team. | [Athlete](#athlete) | | `athlete` | `schema:athlete` | Athlete affiliated to a team. | [Athlete](#athlete) |
![Netherlands national team as 4x100 competitor](images/instances_national_team.png)
Definition of a national team as competitor in a 4x100
![Team of a club with several athletes](images/instances_club_team.png)
Definition of a club forming a team for Ekiden
Description of a national team:
{
    "@context": "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/contexts/opentrack.jsonld",
    "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/team/GBR2016.jsonld",
    "@type" : "Team",
 
    "name" : "Great Britain National Team - Olympic Games 2016",
    "alternateName" : "GBR",
    "nationality" : "countrycode:GBR",
    "memberOf" : { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/GBR.jsonld" },
    "athlete" : [
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/001Farah.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/002Butchart.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/004Athlete4.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/005Athlete5.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/006Athlete6.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/006Athlete7.jsonld" }
    ],
    "captain" :  { "@id" : http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/001Farah.jsonld" }
}
### Person A Person is a basic entity to represent a human. A person may play one or more roles (i.e., athlete, coach, organizer, official, etc.). * class: `Person` (`schema:Person`) | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `identifier` | `schema:identifier` | Unique character string to identify a person. | Text | | `name` | `schema:name` | Person's full name. | Text | | `familyName` | `schema:familyName` | Person's family name; surname. | Text | | `givenName` | `schema:givenName` | Person's given name; first name. | Text | | `alternateName` | `schema:alternateName` | An alias to name a person. | Text | | `address` | `schema:address` | Main residence address of a person. | [Postal Address](#postal-address) or Text | | `image` | `schema:image` | Picture of a person. | URL | | `email` | `schema:email` | Email address of a person. | Text | | `url` | `schema:url` | Webpage URL about a person. | URL |
{
    "@type" : "Person",
    "name" : "Alberto Salazar"
}
### Organization An Organization is a basic entity to represent a organized group of people with a particular purpose (i.e., private company, public body, association, etc.). * class: `Organization` (`schema:Organization`) | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `identifier` | `schema:identifier` | Unique character string to identify an organization. | Text | | `name` | `schema:name` | Name of an organization. | Text | | `alternateName` | `schema:altenateName` | An alias to name an organization. | Text | | `address` | `schema:address` | Postal address where an organization is located. | [Postal Address](#postal-address) or Text | | `email` | `schema:email` | Main email address of an organization. | Text | | `url` | `schema:url` | Webpage URL about an organization. | URL | | `telephone` | `schema:telephone` |Main telephone number(s) of an organization. | Text | | `areaServed` | `schema:areaServed` | Spatial coverage of an organization, usually administrative areas (city, region, country, etc.) | [Place](#place), [Country](#country) or [Continent](#continent) | | `memberOf` | `schema:memberOf` | Organization, such as higher-level federation(s), to which an organization is attached to. | [Organization](#organization) | | `member` | `schema:member` | Person or organization attached to an organization. | [Person](#person) or [Organization](#organization) | #### Sports Club A Sports Club, **sport club** or **athletics club**, is an [Organization](#organizations) for [Athletes](#athlete) formed for the purpose of playing sports. Clubs may have different [Teams](#teams) created for specific competitions, such as leagues, relay races, etc. * Class: `Club` (`schema:SportsClub`) * subClassOf: `schema:Organization` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `identifier` | `schema:identifier` | Unique character string to identify a club. | Text | | `name` | `schema:name` | Descriptive name of a club. | Text | | `alternateName` | `schema:alternateName` | An alias to name a club. | Text | | `address` | `schema:address` | Main postal address where a club is registered or located. | [Postal Address](#postal-address) or Text | | `image` | `schema:image` | Picture of a club. | URL | | `logo` | `schema:logo` | Logo or flag of the club. | URL | | `email` | `schema:email` | Main email address of the club. | Text | | `telephone` | `schema:telephone` | Telephone number of a club | Text | | `faxNumber` | `schema:faxNumber` | Fax number of a club | Text | | `url` | `schema:url` | Club's homepage. | URL | | `dissolutionDate` | `schema:dissolutionDate` | Date when a team was dissolved. | [Date](#date) | | `foundingDate` | `schema:foundingDate` | Date when a team was established. | [Date](#date) | | `organization` | `schema:memberOf` | Organization which a club is attached to. | [Organization](#organization) | | `sponsor` | `schema:sponsor` | Sponsor of a club. | [Person](#persons) or [Organization](#organization) | | `athlete` | `schema:athlete` | Athlete who is affiliated to a club. | [Athlete](#athlete) | | `team` | `schema:member` | [Sports Team](#sports-team) attached to a club. | [Sports Team](#sports-team) |
{
    "@context": "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/contexts/opentrack.jsonld",
    "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/club/NEB.jsonld",
    "@type" : "Club",

    "name": "Newham & Essex Beagles",
    "alternateName": "BeaglesAC",
    "url": "http://www.newhamandessexbeagles.co.uk/",
    "image": "http://example.org/image.png",
    "logo": "http://example.org/logo.png",
    "telephone": "(+44) 020 7511 6463",
    "faxNumber": "(+44) 020 7511 4477",
    "email": "fakeemail@example.org",
    "address": {
        "name": "Terence McMillan Stadium - Newham Leisure Centre",
        "streetAddress": "281 Prince Regent Lane",
        "addressLocality": "London",
        "postalCode": "E13 8SD",
        "addressCountry": "countrycode:GBR"
    },
    "sponsor": { "name" : "Asics" } ,
    "athlete": [
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/001Farah.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/002Athlete2.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/003Athlete3.jsonld" }
    ],
    "memberOf" : { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/GBR.jsonld" }
}
#### Sports Governing Body A Sports Governing Body is a special type of organization in charge of governing and rule the sport of athletics. These **sports governing bodies**, sometimes referred as Federations, may be attached to other higher-level federations, and have other sports organizations (clubs or other governing bodies) attached to them. * class: `Federation` (`ath:SportsGoverningBody`) * subClassOf: `schema:SportsOrganization`
{
    "@context": "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/contexts/opentrack.jsonld",
    "@id": "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/EAA.jsonld",
    "@type": "Federation",
    "name": "European Athletics",
    "alternateName": "European Athletic Association",
    "email": "office@european-athletics.org",
    "url": "http://www.european-athletics.org",
    "faxNumber": "(41 21) 313 43 51",
    "telephone": "(41 21) 313 43 50",
    "address": {
        "name": "European Athletic Association",
        "streetAddress": "Avenue Louis-Ruchonnet 16",
        "addressLocality": "Lausanne",
        "postalCode": "CH-1003",
        "addressCountry": "countrycode:CHE"
    },
    "areaServed" : "continent:EUROPE",
    "memberOf": "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/IAAF.jsonld",
    "member": [
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/ALB.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/AND.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/ARM.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/AUT.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/AZE.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/BLR.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/BEL.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/BIH.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/BUL.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/CRO.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/CYP.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/ALB.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/AND.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/ARM.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/AUT.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/AZE.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/BLR.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/BEL.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/BIH.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/BUL.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/CRO.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/CYP.jsonld" }
    ]
}
### Category Category is a division that marks the competition of athletes and teams in sports events. A category describe the potential **audience** of a sports event. Categories may include restrictions of gender, age range and other specific rules depending of the sports discipline. Examples of categories in Athletics are: *M35* (Men aged 35-39), *U23* (Under 23) Men, or *ad hoc* categories for non-official competitions such as *teachers* and *parents* in school sports. There is a predefined list of [standard categories](#age-and-sex-categories) recognized by international federations. See a common predefined [list of the main categories](#category-type) recognized by international Sports Governing Bodies. * class: `Category` (`ath:CompetitiveAudience`) * subClassOf: `schema:PeopleAudience` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `identifier` | `schema:identifier` | Unique character string to identify a category. | Text | | `name` | `schema:name` | Name of a category (i.e., `Under 23 Men`, `Teachers`) | Text | | `alternateName` | `schema:alternateName` | Code used to identify a category (i.e., `M35`, `W35`) | Text | | `description` | `schema:description` | Description and notes about a category. | Text | | `requiredGender` | `schema:requiredGender` | Gender of athletes involved in a category. | [Gender Type](#gender-type) | | `requiredMinAge` | `schema:requiredMinAge` | Athletes' minumum age to be eligible for a category. | Integer | | `requiredMaxAge` | `schema:requiredMaxAge` | Athletes' maximum age to be eligible for a category. | Integer | | `recognizingAuthority` | `ath:recognizingAuthority` | Governing body or organization that recognizes and rule a specific category. | [Person](#person) or [Organization](#organization) | | `geographicArea` | `schema:geographicArea` | The geographic area associated with the category. | [AdministrativeArea ](http://schema.org/AdministrativeArea) | | `healthCondition` | `schema:healthCondition` | Specifying the health condition(s) of the target audience of a competition (e.g., in the case of a medical certificate is required). | [AdministrativeArea ](http://schema.org/AdministrativeArea) | Example of category description (Senior Women):
{
