The Open Digital Rights Language (ODRL) provides a flexible and interoperable information model, vocabulary, and encoding mechanisms for describing statements about content usage. The ODRL Vocabulary and Expression describes the terms used in such statements and how to encode them.

This is a work in progress. No section should be considered final, and the absence of any content does not imply that such content is out of scope, or may not appear in the future. If you feel something should be covered, please tell us.

Introduction

The ODRL Vocabulary and Expression specifies the set of RDF classes, predicates and named entities that are used by the ODRL Information Model [[!odrl-model]]. It also lists recommended terms for the ODRL Commobn Vocabulary thay can be used in the model, and provides the JSON-LD Context and profile definitions needed to use the ODRL JSON serialization in a Linked Data context.

Namespaces

The ODRL Vocabulary references the following Namespaces:

Prefix Namespace Description
odrl http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/ ODRL Vocabulary
rdf http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns# [[rdf-concepts]]
rdfs http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema# [[rdf-schema]]
owl http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl# [[owl2-quick-reference]]
xsd http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema# [[xmlschema11-2]]
skos http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core# [[skos-reference]]
dcterms http://purl.org/dc/terms/ [[dcterms]]
vcard http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns# [[vcard-rdf]]
foaf http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/ [[foaf]]
schema http://schema.org/ schema.org

ODRL Core Vocabulary

The ODRL Core Vocabulary defines the semantics for the concepts and terms from the ODRL Information Model [[!odrl-model]].

Policy

Policy

Definition: A Rule expressing what Action is allowed and/or disallowed over an Asset.
Label: Policy
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Policy
Note: A Policy may contain multiple Rules.
Sub-classes: Agreement, Assertion, Offer, Privacy, Request, Set, Ticket
Properties: conflict, inheritAllowed, inheritFrom, permission, profile, prohibition
In range of: hasPolicy, inheritFrom

Rule

Definition: A Permission, Prohibition or Duty that expresses an Action that may, must not, or must be performed (respectively).
Label: Rule
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Rule
Note: Rule is an abstract concept.
Sub-classes: Duty, Permission, Prohibition
Properties: output

Profile

Definition: The identifier of an ODRL Profile that the Policy conforms to.
Label: Profile
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/profile
Note: ODRL Profiles may be defined by community groups and express additional semantics.
Domain: Policy

Has A Policy

Definition: Identifies an ODRL Policy from an Asset metadata expression.
Label: Has A Policy
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/hasPolicy
Note: The Asset being described/identified is assumed to be the target Asset of the Policy.
Range: Policy

Policy Subclasses

Agreement

Definition: A Policy that grants the assignee a Rule over an Asset from an assigner.
Label: Agreement
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Agreement
Note: An Agreement Policy MUST contain a target Asset, a Party with Assigner function, a Party with Assignee fuction, and at least one of a Permission or Prohibition rule. The Agreement Policy will grant the terms of the Policy from the Assigner to the Assignee.
Parent class: Policy
Inherited Properties: conflict, permission, prohibition, inheritAllowed, inheritFrom, profile

Offer

Definition: A Policy that proposes a Rule over an Asset from an assigner.
Label: Offer
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Offer
Note: A Offer Policy MUST contain a target Asset, a Party with Assigner function, and at least one of a Permission or Prohibition rule. The Offer Policy MAY contain a Party with Assignee function, but MUST not grant any privileges to that Party.
Parent class: Policy
Inherited Properties: conflict, permission, prohibition, inheritAllowed, inheritFrom, profile

Set

Definition: A Policy that expresses a Rule over an Asset.
Label: Set
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Set
Note: A Set Policy MUST contain a target Asset, and at least one Rule. A Set Policy is the default Policy subclass. The Set is aimed at scenarios where there is an open criteria for the semantics of the policy expressions and typically refined by other systems/profiles that process the information at a later time. No privileges are granted to any Party (if defined).
Parent class: Policy
Inherited Properties: conflict, permission, prohibition, inheritAllowed, inheritFrom, profile

Asset

Asset

Definition: An identifiable resource that is the subject of a Rule.
Label: Asset
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Asset
Note: The Asset entity can be any form of identifiable resource, such as data/information, content/media, applications, or services. Furthermore, it can be used to represent other Asset entities that are needed to undertake the Policy expression, such as with the Duty entity. To describe more details about the Asset, it is recommened to use Dublin Core [[dcterms]] elements or other content metadata.
Sub-classes: AssetCollection, AssetIndividual
In range of: output, relation, target

Asset Individual

Definition: An Asset that is a single resource
Label: Asset Individual
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/AssetIndividual
Parent class: Asset

Asset Collection

Definition: An Asset that is collection of individual resources
Label: Asset Collection
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/AssetCollection
Parent class: Asset

Relation

Definition: Relation is an abstract property which creates an explicit link between an Action and an Asset.
Label: Relation
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/relation
Note: Sub-properties of relation are used to define the nature of that link.
Sub-properties: output, target
Range: Asset
Domain: Policy, Rule

Asset Relations

Target

Definition: The target property indicates the Asset that is the primary subject to which the Rule action directly applies.
Label: Target
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/target
Parent property: relation
Range: Asset
Domain: Policy, Rule

Party

Party

Definition: An identifiable entity who may undertake a functional role in a Policy.
Label: Party
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Party
Note: The Party entity could be a person, group of people, organisation, or agent. An agent is a person or thing that takes an active role or produces a specified effect. To describe more details about the Party, it is recommened to use W3C vCard Ontology [[vcard-rdf]] or FOAF Vocabulary [[foaf]].
Parent class: schema:Organization, schema:Person, vcard:Agent, vcard:Individual, vcard:Organization, foaf:Agent, foaf:Organization, foaf:Person
Sub-classes: PartyCollection, PartyIndividual
In range of: assignee, assigner, function