    "@context": "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/contexts/opentrack.jsonld",
    "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/category/SENF.jsonld",
    "@type": "Category",
    "name": "Senior (Female)",
    "description": "Open class with no upper age limit but some limitations on younger people competing in endurance events. Female gender.",
    "requiredMinAge" : 16,
    "requiredGender" : "Female",
    "recognizingAuthority" : { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/IAAF.jsonld" }
}
### Competition A Competition, Athletics Competition or Sports Competition is an event in which [Athletes](#athlete) or [Teams](#team) take part in order to find out who is best at a particular sports activity. Athletics [Competitions](#competition) may be of different nature, depending on disciplines (e.g., 100m, marathon, pole vault, etc.), schedule (e.g. one-day meetings, World championships, etc.), competitors (e.g., U23, Masters, etc.), and scope (e.g., regional, national, supranational championships, leagues, etc.). Other amateur competitions such as fund-raising road races or school races are also considered as [Competitions](#competition). | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `identifier` | `schema:identifier` | Unique character string to identify a competition. | Text | | `name` | `schema:name` | Descriptive name of a competition. | Text | | `alternateName` | `schema:alternateName` | An alias to name the competition. It could be an acronym or abbreviation. | Text | | `description` | `schema:description` | Descriptive text about a competition. | Text | | `location` | `schema:location` | Venue where a competition is held (for instance, Berlin Olympic Stadium). | [Place](#place) or Text | | `url` | `schema:url` | Webpage URL about a competition. | URL | | `image` | `schema:image` | Picture about a competition. | URL | | `startDate` | `schema:startDate` | Date and time when a competition starts. | [Date](#date) or [DateTime](#datetime) | | `endDate` | `schema:endDate` | Date and time when a competition ends. | [Date](#date) or [DateTime](#datetime) | | `eventStatus` | `schema:eventStatus` | Status of a competition according to a enumeration of potential values (i.e., scheduled, completed, etc.) | [Event Status Type](#competition-status) | | `organizer` | `schema:organizer` | Person(s) or organization(s) that organizes a competition. | [Person](#persons) or [Organization](#organizations) | | `contributor` | `schema:contributor` | Person(s) or organization(s) that collaborates in the organization of a competition. | [Person](#person) or [Organization](#organization) | | `starter` | `schema:competitor` | Athletes(s) or teams(s) taking part in the competition at the beginning of the event to compete in the event. | [Competitor](#competitor) | | `participation` | `ath:competitionAction` | Action of Athletes(s) or teams(s) taking part of the competition. | [Competitor](#competitor) | | `sponsor` | `schema:sponsor` | Person(s) or organization(s) that sponsors a competition. | [Person](#person) or [Organization](#organization) | | `attendee` | `schema:attendee` | Person(s) who attends a competition. | [Person](#person) | | `sportsDiscipline` | `ath:sportsDiscipline` | Type of an Athletics competition according to specific rules set by governing bodies (e.g., `Outdoor Sprint Relays`). | [Discipline](#discipline) | | `category` | `ath:sportsCategory` | The specific category for a competition (e.g., *M35*, *U18 Male*, *local competitors*, etc). | [Category](#category) | | `entryRequirements` | `ath:entryRequirements` | Requirements to take part in a competition. | Text | | `results` | `pending:resultDecision` | List with the results of the participation in a competition. There may be different results during the competition (start list, intermediate results, partial results, final results, etc.) . | [Results](#results) | | `unitCompetition` | `ath:unitCompetition` | Unit competition that is part of a parent competition (e.g. every heat of a semifinal round in a 200m event). | [Unit Competition](#unit-competition) | | `competitionStage` | `ath:competitionStage` | A stage within a multi stage competition. | [Competition](#competition) | | `round` | `ath:round` | Round in an athletic event organised as a sequence of rounds. For instance, track and field events are usually structured in qualification rounds (i.e, preliminary rounds, qualification rounds, semifinals and final). Competition rounds aims at qualifying athletes to next round until the final. There are competitions that only have one final round such as Marathon or Cross Country races. Examples of Competition Rounds: 110m Hurdles Men Preliminary Round Heat 1, 10,000m Men Final, and 110 Hurdles Man Semifinal 1. | [Competition](#competition) | | `qualificationCriteria` | `ath:qualificationCriteria` | Requirements for a competitor to get to the next round in a multi round competition (e.g., a preliminary round of qualification in track events may select a number of athletes by their performance and others by heat ranking). | [Qualification Criteria](#qualification-criteria) | Competitions may be part of [Competition Series](#competition-series), this is, competitions that have events periodically (e.g., [2016 Summer Olympic Games in Rio](https://www.olympic.org/rio-2016/athletics) as part of the Olympic Games held every four years); Graphical examples of competitions:
![Model of a 100m competition within the European Championships](images/instances_competition_european_champs_100.svg)
Example of competition model: 2016 European Championships, 100m Men
![Model of a heptathlon competition within the European Championships](images/instances_competition_european_champs_heptathlon.svg)
Example of competition model: 2016 European Championships Heptathlon (simplified with only five combined events)
![Ekiden race instances with two categories](images/instances_relays_ekiden.svg)
Example of instances of the [Jaffa Ekiden Relay Race](http://events.ipswichjaffa.org.uk/ekiden-relays/), representing two different categories (senior and junior), including individual results for each relay leg and the overall results (for teams)
See a complete [example of divisional competition (European Championships with detail of 100m event)](http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/competition/Euro2016.jsonld). #### Competition Series Competition Series are competitive events held periodically (for instance, the Summer Olympic Games have recurring events organized every four years). * class: `CompetitionSeries` (`schema:EventSeries`) | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `identifier` | `schema:identifier` | Unique character string to identify a recurring competition. | Text | | `name` | `schema:name` | Descriptive name of a recurring competition. | Text | | `alternateName` | `schema:alternateName` | An alias to name a recurring competition. | Text | | `description` | `schema:description` | About a recurring competition. | Text | | `subEvent` | `schema:subEvent` | A competition that happens as a recurring event within a series of competitions (e.g., *London 2012* *Olympic Games*) | [Competition](#competitions) |
{
    "@context": "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/contexts/opentrack.jsonld",
    "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/competition/EuropeanChampionships.jsonld",
    "@type": "CompetitionSeries",
 
    "name": "European Athletics Championships",
    "description": "The European Athletics Championships is a recurring event organized by European Athletics, that is held every two years. This championship gathers together the best athletes and national teams in Europe.",
    "organizer": { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/EAA.jsonld" },
    "subEvent" : [
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/competition/Euro2016.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/competition/Euro2018.jsonld" }
    ]
}
#### Unit Competition A Unit Competition is a unitary competition defined by specific sports rules (for instance, the Heat 1 race at the semifinals of 100m event in the Olympic Games). [Competition Rounds](#competition-round) have one or more [Unit Competitions](#unit-competition). Unit Competitions may vary, depending on the type of the Athletics event: * [Unit Race](#unit-race), in the case of races (timed events inside or outside stadia), and * [Unit Field Competition](#unit-field-competition), in the case of field events. ##### Unit Race A Unit Race is a competitive event where performances are measured as time (i.e., races and legs in relay races). Timed events have specific information about timekeeping. This kind of events may have information about the start/finish point and the course of the race. * class: `UnitRace` (`ath:UnitRace`) * subClassOf: `ath:UnitCompetitionEvent` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `fromLocation` | `schema:fromLocation` | Place where a race starts. | [Place](#place) | | `toLocation` | `schema:toLocation` | Place where a race finishes. | [Place](#place) | | `course` | `schema:exerciseCourse` | Course track of a race. | `schema:GeoShape` | | `timekeeping` | `ath:timekeeping` | Type of timekeeping used to control a competition. | [Timekeeping](#timekeeping) | ##### Unit Field Competition A Unit Field Competition is a unitary competition in field events (for instance, one group of the semifinals in a High Jump event). These competitions have a specific structure based on rounds of trials or attempts. Depending on the type of the field event trials are performed in a different way. There are two different types of Unit Field Competitions depending on the nature of the field event: * [Unit Height Competition](#unit-height-competition); and * [Unit Distance Competition](#unit-distance-competition). ###### Unit Height Competition A Unit Height Competition is a unitary competition for height disciplines (**Vertical Jumps**). Officials in Unit Height Competitions must specify specific information about the height of the bar before the competition starts.
![Example of height card](images/example_height_card_concepts.png)
Example of rounds of trials and attempts highlighted on a control card for a Height Competition (Pole Vault)
* class: `UnitHeightCompetition` (`ath:UnitHeightCompetition`) * subClassOf: `ath:UnitFieldCompetition` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `startingHeight` | `ath:startingHeight` | The starting height the bar is raised at the start of a vertical jumps unit competition. | [Distance](#distance) | | `increasingHeight` | `ath:increasingHeight` | The subsequent heights to which the bar will be raised at the end of each round of trials within a vertical jumps unit competition. | Text | Example of description of height card, simplified with an athlete's participation:
{
    "@context": "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/contexts/opentrack.jsonld",
    "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/field-trials/U15PoleVault.jsonld",
    "@type" : "UnitHeightCompetition",    
    "name" : "EA U15 Boys Pole Vault – Final",
    "category" : { "name" : "U15B" },
    "startingHeight" : {
        "@type" : "QuantitativeValue",
        "value" : "1.25",
        "unitCode" : "MTR"
        },
    "increasingHeight" : "2.70, 2.90, 3.00 increasing 10 cms.",
    "participation" : [ 
       {
          "@type" : "Competitor",
          "agent" : {
            "@type" : "Athlete",
            "name" : "Joshua Ilyk",
            "affiliation" : "Notts AC"
          },
          "bibIdentifier" : "678",
          "trial" : [
            {
              "@type" : "HeightTrial",
              "targetHeight" : { "value" : "2.50", "unitCode" : "MTR" },
              "competitionFeature" : "feature:NH"
            },
            {
              "@type" : "HeightTrial",
              "targetHeight" : { "value" : "2.70", "unitCode" : "MTR" },
              "competitionFeature" : "feature:NH"
            },
            {
              "@type" : "HeightTrial",
              "targetHeight" : { "value" : "2.90", "unitCode" : "MTR" },
              "competitionFeature" : "feature:NH"
            },
            {
              "@type" : "HeightTrial",
              "targetHeight" : { "value" : "3.00", "unitCode" : "MTR" },
              "attemptNumber" : 1,
              "competitionFeature" : "feature:x"
            },
            {
              "@type" : "HeightTrial",
              "targetHeight" : { "value" : "3.00", "unitCode" : "MTR" },
              "attemptNumber" : 2,
              "competitionFeature" : "feature:o"
            },
            {
              "@type" : "HeightTrial",
              "targetHeight" : { "value" : "3.10", "unitCode" : "MTR" },
              "attemptNumber" : 1,
              "competitionFeature" : "feature:o"
            },
            {
              "@type" : "HeightTrial",
              "targetHeight" : { "value" : "3.20", "unitCode" : "MTR" },
              "attemptNumber" : 1,
              "competitionFeature" : "feature:x"
            },
            {
              "@type" : "HeightTrial",
              "targetHeight" : { "value" : "3.20", "unitCode" : "MTR" },
              "attemptNumber" : 2,
              "competitionFeature" : "feature:o"
            },
            {
              "@type" : "HeightTrial",
              "targetHeight" : { "value" : "3.30", "unitCode" : "MTR" },
              "attemptNumber" : 1,
              "competitionFeature" : "feature:x"
            },
            {
              "@type" : "HeightTrial",
              "targetHeight" : { "value" : "3.30", "unitCode" : "MTR" },
              "attemptNumber" : 2,
              "competitionFeature" : "feature:x"
            },            
            {
              "@type" : "HeightTrial",
              "targetHeight" : { "value" : "3.30", "unitCode" : "MTR" },
              "attemptNumber" : 3,
              "competitionFeature" : "feature:o"
            }
          ]
       }        
    ]
}
###### Unit Distance Competition A Unit Distance Competition is a unitary competition for distance field disciplines (**Horizontal Jumps and Throws**). * class: `UnitDistanceCompetition` (`ath:UnitDistanceCompetition`) * subClassOf: `ath:UnitFieldCompetition`
![Example of distance card](images/example_distance_card_concepts.png)
Example of field rounds and trials highlighted on a control card for Distance Field Events (a Javelin Throw Competition)
Description of distance card simplified with information of two competitors:
{
    "@context": "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/contexts/opentrack.jsonld",
    "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/field-trials/U17DiscusThrow.jsonld",
    "@type" : "UnitDistanceCompetition",
    
    "name" : "EA U17 Men Discus – Final",
    "category" : { "name" : "U17M" },
    "participation" : [ 
       {
          "@type" : "Competitor",
          "agent" : {
            "@type" : "Athlete",
            "name" : "Matt Blandford",
            "affiliation" : "Tonbridge AC" 
          },
          "bibIdentifier" : "549",
          "trial" : [
            {
              "@type" : "DistanceTrial",
              "attemptNumber" : 1,
              "performance" : {
                "@type" : "DistancePerformance",
                "distance" : { "value" : "48.05", "unitCode" : "MTR", "@type" : "QuantitativeValue" }
              }
            },
            {
              "@type" : "DistanceTrial",
              "attemptNumber" : 2,
              "performance" : {
                "@type" : "DistancePerformance",
                "distance" : { "value" : "55.69", "unitCode" : "MTR", "@type" : "QuantitativeValue" }
              }
            },
            {
              "@type" : "DistanceTrial",
              "attemptNumber" : 3,
              "performance" : {
                "@type" : "DistancePerformance",
                "distance" : { "value" : "57.69", "unitCode" : "MTR", "@type" : "QuantitativeValue" }
              }
            },
            {
              "@type" : "DistanceTrial",
              "attemptNumber" : 4,
              "performance" : {
                "@type" : "DistancePerformance",
                "distance" : { "value" : "53.28", "unitCode" : "MTR", "@type" : "QuantitativeValue" }
              }
            },
            {
              "@type" : "DistanceTrial",
              "attemptNumber" : 5,
              "performance" : {
                "@type" : "DistancePerformance",
                "distance" : { "value" : "59.76", "unitCode" : "MTR", "@type" : "QuantitativeValue" }
              }
            },
            {
              "@type" : "DistanceTrial",
              "attemptNumber" : 6,
              "competitionFeature" : "feature:NM"
            }
          ]
       },
       {
          "@type" : "Competitor",
          "agent" : {
            "@type" : "Athlete",
            "name" : "Gurtal Randhawa",
            "affiliation" : "Windsor Slough Eton & H"  
          },
          "bibIdentifier" : "792",
          "trial" : [
            {
              "@type" : "DistanceTrial",
              "attemptNumber" : 1,
              "performance" : {
                "@type" : "DistancePerformance",
                "distance" : { "value" : "43.30", "unitCode" : "MTR", "@type" : "QuantitativeValue" }
              }
            },
            {
              "@type" : "DistanceTrial",
              "attemptNumber" : 2,
              "performance" : {
                "@type" : "DistancePerformance",
                "distance" : { "value" : "42.46", "unitCode" : "MTR", "@type" : "QuantitativeValue" }
              }
            },
            {
              "@type" : "DistanceTrial",
              "attemptNumber" : 3,
              "performance" : {
                "@type" : "DistancePerformance",
                "distance" : { "value" : "42.70", "unitCode" : "MTR", "@type" : "QuantitativeValue" }
              }
            },
            {
              "@type" : "DistanceTrial",
              "attemptNumber" : 4,
              "performance" : {
                "@type" : "DistancePerformance",
                "distance" : { "value" : "45.08", "unitCode" : "MTR", "@type" : "QuantitativeValue" }
              }
            },
            {
              "@type" : "DistanceTrial",
              "attemptNumber" : 5,
              "competitionFeature" : "feature:NM"
            },
            {
              "@type" : "DistanceTrial",
              "attemptNumber" : 6,
              "performance" : {
                "@type" : "DistancePerformance",
                "distance" : { "value" : "44.33", "unitCode" : "MTR", "@type" : "QuantitativeValue" }
              }
            }
          ]
       }
    ]
}