Party Individual

Definition: A Party that is a single entity
Label: Party Individual
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/PartyIndividual
Parent class: Party

Party Collection

Definition: A Party that is a group of individual entities
Label: Party Collection
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/PartyCollection
Parent class: Party

Function

Definition: Function is an abstract property whose sub-properties define the functional roles which may be fulfilled by a party in relation to a Rule.
Label: Function
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/function
Sub-properties: assignee, assigner, attributedParty, attributingParty, compensatedParty, compensatingParty, consentedParty, consentingParty, contractedParty, contractingParty, informedParty, informingParty, trackedParty, trackingParty
Range: Party
Domain: Policy, Rule

Party Functions

Assignee

Definition: The Party is the recipient of the policy statement.
Label: Assignee
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/assignee
Parent property: function
Range: Party
Domain: Policy, Rule

Assigner

Definition: The Party is the issuer of the policy statement.
Label: Assigner
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/assigner
Parent property: function
Range: Party
Domain: Policy, Rule

Permission

Permission

Definition: An Action that may be performed over an Asset.
Label: Permission
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Permission
Note: In other words, what the assigner (supplier) has granted to the assignee (consumer).
Parent class: Rule
Properties: duty
Inherited Properties: output

Has Permission

Definition: Relates the description of an individual Permission to a Policy.
Label: Has Permission
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/permission
Note: A permission can be specified either in terms of an Action alone, or an instance of Permission relating an Action and one or more other attributes.
Range: Action, Permission
Domain: Policy

Prohibition

Prohibition

Definition: An Action that must not be performed over an Asset.
Label: Prohibition
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Prohibition
Note: Prohibitions are issued by the supplier of the Asset – the Party with the function assigner.
Parent class: Rule
Inherited Properties: output

Has Prohibition

Definition: Relates the description of an individual Prohibition to a Policy.
Label: Has Prohibition
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/prohibition
Note: A prohibition can be specified either in terms of an Action alone, or an instance of Prohibition relating an Action and one or more other attributes.
Range: Action, Prohibition
Domain: Policy

Action

Action

Definition: An operation that is applicable to an Asset.
Label: Action
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Action
Note: Actions may be allowed by Permissions, disallowed by Prohibitions, or made mandatory by Duties.
Parent class: schema:Action, Concept
In range of: action
Instances: acceptTracking, adHocShare, aggregate, annotate, anonymize, append, appendTo, archive, attachPolicy, attachSource, attribute, commercialize, compensate, concurrentUse, copy, delete, derive, digitize, display, distribute, ensureExclusivity, execute, export, extract, extractChar, extractPage, extractWord, give, grantUse, include, index, inform, install, lease, lend, license, modify, move, nextPolicy, obtainConsent, pay, play, present, preview, print, read, reproduce, reviewPolicy, secondaryUse, sell, share, shareAlike, stream, textToSpeech, transfer, transform, translate, uninstall, use, watermark, write, writeTo

Has Action

Definition: The operation relating to the Asset for which the Rule is being subjected.
Label: Has Action
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/action
Range: Action
Domain: Policy, Rule

Actions for Permissions and Prohibitions

Use

Definition: The Assigner permits/prohibits the Assignee to use the Asset as agreed.
Label: Use
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/use
Note: Use is the most generic action for all non-third-party usage. More details may be defined in the applicable agreements or under applicable commercial laws. Refined types of actions can be expressed by narrower actions.
Narrower terms: aggregate, annotate, anonymize, archive, concurrentUse, derive, digitize, display, distribute, execute, grantUse, index, install, modify, move, play, present, print, read, reproduce, stream, textToSpeech, transform, writeTo
Class: Action

Transfer Ownership

Definition: The Assigner transfers/does not transfer the ownership in perpetuity to the Assignees.
Label: Transfer Ownership
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/transfer
Narrower terms: give, sell
Class: Action

Duty

Duty

Definition: An Action that has been agreed to be performed as a requirement for the applicable Permission to become valid.
Label: Duty
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Duty
Parent class: Rule
Inherited Properties: output

Has Duty

Definition: The duty relating to the Permission.
Label: Has Duty
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/duty
Note: A Duty indicates requirements which must be fulfilled in order to receive the permission.
Range: Action, Duty
Domain: Permission

Constraint

Constraint

Definition: The context, such as limitations, restrictions, or interpretations, that must be applied to an Action.
Label: Constraint
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Constraint
Note: Parent class of all Constraints.
Properties: dataType, leftOperand, operator, rightOperand, rightOperandReference, status, unit
In range of: constraint

Has Constraint

Definition: Constraints appled to a Rule.
Label: Has Constraint
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/constraint
Note: One or more Constraints may be applied to a Rule. Example: the Action play is only permitted for a certain period of time.
Range: Constraint
Domain: Asset, Party, Rule

Operator

Definition: Operators for constraint expressions.
Label: Operator
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Operator
Note: Instances of the Operator class representing boolean operators and logical relationships.
In range of: operator
Instances: and, andSequence, eq, gt, gteq, hasPart, isA, isAllOf, isAnyOf, isNoneOf, isPartOf, lt, lteq, neq, or, xor

Has Operator

Definition: The logical operator function applied to operands of a Constraint
Label: Has Operator
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/operator
Range: Operator
Domain: Constraint

Right Operand

Definition: Right operands for constraint expressions.
Label: Right Operand
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/RightOperand
Note: Instances of the RightOperand class are used as the rightOperand of a Constraint.
Instances: policyUsage