### Field Trial A Field Trial is an individual, unitary athlete's attempt in a field competition. Except for Vertical Jumps, each athlete only will have no more than one trial recorded in any one round of trials of the competition. Anyway, all trials belonging to rounds of trials will have the same structure, independently of the discipline. Except in Vertical Jumps, a valid trial shall be indicated by the measurement taken. For the standard abbreviations and symbols to be used in all other cases see the possible [Competition Features](#competition-feature-type). A *substitute* trial is given in case an athlete is hampered in a trial or it cannot be correctly recorded. * class: `Trial` (`ath:FieldTrial`) * superclasses: * `ath:DistanceTrial` * `ath:HeighTrial` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `identifier` | `schema:identifier` | Unique character string to identify an attempt. | Text | | `competitionFeature` | `ath:competitionFeature` | Feature or note included by officials in the result of a field trial (e.g., 'Passed', 'clear') | [Competition Feature Type](#competition-feature-type) | | `attemptNumber` | `ath:attemptNumber` | Integer indicating the correlative number of an athlete's attempts in a round of trials. | Integer | | `performance` | `ath:performance` | Performance achieved in case a trial was valid. | [Performance](#performance) | | `startTime` | `schema:startTime` | Time and date when a trial starts. | [DateTime](#datetime) | | `endTime` | `schema:endTime` | Time and date when a trial ends. | [DateTime](#datetime) | | `trialFeature` | `ath:trialFeature` | Feature of a trial (i.e. if it is a substitute trial, if it is valid, etc.). | [Trial Feature Type](#trial-feature-type) | There are two specific classes depending on the nature of the field event: * [Distance Trial](#distance-trial); and * [Height Trial](#height-trial) #### Distance Trial A Distance Trial is an individual, unitary athlete's attempt in a distance field competition (i.e., Throws and Horizontal Jumps). * class: `DistanceTrial` (`ath:DistanceTrial`) * subClassOf: `ath:FieldTrial` Example of trial in a throws event:
{
  "@type" : "DistanceTrial",
  "attemptNumber" : 3,
  "performance" : {
    "@type" : "DistancePerformance",
    "distance" : { "value" : "42.70", "unitCode" : "MTR", "@type" : "QuantitativeValue" }
  }
}
#### Height Trial A Height Trial is an individual, unitary athlete's attempt in a height field competition (i.e., Vertical Jumps). * class: `HeightTrial` (`ath:HeightTrial`) * subClassOf: `ath:FieldTrial` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `targetHeight`| `schema:height` | The target height the bar is raised during an attempt. | [Distance](#distance) | Example of trial in a pole vault event:
{
  "@type" : "HeightTrial",
  "targetHeight" : { "value" : "3.20", "unitCode" : "MTR", "@type" : "QuantitativeValue" },
  "attemptNumber" : 1,
  "competitionFeature" : "feature:x"
}
### Competitor A Competitor represents the participation of competitors (teams or athletes) in a specific competition. Each competitor, or entry in the competition, will be identified unequivocally in the competition. These entries will be reflected in [Results](#results) (and starting lists before the competition) and in other stages of the competition such as rounds of trials. * class: `Competitor` (`ath:CompetitionAction`) * subClassOf: `schema:ExerciseAction` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `identifier` | `schema:identifier` | Unique character string to identify an entry in the competition. | Text | | `agent` | `schema:agent` | Athlete or team competing in an event. | [Athlete](#athlete) or [Sports Team](#sports-team) | | `competitorStatus` | `schema:actionStatus` | Status of the competition action of competitor (i.e., competition under protest, disqualified, etc.). | [Protest Status](#protest-status) | | `bibIdentifier` | `ath:bibIdentifier` | Text or number printed on the bib, identifying a competitor during the competition. | Text | | `transponderIdentifier` | `ath:transponderIdentifier` | Text or code identifying a competitor by a transponder. | Text | | `inCompetition` | `schema:sportsEvent` | Competition in which a competitor takes part. | [Competition](#competition) | | `performance` | `schema:result` | Performance resulting of the competition action. | [Performance](#performance) | | `disqualificationReason` | `ath:disqualificationReason` | Rule article number or text with reasons for an athlete's disqualification. | Text | Example of entry in a competition:
{
    "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/competition/Euro2016.jsonld#100W_100Haase",
    "@type" : "Competitor",
    "agent" : { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/100Haase.jsonld" },
    "bibIdentifier" : "100"
}
#### Results A Result is the information obtained after the performance of competitors (athletes or teams) in a competition. The collection of results serves as ranking for each stage of the competition. Results may be under different statuses depending on the stage of the competition. * class: `Result` (`ath:CompetitionResult`) * subClassOf: `pending:CompetitionResult` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `identifier` | `schema:identifier` | Unique character string to identify an entry in the list of results. | Text | | `created` | `dc:created` | Exact date and time when the results were produced. | [DateTime](#datetime) | | `modified` | `dc:modified` | Exact date and time when the results were updated. | [DateTime](#datetime) | | `competitor` | `pending:competitor` | Athlete or team participating in the event. | [Competitor](#competitor) | | `competitionFeature` | `ath:competitionFeature` |Set of features and notes included by officials in a starting list or results (e.g., 'Qualified without standard in field events', 'Advanced to next round by Referee') | [Competition Feature Type](#competition-feature-type) | | `protestStatus` | `ath:protestStatus` | Status of the protest action of the competitor at a stage of the competition. | [Protest Status Type](#protest-status-type) | | `resultStatus` | `ath:resultStatus` | Status of the result in a competition. | [Result Status](#result-status) | | `startingOrder` | `ath:startingOrder` | Competitor's order in the start list of a competition stage. | Integer | | `trackLane` | `ath:trackLane` | Track lane number assigned to a competitor in case of certain track disciplines. | Integer | | `rank` | `ath:rank` | A numerical rank, place, or position. For example, '1' would represent 1st place in a competitive event. | Integer | | `recordOrBest` | `ath:recordOrBest` | Type of record or best performance related to a result (e.g., World Record, National Record, Personal Best, etc.). | [Record or Best](#record-or-best) | | `performance` | `ath:performance` | Measure to quantify the performance of the competitor after a competition stage linked to results. | [Performance](#performance) | | `award` | `schema:award` | Award related to the result achieved by the athlete. | Text | | `disqualificationReason` | `ath:disqualificationReason` | Rule article number or text with reasons for an athlete's disqualification. | Text |
{
    "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/competition/Euro2016.jsonld#100W_R1H1_5",
    "@type": "Result",
    "name": "5th Position - 100m Women - Round 1 - Heat 1",
    "competitionEntry" : { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/competition/Euro2016.jsonld#100W_104Kora" },
    "trackLane": 8,
    "competitionFeature": "feature:q",
    "rank": 5,
    "performance": {
        "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/competition/Euro2016.jsonld#100W_R1H1_104Kora",
        "@type" : "TimePerformance",
        "competitor" : { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/104Kora.jsonld" },
        "windAssistance" : {
            "@type" : "QuantitativeValue",
            "value" : "-1.5",
            "unitCode" : "MTS"
        },
        "time" : "00:00:11.450",
        "recordOrBest" : "best:SB"
    }
}
### Performance Performance represents the resulting competitor's accomplishment measured and recognized by officials after a competition. Measurements depend on the type of discipline (i.e., running performances are measured as time, jumps and throws are measured in centimetres). It may include information about the conditions in which competitor got the performance (e.g., wind assistance). _Using the previous example of result list, Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce's performance is: **11.09 (seconds), +0.6 (m/s wind assistance), setting a new CR record** at 100m Women Final._ | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `identifier` | `schema:identifier` | Unique character string to identify a performance. | Text | | `windAssistance` | `ath:windAssistance` | Wind speed at the moment of registering the performance (it could be either positive or negative). | Text | | `recordOrBest` | `ath:recordOrBest` | Type of record or best performance related to a result in a competition (e.g., World Record, National Record, Personal Best, etc.). | [Record or Best](#record-or-best) | | `sportsDiscipline` | `ath:sportsDiscipline` | Type of an Athletics competition according to specific rules set by governing bodies (e.g., `Outdoor Sprint Relays`). | [Discipline](#discipline) | | `endTime` | `schema:endTime` | Date and time when the athlete achieved a performance. | [DateTime](#datetime) | | `agent` | `schema:agent` | Athlete or team that achieved the performance. | [Athlete](#athlete) or [Sports Team](#sports-team) | | `result` | `schema:result` | Competition result achieved with this performance. | [Result](#result) | There are different types of performance depending on the type of event: **Timed** events with results measured as time; **Lenght** events, measured as distance (Throws, Long Jump and Triple Jump); **Height** events, measured as height (Vertical Jumps); and **Combined** events, measured as score points (Decathlon, Heptathlon, etc.). So, performances are described by the following sub-classes: * [Time Performance](#time-performance), * [Points Performance](#points-performance), and * [Distance Performance](#distance-performance). #### Time Performance Time Performance is a performance for timed competitions (i.e., races). * class: `TimePerformance` (`ath:TimePerformance`) * subClassOf: `ath:Performance` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `time` | `pending:performTime` | Official measure of a performance expressed as time. | [Time](#time) | | `reactionTime` | `ath:reactionTime` | Reaction time of an athlete at the start of an athletics event. | [Time](#time) | Example of performance in a sprint event:
{