Has Right Operand

Definition: The right operand in a constraint expression.
Label: Has Right Operand
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/rightOperand
Domain: Constraint

Has Right Operand Reference

Definition: A reference to a web resource providing the value for the right operand of a Constraint.
Label: Has Right Operand Reference
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/rightOperandReference
Note: Is an IRI that must be dereferenced to obtain the actual right operand value
Domain: Constraint

Left Operand

Definition: Left operands for constraint expressions.
Label: Left Operand
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/LeftOperand
Note: Instances of the LeftOperand class are used as the leftOperand of a Constraint.
In range of: leftOperand
Instances: absolutePosition, absoluteSize, absoluteSpatialPosition, absoluteTemporalPosition, count, dateTime, delayPeriod, deliveryChannel, device, elapsedTime, event, fileFormat, industry, language, media, meteredTime, payAmount, percentage, product, purpose, recipient, relativePosition, relativeSize, relativeSpatialPosition, relativeTemporalPosition, resolution, spatial, spatialCoordinates, system, systemDevice, timeInterval, unitOfCount, version, virtualLocation

Has Left Operand

Definition: The left operand in a constraint expression.
Label: Has Left Operand
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/leftOperand
Range: LeftOperand
Domain: Constraint

Unit

Definition: The unit of measurement of the value of the rightOperand or rightOperandReference of a Constraint.
Label: Unit
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/unit
Domain: Constraint

Datatype

Definition: The datatype of the value of the rightOperand or rightOperandReference of a Constraint.
Label: Datatype
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/dataType
Note: In RDF encodings, use of the rdf:datatype MAY be used.
Domain: Constraint

Status

Definition: the current value generated from the leftOperand action.
Label: Status
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/status
Domain: Constraint

Constraint Operators

Or

Definition: The relation is satisfied when any of the Constraints are satisfied.
Label: Or
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/or
Note: This operator MUST only be used for Compound Constraints, and both left and right operands MUST be Atomic Constraints.
Class: Operator

Exclusive Or

Definition: The relation is satisfied when only one of the Constaints is satisfied
Label: Exclusive Or
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/xor
Note: This operator MUST only be used for Compound Constraints, and both left and right operands MUST be Atomic Constraints.
Class: Operator

And

Definition: The relation is satisfied when both of the Constraints are satisfied.
Label: And
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/and
Note: This operator MUST only be used for Compound Constraints, and both left and right operands MUST be Atomic Constraints.
Class: Operator

And Sequence

Definition: The relation is satisfied when the left operand Atomic Constraint delivers a satisfied result before the right operand Atomic Constraint is evaluated. The right operand Atomic Constraint may build on the satisfaction of the left operand Atomic Constraint.
Label: And Sequence
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/andSequence
Note: This operator MUST only be used for Compound Constraints, and both left and right operands MUST be Atomic Constraints.
Class: Operator

Policy Conflict Strategy

Conflict Strategy Preference

Definition: Used to establish strategies to resolve conflicts that arise from the merging of Policies or conflicts between Permissions and Prohibitions in the same Policy.
Label: Conflict Strategy Preference
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/ConflictTerm
Note: Instances of ConflictTerm describe strategies for resolving conflicts.
In range of: conflict
Instances: invalid, perm, prohibit

Handle Policy Conflicts

Definition: The conflict-resolution strategy for a Policy.
Label: Handle Policy Conflicts
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/conflict
Note: If no strategy is specified, the default is invalid.
Range: ConflictTerm
Domain: Policy

Prefer Permissions

Definition: Permissions take preference over prohibitions.
Label: Prefer Permissions
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/perm
Note: Used to determine policy conflict outcomes.
Class: ConflictTerm

Prefer Prohibitions

Definition: Prohibitions take preference over permissions.
Label: Prefer Prohibitions
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/prohibit
Note: Used to determine policy conflict outcomes.
Class: ConflictTerm

Invalidate Policy

Definition: The policy is invalid.
Label: Invalidate Policy
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/invalid
Note: Used to indicate the policy is invalid for Conflict Strategy.
Class: ConflictTerm

Policy Inheritance

Inheritance Allowed

Definition: Indicates if the Policy entity can be inherited.
Label: Inheritance Allowed
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/inheritAllowed
Note: A boolean value.
Range: xsd:boolean
Domain: Policy

Inherits From

Definition: Relates a (child) policy to another (parent) policy from which terms are inherited.
Label: Inherits From
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/inheritFrom
Note: The child policy will inherit from the parent policy
Range: Policy
Domain: Policy

ODRL Common Vocabulary

The ODRL Common Vocabulary defines semantics for generic terms that MAY be used in ODRL Policies. In addition, ODRL Common Vocabulary terms may be re-used in ODRL Profiles as described in the ODRL Information Model [[!odrl-model]].

Policy Subclasses

Assertion

Definition: A Policy that asserts a Rule over an Asset from parties.
Label: Assertion
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Assertion
Note: For example, a party (an assignee or assigner) can claim what terms they have over an Asset. An Assertion Policy does not grant such permissions/prohibitions but only asserts the parties claims. An Assetion Policy MUST contain a target Asset, a Party with any functional role, and at least one of a Permission or Prohibition rule.
Parent class: Policy
Inherited Properties: conflict, permission, prohibition, inheritAllowed, inheritFrom, profile

Privacy

Definition: A Policy that expresses a Rule over an Asset containing personal information.
Label: Privacy
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Privacy
Note: A Privacy Policy MUST contain a target Asset, a Party with Assigner is, a Party with Assignee function, and at least one of a Permission or Prohibition rule that MUST include a Duty. The target Asset SHOULD contain or relate to personal information about the Assignee. The Duty MUST describe obligations on the Assigner about managing the Asset. The Assignee is being granted the terms of the Privacy policy from the Assigner.
Parent class: Policy
Inherited Properties: conflict, permission, prohibition, inheritAllowed, inheritFrom, profile

Request

Definition: A Policy that proposes a Rule over an Asset from an assignee.
Label: Request
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Request
Note: A Request Policy MUST contain a target Asset, a Party with Assignee function, and at least one of a Permission or Prohibition rule. The Request MAY also contain the Party with Assigner function if this is known. No privileges are granted to any Party.
Parent class: Policy
Inherited Properties: conflict, permission, prohibition, inheritAllowed, inheritFrom, profile

Ticket

Definition: A Policy that grants the holder a Rule over an Asset from an assigner.
Label: Ticket
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Ticket
Note: A Ticket Policy MUST contain a target Asset and at least one of a Permission or Prohibition rule. The Ticket MAY contain the Party with Assigner function and MUST NOT contain an Assignee. The Ticket Policy will grant the terms of the Policy to the holder of that Ticket. The holder of the Ticket MAY remain unknown or MAY have to be identified at some later stage.
Parent class: Policy
Inherited Properties: conflict, permission, prohibition, inheritAllowed, inheritFrom, profile

Asset Relations

Output

Definition: The output property specifies the Asset which is created from the output of the Action.
Label: Output
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/output
Parent property: relation
Range: Asset
Domain: Rule

Party Functions

Attributed Party

Definition: The Party to be attributed.
Label: Attributed Party
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/attributedParty
Note: Maybe specified as part of the attribute action.
Parent property: function

Attributing Party

Definition: The Party who undertakes the attribution.
Label: Attributing Party
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/attributingParty
Note: Maybe specified as part of the attribute action.
Parent property: function

Compensated Party

Definition: The Party is the recipient of the compensation.
Label: Compensated Party
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/compensatedParty
Note: Maybe specified as part of the compensate duty action.
Parent property: function

Compensating Party

Definition: The Party that is the provider of the compensation.
Label: Compensating Party
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/compensatingParty
Note: Maybe specified as part of the compensate duty action.
Parent property: function

Consenting Party

Definition: The Party to obtain consent from.
Label: Consenting Party
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/consentingParty
Note: Maybe specified as part of the obtainConsent action.
Parent property: function

Consented Party

Definition: The Party who obtains the consent.
Label: Consented Party
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/consentedParty
Note: Maybe specified as part of the obtainConsent action.
Parent property: function

Contracting Party

Definition: The Party who is offering the contract.
Label: Contracting Party
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/contractingParty
Parent property: function

Contracted Party

Definition: The Party who is being contracted.
Label: Contracted Party
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/contractedParty
Parent property: function

Informed Party

Definition: The Party to be informed of all uses.
Label: Informed Party
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/informedParty
Note: Maybe specified as part of the inform action.
Parent property: function

Informing Party

Definition: The Party who provides the inform use data.
Label: Informing Party
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/informingParty
Note: Maybe specified as part of the inform action.
Parent property: function

Tracking Party

Definition: The Party who is tracking usage.
Label: Tracking Party
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/trackingParty
Note: May be specified as part of the acceptTracking action.
Parent property: function

Tracked Party

Definition: The Party whose usage is being tracked.
Label: Tracked Party
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/trackedParty
Note: May be specified as part of the acceptTracking action.
Parent property: function

Actions for Permissions and Prohibitions

Aggregate

Definition: The Assigner permits/prohibits the Assignees to use the Asset or parts of it as part of a composite collection.
Label: Aggregate
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/aggregate
Broader terms: use
Class: Action

Annotate

Definition: The Assigner permits/prohibits the Assignees to add explanatory notations/commentaries to the Asset without modifying the Asset in any other way.
Label: Annotate
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/annotate
Broader terms: use
Class: Action

Anonymize

Definition: The Assigner permits/prohibits the Assignees to anonymize all or parts of the Asset.
Label: Anonymize
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/anonymize
Note: For example, to remove identifying particulars for statistical or for other comparable purposes, or to use the asset without stating the author/source.
Broader terms: use
Class: Action

Archive

Definition: The Assigner permits/prohibits the Assignees to store the Asset (in a non-transient form).
Label: Archive
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/archive
Note: Temporal constraints may be used for temporal conditions.
Broader terms: use
Class: Action

Concurrent Use

Definition: The Assigner permits/prohibits the Assignees to create multiple copies of the Asset that are being concurrently used.
Label: Concurrent Use
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/concurrentUse
Broader terms: use
Class: Action

Derive

Definition: The Assigner permits/prohibits the Assignees to create a new derivative Asset from this Asset and to edit or modify the derivative.
Label: Derive
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/derive
Note: A new asset is created and may have significant overlaps with the original Asset. (Note that the notion of whether or not the change is significant enough to qualify as a new asset is subjective). To the derived Asset a next policy may be applied.
Broader terms: use
Narrower terms: translate
Class: Action

Digitize

Definition: The Assigner permits/prohibits the Assignees to produce a digital copy of (or otherwise digitize) the Asset from its analogue form.
Label: Digitize
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/digitize
Broader terms: use
Class: Action

Display

Definition: The Assigner permits/prohibits the Assignees to display the visual media Asset.
Label: Display
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/display
Note: For example, displaying an image on a screen. If the action is to be performed to a wider audience than just the Assignees, then the Recipient constraint is recommened to be used.
Broader terms: use
Class: Action