    "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/competition/Euro2016.jsonld#100W_R1H3_119Nguyen",
    "@type" : "TimePerformance",
    "agent" : { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/119Nguyen.jsonld" },
    "windAssistance" : {
        "@type" : "QuantitativeValue",
        "value" : "1.0",
        "unitCode" : "MTS"
    },
    "time" : "00:00:11.660",
    "record" : "best:SB"
}
#### Points Performance Points Performance is a performance for competitions based on score points (i.e., combined events). * class: `PointsPerformance` (`ath:PointsPerformance`) * subClassOf: `ath:Performance` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `scorePoints` | `ath:scorePoints` | Official measure of a performance expressed as score points. | Number |
{
    "points" : 18273
}                                     
#### Distance Performance Distance Performance is a performance based on distance (i.e., throws, horizontal jumps). * class: `DistancePerformance` (`ath:DistancePerformance`) * subClassOf: `ath:Performance` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `distance` | `schema:distance` | Official measure of a performance expressed as distance. | [Distance](#distance) |
{
    "distance" : {
        "@type" : "QuantitativeValue",
        "value" : "62.21",
        "unitCode" : "MTR"
    }
}                                     
### Record or Best Record or Best is an athlete's best performance according to specific criteria set by a [Sports Governing Body](#sports-governing-body). For instance, World Records are ratified by the IAAF. Both official and unofficial records may be kept by statisticians. * class: `ath:RecordOrBest` * subClassOf: `schema:Intangible` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `name` | `schema:name` | Descriptive text naming a record or best. | Text | | `identifier` | `schema:identifier` | Unique character string to identify a record or best. | Text | | `spatialCoverage` | `schema:spatialCoverage` | Spatial coverage of the record or best (e.g. in the case of area records, the country, continent or region). | [Country](#country), [Continent](#continent) or [AdministrativeArea](http://schema.org/AdministrativeArea) | | `temporalCoverage` | `schema:temporalCoverage` | Temporal coverage of the record or best (e.g., a 2016-2017 season best) | [PeriodOfTime](http://purl.org/dc/terms/PeriodOfTime) | | `recognizingAuthority` | `ath:recognizingAuthority` | Governing body or organization that recognizes a record. | [Person](#person) or [Organization](#organization) | | `category` | `ath:sportsCategory` | The specific category for this record or best (e.g., *M35*, *U18 Male*, etc). | [Category](#category) |
{
    "recordOrBest" : {
        "@type" : "RecordOrBest",
        "name" : "European Record",
        "identifier" : "ER",
        "spatial" : "continent:Europe",
        "recognizingAuthority" : { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/EAA.jsonld" }
    }
}                                     
Records or bests can be defined on demand. There is a predefined list of [common record or best types](#record-or-best-type). ### Qualification Criteria Qualification Criteria are the requirements for the competitor to pass a qualification round. Qualification may be based on the *standard or finishing position*, or by *performance*. * class: `ath:QualificationCriteria` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `description` | `schema:description` | Descriptive text of the qualification criteria. | Text | | `byPlaceOrStandard` | `ath:qualifiedByPerformance` | Number of competitors that are qualified in a round by rank (track events) or standard (field events). | Integer | | `byPerformance` | `ath:qualifiedByPerformance` | Number of competitors that are qualified in a round by best performance. | Integer |
{
    "@type": "QualificationCriteria",
    "description": "First 2 in each heat (Q) and the next 2 fastest (q) advance to the final",
    "byPlaceOrStandard": 6,
    "byPerformance": 2
}
### Timekeeping Timekeeping is a process and/or mechanism of timing competitions. There are three alternative methods of timekeeping, recognised as official by IAAF: - **Hand Timing** (`HT`) – Hand Timing is usually given to 0.1 seconds (average the different timekeepers and rounded up); - **Fully Automatic Timing** (`FAT`), obtained from a Photo Finish System (FAT usually given to 0.01 seconds); - **Transponder System Timing**. Automatic timing provided by radio signal devices. Road races use a variety of chip timing systems, precision is less important than recording thousands of people easily in the right order. Sometimes may be of interest gathering and representing information about devices and the specific conditions of timekeeping. * class: `Timekeeping` (`ath:TimekeepingAction`) * subClassOf: `schema:ControlAction` * superClasses: * `ath:FullyAutomaticTimekeepingAction` * `ath:HandTimekeepingAction` * `ath:TransponderSystemTimekeepingAction` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `identifier` | `schema:identifier` | Unique character string to identify a timekeeping method. | Text | | `name` | `schema:name` | Name of a method used for timekeeping (i.e., `Hand Timing`, `Fully Automatic` or `Transponder System Timing`) | Text | | `description` | `schema:description` | Description and notes about the method used for timekeeping. | Text | | `instrument` | `schema:instrument` | Brand, model and features of the device/system used for timekeeping. | Text | #### Hand Timekeeping Hand Timing (`HT`) is a process and/or mechanism of timing competitions by hand. It is usually given to 0.1 seconds (average the different timekeepers and rounded up). * class: `HandTimekeeping` (`ath:HandTimekeepingAction`) * subClassOf: `schema:TimekeepingAction` #### Fully Automatic Timekeeping Fully Automatic Timing (`FAT`) is a process and/or mechanism of timing competitions, obtained from a Photo Finish System (FAT usually given to 0.01 seconds); * class: `FullyAutomaticTimekeeping` (`ath:FullyAutomaticTimekeepingAction`) * subClassOf: `schema:TimekeepingAction` #### Transponder System Timekeeping Transponder System Timing is a process and/or mechanism of timing provided by radio signal devices. Road races use a variety of chip timing systems, precision is less important than recording thousands of people easily in the right order. * class: `TransponderSystemTimekeepingAction` (`ath:TransponderSystemTimekeepingAction`) * subClassOf: `schema:TimekeepingAction` ### Place A Place is a location, venue or territories where events are held or organizations are located. Events may take part either in stadia (e.g., track and field events at Helsinki Olympic Stadium) or outside stadia (e.g., cross-country, mountain races, road races, etc.). Federations may cover specific Administrative Areas. * class: `schema:Place` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `identifier` | `schema:identifier` | Unique character string to identify a venue. | Text | | `name` | `schema:name` | Descriptive name of a venue. | Text | | `description` | `schema:description` | Descriptive text about a place. | Text | | `address` | `schema:address` | Postal address related to a venue. | [Postal Address](#postal-address) or Text | | `url` | `schema:url` | Webpage URL about a venue. | URL | | `image` | `schema:image` | Picture about a venue. | URL | | `geo` | `schema:geo` | Geographic coordinates and/or elevation (expressed in metres, following [WGS 84](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Geodetic_System)) of a venue. | [Geo Coordinates](#geo-coordinates) | | `map` | `schema:hasMap` | URL to a map pointing to a venue. | URL | | `telephone` | `schema:telephone` | Telephone number of a venue. | Text | | `fax` | `schema:faxNumber` | Fax number of a venue. | Text | #### Geo Coordinates Geo Coordinates are the geographic coordinates of a place or event. * class: `schema:GeoCoordinates` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `latitude` | `schema:latitude` | The latitude of a location. For example 37.42242 ([WGS 84](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Geodetic_System)). | Number | | `longitude` | `schema:longitude` | The longitude of a location. For example -122.08585 ([WGS 84](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Geodetic_System)). | Number | | `elevation` | `schema:elevation` | The elevation of a location in metres ([WGS 84](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Geodetic_System)). | Number |
{