Distribute

Definition: The Assigner permits/prohibits the Assignees to supply the Asset to third-parties.
Label: Distribute
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/distribute
Note: It is recommended to use nextPolicy to express the allowable usages by third-parties.
Broader terms: use
Class: Action

Execute

Definition: The Assigner permits/prohibits the Assignees to run the computer program Asset.
Label: Execute
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/execute
Note: For example, machine executable code or Java such as a game or application.
Broader terms: use
Class: Action

Extract

Definition: The Assigner permits/prohibits the Assignees to extract parts of the Asset and to use it as a new Asset.
Label: Extract
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/extract
Note: A new asset is created and may have very little in common with the original Asset. (Note that the notion of whether or not the change is significant enough to qualify as a new asset is subjective). To the extracted Asset a next policy may be applied.
Broader terms: reproduce
Class: Action

Give

Definition: The Assigner permits/prohibits the Assignees to transfer the ownership of the Asset to a third party without compensation and while deleting the original asset.
Label: Give
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/give
Broader terms: transfer
Class: Action

Grant Use

Definition: The Assigner permits/prohibits the Assignee to grant the use the Asset to third parties.
Label: Grant Use
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/grantUse
Note: This action enables the Assignee to create policies for the use of the Asset for third parties. nextPolicy is recommended to be agreed with the third party. Use of temporal constraints is recommended.
Broader terms: use
Class: Action

Index

Definition: The Assigner permits/prohibits the Assignees to record the Asset in an index.
Label: Index
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/index
Note: For example, to include a link to the Asset in a search engine database.
Broader terms: use
Class: Action

Install

Definition: The Assigner permits/prohibits the Assignees to load the computer program Asset onto a storage device which allows operating or running the Asset.
Label: Install
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/install
Broader terms: use
Class: Action

Modify

Definition: The Assigner permits/prohibits the Assignees to change existing content of the Asset. A new asset is not created by this action.
Label: Modify
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/modify
Note: This action will modify an asset which is typically updated from time to time without creating a new asset. If the result from modifying the asset should be a new asset the actions derive or extract should be used. (Note that the notion of whether or not the change is significant enough to qualify as a new asset is subjective).
Broader terms: use
Class: Action

Move

Definition: The Assigner permits/prohibits the Assignees to move the Asset from one digital location to another including deleting the original copy.
Label: Move
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/move
Note: After the Asset has been moved, the original copy must be deleted.
Broader terms: use
Class: Action

Play

Definition: The Assigner permits/prohibits the Assignees to perform an audio Asset.
Label: Play
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/play
Note: If the action is to be performed to a wider audience than just the Assignees, then the Recipient constraint is recommened to be used.
Broader terms: use
Class: Action

Present

Definition: The Assigner permits/prohibits the Assignees to perform the Asset.
Label: Present
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/present
Note: If the action is to be performed to a wider audience than just the Assignees, then the Recipient constraint is recommened to be used.
Broader terms: use
Class: Action

Print

Definition: The Assigner permits/prohibits the Assignees to print an Asset onto paper or to create a hard copy.
Label: Print
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/print
Note: For example, creating a permanent, fixed (static), and directly perceivable representation of the Asset.
Broader terms: use
Class: Action

Read

Definition: The Assigner permits/prohibits the Assignees to obtain data from the Asset.
Label: Read
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/read
Note: For example, the ability to read a record from a database (the Asset).
Broader terms: use
Class: Action

Reproduce

Definition: The Assigner permits/prohibits the Assignee(s) to make duplicate copies the Asset in any material form.
Label: Reproduce
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/reproduce
Broader terms: use
Narrower terms: extract
Class: Action

Sell

Definition: The Assigner permits/prohibits the Assignees to transfer the ownership of the Asset to a third party with compensation and while deleting the original asset.
Label: Sell
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/sell
Broader terms: transfer
Class: Action

Stream

Definition: The Assigner permits/prohibits the Assignees to deliver the Asset in real-time.
Label: Stream
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/stream
Note: The Asset maybe utilised in real-time as it is being delivered. If the action is to be performed to a wider audience than just the Assignees, then the Recipient constraint is recommened to be used.
Broader terms: use
Class: Action

Text-to-speech

Definition: The Assigner permits/prohibits the Assignees to have a text Asset read out loud.
Label: Text-to-speech
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/textToSpeech
Note: If the action is to be performed to a wider audience than just the Assignees, then the Recipient constraint is recommened to be used.
Broader terms: use
Class: Action

Transform

Definition: The Assigner permits/prohibits the Assignees to convert the Asset into a different format.
Label: Transform
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/transform
Note: Typically used to convert the Asset into a different format for consumption on/transfer to a third party system.
Broader terms: use
Class: Action

Translate

Definition: The Assigner permits/prohibits the Assignees to translate the original natural language of an Asset into another natural language.
Label: Translate
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/translate
Note: A new derivative Asset is created by that action.
Broader terms: derive
Class: Action

Actions for Duties

Accept Tracking

Definition: The Assigner requires that the Assignees accepts that the use of the Asset may be tracked.
Label: Accept Tracking
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/acceptTracking
Note: The collected information may be tracked by the Assigner, or may link to a Party with the role “trackingParty” function.
Class: Action

Attribute

Definition: The Assigner requires that the Assignees attributes the Asset to the Assigner or an attributed Party.
Label: Attribute
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/attribute
Note: May link to an Asset with the attribution information. May link to a Party with the role “attributedParty” function.
Class: Action

Compensate

Definition: The Assigner requires that the Assignees compensates the Assigner (or other specified compensation Party) by some amount of value, if defined, for using or selling the Asset.
Label: Compensate
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/compensate
Note: The compensation may use different types of things with a value: (i) the thing is expressed by the value (term) of the Constraint name; (b) the value is expressed by operator, rightOperand, dataType and unit
Class: Action

Delete

Definition: The Assigner requires that the Assignees permanently removes all copies of the Asset after it has been used.
Label: Delete
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/delete
Note: Use a constraint to define under which conditions the Asset must be deleted.
Class: Action

Ensure Exclusivity

Definition: The Assignee requires that the Assigners ensure that the permission on the Asset is exclusive to the Assignee.
Label: Ensure Exclusivity
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/ensureExclusivity
Class: Action

Include

Definition: The Assigner requires that the Assignees include other related assets in the Asset.
Label: Include
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/include
Note: For example: bio picture must be included in the attribution. Use of the Asset relation attribute is required.
Class: Action

Inform

Definition: The Assigner requires that the Assignees inform the Assigner or an informed Party that an action has been performed on or in relation to the Asset.
Label: Inform
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/inform
Note: May link to a Party with the role “informedParty” function.
Class: Action

Next Policy

Definition: The Assigner requires that the Assignees grants the specified Policy to a third party for their use of the Asset.
Label: Next Policy
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/nextPolicy
Note: Useful for downstream policies.
Class: Action

Obtain Consent

Definition: The Assigner requires that the Assignees obtains a verifiable consent from the Assigner or a consenting Party to perform the requested action in relation to the Asset.
Label: Obtain Consent
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/obtainConsent
Note: Used as a Duty to ensure that the Assigner or a Party is authorized to approve such actions on a case-by-case basis. May link to a Party with the role “consentingParty” function.
Class: Action

Review Policy

Definition: The Assigner requires that the Assignee(s) has(ve) a person review the Policy applicable to the Asset.
Label: Review Policy
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/reviewPolicy
Note: Used when human intervention is required to review the Policy. May link to an Asset which represents the full Policy information.
Class: Action

Uninstall

Definition: The Assigner requires that the Assignees unload and delete the computer program Asset from a storage device and disable its readiness for operation.
Label: Uninstall
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/uninstall
Note: The Asset is no longer accessible to the Assignees after it has been used.
Class: Action

Watermark

Definition: The Assigner requires that the Assignees apply a watermark as provided by the Assigner to the Asset.
Label: Watermark
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/watermark
Class: Action

Constraint Left Operands

Absolute Asset Position

Definition: A point in space or time defined with absolute coordinates the positioning of the Asset has to comply with for excersing the Action.
Label: Absolute Asset Position
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/absolutePosition
Note: Example: May be used with a natural language contract saying the the upper left corner of a picture may be constrainted to a specific position of the canvas rendiering it.
Narrower terms: absoluteSpatialPosition, absoluteTemporalPosition
Class: LeftOperand

Absolute Spatial Asset Position

Definition: The absolute spatial positions of four corners of a rectangle on a 2D-canvas or the eight corners of a cubiod in a 3D-space the Asset has to fit in after the Action.
Label: Absolute Spatial Asset Position
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/absoluteSpatialPosition
Note: Example: May be used with a natural language contract saying the the upper left corner of a picture may be constrainted to a specific position of the canvas rendiering it. Note: see also the Left Operand Relative Spatial Asset Position.
Broader terms: absolutePosition
Class: LeftOperand

Absolute Temporal Asset Position

Definition: The absolute temporal positions in a media stream the Asset has to fit in after the Action.
Label: Absolute Temporal Asset Position
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/absoluteTemporalPosition
Note: Note: Use with Actions including the Asset in a larger media stream. The fragment part of a Media Fragment URI (https://www.w3.org/TR/media-frags/) may be used for the right operand. See the Left Operand realativeTemporalPosition. Example: The MP3 music file must be positioned between second 192 and 250 of the temporal length of a stream.
Broader terms: absolutePosition
Class: LeftOperand

Absolute Asset Size

Definition: Measure(s) of one or two axes for 2D-objects or measure(s) of one to tree axes for 3D-objects of the Asset after the Action.
Label: Absolute Asset Size
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/absoluteSize
Note: Example: The image can be resized in width to a maximum of 1000px.
Class: LeftOperand

Count

Definition: Numeric count of exercising the Action.
Label: Count
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/count
Class: LeftOperand

Action Datetime

Definition: The date (and optional time and timezone) to be compared to the time when the Action is exercised. Right operand value MUST be an xsd:date or xsd:dateTime as defined by [[xmlschema11-2]].
Label: Action Datetime
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/dateTime
Note: The Action of the Rule may be exercised before (with operator lt/lteq) or after (with operator gt/gteq) the date(time) defined by the Right operand. Example: dateTime gteq 2017-12-31T06:00Z means the Action can only be exercised after (and including) 6:00AM on the 31st Decemeber 2017 UTC time., The use of Timezone information is strongly recommended.
Class: LeftOperand

Action Delay Period

Definition: The Action may be exercised after the end of this time period. The point in time triggering this period MAY be defined by another temporal Atomic Constraint expressed together in a Compound Constraint (utilsing the odrl:andSequence operator). Right operand value MUST be an xsd:duration as defined by [[xmlschema11-2]].
Label: Action Delay Period
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/delayPeriod
Note: Example: delayPeriod eq P60M indicates a delay of 60 Minutes before exercising the action., Only the eq operator SHOULD be used.
Class: LeftOperand

Delivery Channel

Definition: The delivery channel used for exercising the Action.
Label: Delivery Channel
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/deliveryChannel
Note: Example: the asset may be distributed only on mobile networks.
Class: LeftOperand