    "@id": "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/competition/Euro2016.jsonld#venue",
    "@type": "schema:StadiumOrArena",
    "name": "Olympic Stadium Amsterdam",
    "geo": {
        "latitude": "52.343417",
        "longitude": "4.854192",
        "elevation": "123.93"      
    },
    "map": "http://example.org/map",
    "address": {
        "streetAddress": "Olympisch Stadion 2",
        "addressLocality": "Amsterdam",
        "postalCode": "1076 DE",
        "addressCountry": "countrycode:NLD"
    }
}
### Postal Addresses Postal Address describes a postal address relative to a place. * class: `schema:PostalAddress` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `identifier` | `schema:identifier` | Unique character string to identify a postal address. | Text | | `name` | `schema:name` | Descriptive name of the place (e.g., Helsinki Olympic Stadium). | Text | | `streetAddress` | `schema:streetAddress` | The street address (e.g., Paavo Nurmen tie 1). | Text | | `locality` | `schema:addressLocality` | The locality (e.g., Helsinki). | Text | | `postOfficeBoxNumber` | `schema:postOfficeBoxNumber` | The post office box number for PO box addresses. | Text | | `postalCode` | `schema:postalCode` | The postal code (e.g., 00250)| Text | | `country` | `schema:addressCountry` | The country (e.g., Finland). | [Country](#country) |
{
    "streetAddress": "Olympisch Stadion 2",
    "locality": "Amsterdam",
    "postalCode": "1076 DE",
    "addressCountry": "countrycode:NLD"
}
### Discipline An Athletics Discipline is a particular type of Athletics event defined by specific rules. [According to IAAF](https://www.iaaf.org/disciplines), Athletics events may be classified into: _Sprints_, _Middle/long distance_, _Hurdles_, _Road Running_, _Jumps_, _Throws_, _Combined Events_, _Race Walks_, _Relays_, _Cross Country_, _Mountain Running_ and _Ultra Running_. IOC ODF [[IOC-ODF]] uses: _Races (track and road) and relays_, _Throws_, _Horizontal Jumps_ and _Vertical Jumps_. [Athlib proposes codes](http://opentrack.run/athlib/build/html/eventcodes.html) to represent disciplines. Disciplines are described by specific features (i.e., throws disciplines, such as shot put, are defined by *weight*). So, having into account the features related to the competition, disciplines are modelled in this taxonomy of concepts:
![Taxonomy for Athletics Disciplines](images/disciplines.svg)
Athletics Discipline Taxonomy
This hierarchical taxonomy enables the definition of any type of Athletic event.
![Example of model of indoor pentathlon](images/instances_disciplines_pentathlon.png)
Example of an instance of Master Female indoor Pentathlon using the current model
| Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `name` | `schema:name` | Descriptive name of the discipline. | Text | | `venueType` | `ath:AthleticsVenueType` | Type of a stadium with track and/or field facilities (indoor/outdoor). | [Venue Type](#venue-type) | #### Race Race is a type of competition to see who is the fastest, including running or race-waking. | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `distance` | `schema:distance` | Distance of the race. | [Distance](#distance) | | `raceCompetitionType` | `ath:raceCompetitionType` | Type of competition (time trial, relays, etc.). | [Race Competition Type](#race-competition-type) | | `maxDuration` | `ath:maxDuration` | Maximum duration of the race in case of being a time-fixed competition (i.e., one hour, one day, etc.). | [Time](#time) | ##### Distance Race A Distance Race is a Middle-distance or Long-distance running event, over a distance longer than sprints. Range of distances includes 800 m, up to Marathon 42.195 Km. * class: `DistanceDiscipline` (`ath:DistanceDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:RaceDiscipline` ##### Steeplechase Steeplechase is a long distance running event where runners must clear obstacles and water jumps. * class: `SteeplechaseDiscipline` (`ath:SteeplechaseDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:RaceDiscipline` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `height` | `ath:height` | Obstacle height. | [Distance](#distance) | ##### Hurdles Hurdles is a running event where athletes jump over hurdles at speed. * class: `HurdlesDiscipline` (`ath:HurdlesDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:RaceDiscipline` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `height` | `ath:height` | Hurdles height. | [Distance](#distance) | | `spacing` | `ath:spacing` | Horizontal distance between hurdles. | [Distance](#distance) | ##### Sprints Sprints are running events over a short distance (less than 800m). * class: `SprintsDiscipline` (`ath:SprintsDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:RaceDiscipline` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `trackType` | `ath:runningTrackType` | Type of track where a sprint race is held (straight, curved). | [Running Track Type](#running-track-type) | ##### Race-walking Race-walking, or race walking, is a long-distance discipline where one foot must appear to be in contact with the ground at all times. * class: `RaceWalkingDiscipline` (`ath:RaceWalkingDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:RaceDiscipline` ##### Cross Country Cross Country is a running discipline in which teams and individuals run a race on open-air courses over natural terrain such as dirt or grass. * class: `CrossCountry` (`ath:CrossCountry`) * subClassOf: `ath:RaceDiscipline` ##### Road Running Road Running is an Athletics discipline on a measured course over an established road. * class: `RoadRunningDiscipline` (`ath:RoadRunningDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:RaceDiscipline` ##### Mountain Running Mountain Running is a Athletics discipline that takes place on terrain that is mainly off-road and which course may gain elevation. * class: `MountainRunningDiscipline` (`ath:MountainRunningDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:RaceDiscipline` ##### Track Relays Relays, relays race or relay race, is a track race between two or more teams where each member of the team runs one leg of the race. * class: `TrackRelaysDiscipline` (`ath:TrackRelaysDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:RaceDiscipline` ##### Ultra Running Ultra running, ultra distance or ultramarathon, is a road race longer than the traditional marathon length (42.195 Km). * class: `UltraRunningDiscipline` (`ath:UltraRunningDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:RaceDiscipline` #### Throws Throws are types of field events in which athletes throws heavy objects in an attempt to mark a farther distance than their competitors. | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `weight` | `schema:weight` | Weight of the throwing object. | [Weight](#weight) | ##### Shot Put Shot Put is a track and field event involving throwing/putting (throwing in a pushing motion) a heavy spherical object (the shot) as far as possible. The size of the ball, and the length of the wire varies depending on the competition rules. * class: `ShotPutDiscipline` (`ath:ShotPutDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:ThrowsDiscipline` ##### Discus Throw Discus Throw is a track and field event in which an athlete throws a heavy disc (the discus) in an attempt to mark a farther distance than their competitors. The diameter and weight of the discus varies depending on the competition rules. * class: `DiscusThrowDiscipline` (`ath:DiscusThrowDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:ThrowsDiscipline` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `discusDiameter` | `ath:discusDiameter` | Discus diameter. | [Distance](#distance) | ##### Hammer Throw Hammer Throw is a track and field event in which an athlete throws a metal ball attached by a steel wire to a grip (the hammer). The size of the ball, and the length of the wire varies depending on the competition rules. * class: `HammerThrowDiscipline` (`ath:HammerThrowDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:ThrowsDiscipline` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `hammerLength` | `ath:hammerLength` | Hammer wire length. | [Distance](#distance) | ##### Javelin Throw Javelin Throw is a track and field event where the javelin, a spear about 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in) in length, is thrown. Lenght and weight of javelin may vary depending on the rules of the competition. * class: `JavelinThrowDiscipline` (`ath:JavelinThrowDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:ThrowsDiscipline` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `javelinLength` | `ath:javelinLength` | Javelin length. | [Distance](#distance) | ##### Weight Throw Weight Throw is a track and field event usually play indoors which is equivalent to the hammer throw event, which can only be held outdoors. Ball weight may vary depending on the rules of the competition. * class: `WeightThrowDiscipline` (`ath:WeightThrowDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:ThrowsDiscipline` #### Horizontal Jumps Horizontal Jumps are track and field events in which athletes combine speed, strength and agility in an attempt to leap as far as possible from a take off point. Horizontal jumps include: long jump and triple jump. ##### Long Jump Long Jump (or broad jump) is a track and field event in which athletes combine speed, strength and agility in an attempt to leap as far as possible from a take off point. * class: `LongJumpDiscipline` (`ath:LongJumpDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:HorizontalJumpsDiscipline` ##### Triple Jump Triple Jump (sometimes referred to as the hop, step and jump or the hop, skip and jump), is a track and field event, where competitors run down the track and perform a hop, a bound and then a jump into the sand pit. * class: `TripleJumpDiscipline` (`ath:TripleJumpDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:HorizontalJumpsDiscipline` #### VerticalJumps Vertical Jumps are track and field events in which competitors must jump or vault over a horizontal bar placed at measured heights without dislodging it. ##### High Jump High Jump is a track and field event in which competitors must jump unaided over a horizontal bar placed at measured heights without dislodging it. * class: `HighJumpDiscipline` (`ath:HighJumpDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:VerticalJumpsDiscipline` ##### Pole Vault Pole Vault is a track and field event in which a person uses a long, flexible pole as an aid to jump over a bar. * class: `PoleVaultDiscipline` (`ath:PoleVaultDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:VerticalJumpsDiscipline` #### Combined Discipline Combined Discipline is a competition where athletes participate in a number of track and field events, earning points for their performance in each event, which adds to a total points score. | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `sportsDiscipline` | `ath:sportsDiscipline` | Combined sub-disciplines for this event. | [Discipline](#discipline) | | `scorePointsReference` | `ath:scorePointsReference` | Reference to the score table used for this competition. | URL |

## Classification Schemas and Data Types Most of the following definitions and values for this set of value schemas are extracted from the official [Technical Competition Rules](https://www.iaaf.org/about-iaaf/documents/rules-regulations) published by IAAF. ### Date Date is represented using the [ISO 8601](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_8601) standard: `[YYYY][MM][DD]` or `[YYYY]-[MM]-[DD]` For instance, 7th April 2017:
2017-04-07
### Time Time is represented using the [ISO 8601](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_8601) standard: `[hh][mm][ss].sss` or `[hh]:[mm]:[ss].sss` Example, 2 hours 5 minutes 34 seconds:
02:05:34.000
Example, 10 seconds, 345 milliseconds:
00:00:10.345
#### High Resolution Time Milliseconds should be enough to represent all time measurements in Athletics according to IAAF's rules [[IAAF-RULES]]. In the case of timing systems capturing higher resolution of time, values must be represented as quantified values using the Space and Time Units Vocabulary [[QUDT-SPACETIME]]. Editors may indicate the magnitude as a numeric value and the kind of the quantity (unit). Any unit of measurement may be used (hour, second, millisecond, etc.), but *it is recommended using the 'second'* (s), as it is the base unit of time in the International System of Units (SI). Example, 10 seconds, 3454 microseconds:
{
    "@type" : "QuantitativeValue",
    "qudt:numericValue" : "10.3454",
    "qudt:unit" : "unit:SEC" 
}
### DateTime DateTime is represented using the [ISO 8601](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_8601) standard: `<date>T<time>` Time can include the timezone `<time>±[hh]:[mm]`. For instance, 7th April 2017 at 4:45 am (UTC+1):
2017-04-07T04:45:00.000+01:00
### Distance Distances and heights must be represented by a quantified value, expressing the magnitude and kind of a quantity (unit). Values will be expressed as a numeric value (decimal or integer) and a measurement code. It is recommended using the UN/CEFACT Common Codes [[UNECE-CODES]] for Codes for Units of Measurement used in the International Trade. *It is recommended using the 'metre'* (m), as it is the base unit of time in the International System of Units (SI). Exceptionally, distance and height may be also represented using other units such as 'mile' (statute mile). * Metre: `MTR` * Mile: `SMI`
{
    "@type" : "QuantitativeValue",
    "value" : "2.20",
    "unitCode" : "MTR"
}
Other unit codes may be used if needed. Check and select the correspondent code from the [UN/CEFACT Common Codes](../references/rec20_Rev9e_2014.xls). ### Mass Mass must be represented by a quantified value, expressing the magnitude and kind of a quantity (unit). Values will be expressed as a numeric value (decimal or integer) and a measurement code. It is recommended using the UN/CEFACT Common Codes [[UNECE-CODES]] for Codes for Units of Measurement used in the International Trade. *It is recommended using the 'kilogram'* (kg), as it is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI). * Kilogram (kg): `KGM` * Pound (lb): `LBR`
{
    "@type" : "QuantitativeValue",
    "value" : "56.3",
    "unitCode" : "KGM"
}
Other unit codes may be used if needed. Check and select the correspondent code from the [UN/CEFACT Common Codes](../references/rec20_Rev9e_2014.xls). ### Gender Enumeration of genders with two values: | Code | Gender Type | | ---- | ----------- | | `Male` | Men and/or boys. | | `Female` | Women and/or girls. | ### Competition Feature Type According to IAAF Rule 132.4, there are official standard abbreviations and symbols used in the preparation of start lists and results. | Code | Issue/feature | | ------------- | ---- | | `feature:DNS` | Did Not Start | | `feature:DNF` | Did Not Finish | | `feature:DQ` | Disqualified | | `feature:R` | Retired from competition | | `feature:Q` | Qualified by place (track) or standard (field) | | `feature:q` | Qualified by performance (time in timed events and rank in field events) | | `feature:qR` | Advanced to next round by Referee | | `feature:qJ` | Advanced to next round by Jury of Appeal | | `feature:>` | Bent knee (Race walking) | | `feature:~` | Loss of contact (Race walking) | | `feature:yC` | yellow Card | | `feature:yRC` | Second yellow Card | | `feature:RC` | Red Card | | `feature:Fn` | False Start | | `feature:o` | Clearance (valid trial in Height Events) | | `feature:-` | Pass (passed trial in field events) | | `feature:x` | Failure (failed trial in field events) | | `feature:NM` | No Mark | | `feature:NH` | No Height | | `feature:h` | Hand-timing | | `feature:a` | Automatic timing with no hundredths of a second measured | | `feature:A` | Performance achieved at altitude | | `feature:OT` | Oversized Track | ### Category Type Standard categories are combinations of gender and age-range. The following predefined categories are recognized by IAAF, European Athletics and/or WMA: | Age Range | Mixed | Male | Female | | --------- | ----- | ---- | ------ | | 16—17 | `category:U18` | `category:U18M` | `category:U18F` | | 18—19 | `category:U20` | `category:U20M` | `category:U20F` | | 20—22 | `category:U23` | `category:U23M` | `category:U23F` | | 23—34 | `category:SEN` | `category:SENM` | `category:SENF` | | 35—39 | `category:V35` | `category:M35` | `category:W35` | | 40—44 | `category:V40` | `category:M40` | `category:W40` | | 45—49 | `category:V45` | `category:M45` | `category:W45` | | 50—54 | `category:V50` | `category:M50` | `category:W50` | | 55—59 | `category:V55` | `category:M55` | `category:W55` | | 60—64 | `category:V60` | `category:M60` | `category:W60` | | 65—69 | `category:V65` | `category:M65` | `category:W65` | | 70—74 | `category:V70` | `category:M70` | `category:W70` | | 75—79 | `category:V75` | `category:M75` | `category:W75` | | 80—84 | `category:V80` | `category:M80` | `category:W80` | | 85—89 | `category:V85` | `category:M85` | `category:W85` | | 90—94 | `category:V90` | `category:M90` | `category:W90` | | 95—99 | `category:V95` | `category:M95` | `category:W95` | | 100+ | `category:V100` | `category:M100` | `category:W100` | ### Country Each country should be represented by an IRI that includes a unique three-character *Authority code*. It is recommended using the EU [Named Authority List (NAL) of Countries](http://publications.europa.eu/mdr/resource/authority/country/html/countries-eng.html), that relays on the [ISO 3166-1/alpha-3](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_3166-1) positions in case the country is present in the ISO standard. A traceability of this codes creation is ensured and historical relationships are also offered. The IRI scheme of countries is `http://publications.europa.eu/resource/authority/country/{countrycode}`. The JSON-LD context enables a `countrycode` prefix to simplify usage, allowing the use of the following form:
    countrycode:{countrycode}
For instance: `countrycode:ZWE` for *Zimbabwe*, `countrycode:ZAF` for *South Africa* and `countrycode:TGO` for *Togo*. Check the full list of authority country codes at [http://publications.europa.eu/mdr/resource/authority/country/html/countries-eng.html](http://publications.europa.eu/mdr/resource/authority/country/html/countries-eng.html). ### Continent If we need to represent a supranational spatial coverage (for instance, when defining the `areaServed` of organisations), it is recommended using the EU [Named Authority List (NAL) of Continents](http://publications.europa.eu/mdr/resource/authority/continent/html/continents-eng.html). These are be represented in a similar way than countries. The IRI scheme of continents is `http://publications.europa.eu/resource/authority/continent/{continentcode}`. The JSON-LD context enables a `continent` prefix to simplify usage, allowing the use of the following form:
    continent:{continentcode}
Examples: `continent:AFRICA` for *Africa*, `continent:AMERICA` for *America*, `continent:ANTARCTICA` for *Antarctica*, `continent:ASIA` for *Asia*, `continent:EUROPE` for *Europe* and `continent:OCEANIA` for *Oceania*. ### Competition Status Status of a competition. | Code | Status | | ---- | ------ | | `event:Unscheduled` | Competition is not confirmed. | | `event:Scheduled` | Competition is scheduled. | | `event:Postponed` | Competition will be postponed without being rescheduled yet. | | `event:Rescheduled` | Competition is rescheduled. | | `event:Delayed` | An event is held up, for example by inclement weather. Can happen before or during an event. | `event:ScheduledBreak` | Competition has a scheduled break (`intermission` in SportsML). | | `event:Running` | Competition in progress (`mid-event` in SportsML). | | `event:Interrupted` | Competition interrupted once in progress (`halted` in SportsML). | | `event:GettingReady` | The start of the competition is imminent | | `event:Finished` | Competition is over and no more action will happen on the field of play (last competitor finished). (`post-event` in SportsML) | | `event:Cancelled` | Competition will not take place (`suspended`, `cancelled`, `discarded` in SportsML) | ### Record or Best Type Types of record of best achieved by competitors in competitions. | Code | Record Type | | ---- | ----------- | | `best:WR` | World Record | | `best:=WR` | Equal World Record | | `best:PR` | Paralympic Record | | `best:AF` | African Record | | `best:=AF` | Equal African Record | | `best:AS` | Asian Record | | `best:=AS` | Equal Asian Record | | `best:ER` | European Record | | `best:=ER` | Equal European Record | | `best:AM` | American Record | | `best:=AM` | Equal American Record | | `best:OC` | Oceania Record | | `best:=OC` | Equal Oceania Record | | `best:AR` | Area (or continental) Record | | `best:=AR` | Equal Area (or continental) Record | | `best:NR` | National Record (for a specific country) | | `best:=NR` | Equal National Record | | `best:RR` | Regional Record | | `best:=RR` | Equal Regional Record | | `best:OR` | Olympic Record | | `best:=OR` | Equal Olympic Record | | `best:CR` | Championship Record | | `best:=CR` | Equal Championship Record | | `best:GR` | Games Record | | `best:=GR` | Equal Games Record | | `best:MR` | Meet Record | | `best:=MR` | Equal Meet Record | | `best:DLR` | Diamond League Record | | `best:=DLR` | Equal Diamond League Record | | `best:#` | indicates a record has not been accepted. The same mark is also used to indicate some sort of irregularity with a result. | | `best:X` | indicates the athlete has been disqualified after the performance | | `best:ClubR` | Club Record | Records can be described by the type of record and the age-range category. | Code | Record Type | | ---- | ----------- | | `best:AJR` | Area (or continental) Junior Record | | `best:=AJR` | Equal Area (or continental) Junior Record | | `best:EUR` | European U23 Record | | `best:=EUR` | Equal European U23 Record | | `best:WJR` | World Junior Record | | `best:=WJR` | Equal World Junior Record | | `best:EJR` | European Junior Record | | `best:=EJR` | Equal European Junior Record | | `best:NUR` | National U23 Record | | `best:=NUR` | Equal National U23 Record | | `best:NJR` | National Junior Record | | `best:=NJR` | Equal National Junior Record | The concept of 'best' refers to athlete's personal achievements, without setting official records. | Code | Best Type | | ---- | ----------- | | `best:WYB` | World Youth Best (the best mark achieved by an athlete in the youth age category) | | `best:=WYB` | Equal World Youth Best | | `best:WB` | World Best (the best mark recorded for a non-IAAF world record event) | | `best:=WB` | Equal World Best | | `best:PB` | Personal Best (the best mark achieved by an athlete on a personal level) | | `best:=PB` | Equal Personal Best | | `best:SB` | Seasonal Best (the best mark achieved by an athlete on a personal level within a given season) | | `best:=SB` | Equal Seasonal Best | | `best:WL` | World Leader (the best mark achieved worldwide within a given season) | | `best:=WL` | Equal World Lead | | `best:EL` | European Lead | | `best:=EL` | Equal European Lead | | `best:EB` | European Best | | `best:=EB` | Equal European Best | | `best:CB` | Championship Best Performance | | `best:=CB` | Equal Championship Best Performance | ### Results Status Possible status types for results within a competition. | Code | Status | | ---- | ------ | | `results:startList` | Before competition, Start List | | `results:live` | For live updates during competition | | `results:intermediate` | When competition is stopped, used at pre-defined points | | `results:unconfirmed` | When the unit is over but not yet unofficial or official. Only used if other statuses do not come quickly. | | `results:unofficial` | Results of the competition released as soon as the event is over, not waiting any official decision of the International Federation. The correctness of data must be assured. | | `results:official` | Results of the competition released as soon as the event is officially confirmed taking into account the resolution of the protests, etc. | | `results:partial` | Incomplete list, Final Ranking. | | `results:protested` | After the competition is no longer LIVE and a protest has been lodged. | ### Protest Status Status of a protest process in a competition. | Code | Status | | ---- | ---- | | `protest:CLS` | Closed | | `protest:OPN` | Open | | `protest:PND` | Pending | | `protest:ROPN` | Re Open | ### Competition Type Type of competition in races, defined by the way of how competitors take part in the competition (against the clock, relays or individual). | Code | Type | | ---- | ---- | | `race:IndividualCompetition` | Individual Competition | | `race:RelayCompetition` | Relay Competition | | `race:TimeTrialCompetition` | Time Trial Competition | Multiple types can be specified (e.g., relays time trial races). ### Venue Type Type of stadium, track and/or field where a competition take places. | Code | Type | | ---- | ---- | | `venue:VenueIndoor` | Indoor venue | | `venue:VenueOutdoor` | Outdoor venue | ### Wind Speed Like distance, wind speed must be represented by a quantified value, expressing the magnitude and kind of a quantity (unit). Values will be expressed as a numeric value (decimal or integer) and a measurement code. It is recommended using the UN/CEFACT Common Codes [[UNECE-CODES]] for Codes for Units of Measurement used in the International Trade. Typically, in Athletics wind speed assistance is represented in *metres per second (m/s)*, recognized by the International System of Units (SI). * Metre per second (m/s): `MTS`
{
    "@type" : "QuantitativeValue",
    "value" : "0.22",
    "unitCode" : "MTS"
}
Other unit codes, such as knot (`KNT`) can be used if needed. Check and select the correspondent code from the [UN/CEFACT Common Codes](../references/rec20_Rev9e_2014.xls) list. ### Trial Feature Type Types of features related to field trials. | Code | Issue/feature | | ------------- | ---- | | `trial:valid` | Trial is valid | | `trial:substitute` | Substitute trial | ### Running Track Type Types of tracks where running races are held. | Code | Issue/feature | | ------------- | ---- | | `track:straight` | Straight track | | `track:curved` | Curved track | ### Person Roles Roles of persons involved in a competition, according to the IOC [ODF](http://odf.olympictech.org/2016-Rio/codes/HTML/common_codes/common_codes.htm). | Code | Role | | ---- | ---- | | `role:A` | Athlete | | `role:C` | Coach | | `role:G` | Guide (Paralympics only) | | `role:J` | Judge | | `role:S` | Technical Official (not Judge) | | `role:T` | Team Official (not Coach) |