Elapsed Time

Definition: The Action may be exercised during this time period. The start of the period is trigged by exercising the Action for the first time. Right operand value MUST be an xsd:duration as defined by [[xmlschema11-2]].
Label: Elapsed Time
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/elapsedTime
Note: Example: elpasedTime eq P60M indicates a total elpased time of 60 Minutes can be used for exercising the action., Only the eq operator SHOULD be used.
Class: LeftOperand

Event

Definition: An identified event used for exercising the Action.
Label: Event
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/event
Note: Events are temporal periods of time, and operators can be used to signal before, during or after the event. Example: Action may be taken during the “FIFA World Cup 2020” only.
Class: LeftOperand

File Format

Definition: The file format of the transformed Asset after exercising the Action.
Label: File Format
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/fileFormat
Note: Example: An asset may be transformed into JPEG format.
Class: LeftOperand

Industry Context

Definition: The defined industry sector in which the Action may be exercised.
Label: Industry Context
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/industry
Note: Example: publishing or financial industry.
Class: LeftOperand

Language

Definition: The main natural language of the transformed Asset after exercising the Action.
Label: Language
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/language
Note: Example: the asset can only be translated into Greek. Must use [[bcp47]] codes for language values.
Class: LeftOperand

Media Context

Definition: Category of media setting the context for exercising the Action.
Label: Media Context
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/media
Note: Example media types: electronic, print, advertising, marketing. Note: The used type should not be an IANA MediaType as they are focused on technical characteristics.
Class: LeftOperand

Metered Time

Definition: The Action may be exercised for an accumulated amount of this time period. Right operand value MUST be an xsd:duration as defined by [[xmlschema11-2]].
Label: Metered Time
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/meteredTime
Note: Example: meteredTime eq P60M indicates that the action can be exercised for an accumulated period of 60 Minutes. This means that the action can be expercised for 5 minutes each day over 12 days., Only the eq operator SHOULD be used.
Class: LeftOperand

Payment Amount

Definition: The amount of a payment related to the Action of a Duty. Right operand value MUST be an xsd:decimal.
Label: Payment Amount
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/payAmount
Note: Note: Can be used for compensation duties with the unit property indicating the currency of the payment.
Class: LeftOperand

Asset Percentage

Definition: The amount of an Asset - as a percentage - used for exercising the Action. Right operand value MUST be an xsd:decimal from 0 to 100.
Label: Asset Percentage
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/percentage
Note: Example: Extract less than or equal to of 50% of the asset.
Class: LeftOperand

Product Context

Definition: Product or service used for exercising the Action.
Label: Product Context
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/product
Note: Example: The Asset image may only be used in the XYZ Magazine.
Class: LeftOperand

Purpose

Definition: Purpose for exercising the Action.
Label: Purpose
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/purpose
Note: Example: Educational use.
Class: LeftOperand

Recipient

Definition: The party receiving the result of an exercised Action.
Label: Recipient
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/recipient
Note: Note: The Right Operand must identify one or more specific parties or category/ies of the party.
Class: LeftOperand

Relative Asset Position

Definition: A point in space or time defined with coordinates relative to full measures the positioning of the Asset has to comply with for excersing the Action.
Label: Relative Asset Position
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/relativePosition
Note: Example: May be used with a natural language contract saying the the upper left corner of a picture may be constrainted to a specific position of the canvas rendiering it.
Narrower terms: relativeSpatialPosition, relativeTemporalPosition
Class: LeftOperand

Relative Spatial Asset Position

Definition: The relative spatial positions - expressed as percentages of full values - of four corners of a rectangle on a 2D-canvas or the eight corners of a cubiod in a 3D-space the Asset has to fit in after the Action.
Label: Relative Spatial Asset Position
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/relativeSpatialPosition
Note: Note: See the Left Operand absoluteSpatialAssetPosition.
Broader terms: relativePosition
Class: LeftOperand

Relative Temporal Asset Position

Definition: A point in space or time defined with coordinates relative to full measures the positioning of the Asset has to comply with for excersing the Action.
Label: Relative Temporal Asset Position
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/relativeTemporalPosition
Note: Example: The MP3 music file must be positioned between the positions at 33% and 48% of the temporal length of a stream. Note: See the Left Operand absoluteTemporalAssetPosition.
Broader terms: relativePosition
Class: LeftOperand

Relative Asset Size

Definition: Measure(s) of one or two axes for 2D-objects or measure(s) of one to tree axes for 3D-objects - expressed as percentages of full values - of the Asset after the Action.
Label: Relative Asset Size
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/relativeSize
Note: Example: The image can be resized in width to a maximum of 200%. Note: See the Left Operand absoluteSize.
Class: LeftOperand

Rendition Resolution

Definition: Resolution of the rendition of the Asset after exercising the Action.
Label: Rendition Resolution
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/resolution
Note: Example: the image may be printed at 1200dpi.
Class: LeftOperand

Geospatial Named Area

Definition: A named and identified geospatial area with defined borders for exercising the Action. An IRI MUST be used to represent this value.
Label: Geospatial Named Area
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/spatial
Note: A code value for the area and source of the code must be presented in the Right Operand. For example, the [[iso3166]] Country Codes or the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names.
Narrower terms: spatialCoordinates
Class: LeftOperand

Geospatial Coordinates

Definition: A set of coordinates setting the borders of a geospatial area for exercising the Action. The coordinates MUST include longitude and lattitue, they MAY include altitude and the geodatic datum.
Label: Geospatial Coordinates
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/spatialCoordinates
Note: The default values are the altitude of earth's surface at this location and the WGS 84 datum.
Broader terms: spatial
Class: LeftOperand

System Device

Definition: An identified computing system for exercising the Action.
Label: System Device
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/systemDevice
Note: Example: The system device can be identified by a unique code created from the used hardware.
Class: LeftOperand

Recurring Time Interval

Definition: The Action may be exercised within a recurring period of time after which the Action can or cannot be exercised again until the time period has elapsed. Right operand value MUST be an xsd:duration as defined by [[xmlschema11-2]].
Label: Recurring Time Interval
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/timeInterval
Note: Example: timeInterval eq P7D indicates that the action can be exercised once every 7 day period., Only the eq operator SHOULD be used.
Class: LeftOperand

Unit Of Count

Definition: The unit of measure used for counting.
Label: Unit Of Count
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/unitOfCount
Note: Typically used with Duties to indicate the unit entity to be counted of the Action. Example: A duty to compensate and a unitOfCount constraint of 'perUser' would indicate that the compensation by multiplied by the 'number of users'.
Class: LeftOperand

Version

Definition: The range of versions of the Asset which can or cannot be used for exercising the Action.
Label: Version
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/version
Note: Example: Single Paperback or Multiple Issues or version 2.0 or higher.
Class: LeftOperand

Virtual IT Communication Location

Definition: An identified location of the IT communication space where the Action can or cannot be exercised.
Label: Virtual IT Communication Location
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/virtualLocation
Note: Example: an Internet domain or IP address range.
Class: LeftOperand

Constraint Operators

Equal to

Definition: Indicating that a given value equals the right operand of the Constraint.
Label: Equal to
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/eq
Class: Operator

Greater than

Definition: Indicating that a given value is greater than the right operand of the Constraint.
Label: Greater than
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/gt
Class: Operator

Greater than or equal to

Definition: Indicating that a given value is greater than or equal to the right operand of the Constraint.
Label: Greater than or equal to
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/gteq
Class: Operator

Less than

Definition: Indicating that a given value is less than the right operand of the Constraint.
Label: Less than
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/lt
Class: Operator

Less than or equal to

Definition: Indicating that a given value is less than or equal to the right operand of the Constraint.
Label: Less than or equal to
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/lteq
Class: Operator

Not equal to

Definition: Indicating that a given value is not equal to the right operand of the Constraint.
Label: Not equal to
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/neq
Class: Operator

Is a

Definition: Indicating that a given value is an instance of the right operand of the Constraint.
Label: Is a
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/isA
Class: Operator

Has part

Definition: Indicating that a given value contains the right operand of the Constraint.
Label: Has part
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/hasPart
Class: Operator

Is part of

Definition: Indicating that a given value is contained by the right operand of the Constraint.
Label: Is part of
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/isPartOf
Class: Operator

Is all of

Definition: Indicating that a given value is all of the right operand of the Constraint.
Label: Is all of
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/isAllOf
Class: Operator

Is any of

Definition: Indicating that a given value is any of the right operand of the Constraint.
Label: Is any of
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/isAnyOf
Class: Operator

Is none of

Definition: Indicating that a given value is none of the right operand of the Constraint.
Label: Is none of
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/isNoneOf
Class: Operator

Or

Definition: The relation is satisfied when any of the Constraints are satisfied.
Label: Or
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/or
Note: This operator MUST only be used for Compound Constraints, and both left and right operands MUST be Atomic Constraints.
Class: Operator

Exclusive Or

Definition: The relation is satisfied when only one of the Constaints is satisfied
Label: Exclusive Or
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/xor
Note: This operator MUST only be used for Compound Constraints, and both left and right operands MUST be Atomic Constraints.
Class: Operator

And

Definition: The relation is satisfied when both of the Constraints are satisfied.
Label: And
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/and
Note: This operator MUST only be used for Compound Constraints, and both left and right operands MUST be Atomic Constraints.
Class: Operator

And Sequence

Definition: The relation is satisfied when the left operand Atomic Constraint delivers a satisfied result before the right operand Atomic Constraint is evaluated. The right operand Atomic Constraint may build on the satisfaction of the left operand Atomic Constraint.
Label: And Sequence
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/andSequence
Note: This operator MUST only be used for Compound Constraints, and both left and right operands MUST be Atomic Constraints.
Class: Operator

Constraint Right Operands

Policy Usage Time

Definition: Indicates the time when the policy is exercised.
Label: Policy Usage Time
Identifier: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/policyUsage
Note: This can be used to express constraints related to the time the policy is exercised. For example, event lt policyUsage expresses a constraint on the Action to occur before the policy is exercised. Other operators may be used to indicate during (eg) or after (gt, gte) policy usage.
Class: RightOperand

Vocabulary Expression

Implementations of ODRL expressions must be serialized using the UTF-8 character encoding.

The current (editors draft) ODRL Ontology and can be downloaded in Turtle serialisation.

The JSON-LD [[json-ld]] serialisation uses the @context property to define the processing context. Implementations producing ODRL expressions should include a @context property value using the URL http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl.jsonld.

The (editors draft) ODRL JSON-LD Context can be downloaded.

This specification also includes alternative serialization syntaxes for the ODRL Vocabulary.

XML Encoding

ODRL Policy expressions can be encoded in XML [[xml]] serialisations as defined by XML Schema [[xmlschema11-1]] and XML Datatypes [[xmlschema11-2]]. All of the ODRL Vocabulary IRIs used in ODRL XML instances MUST follow those defined in the ODRL Vocabulary.

The (editors draft) ODRL XML Schema can be downloaded.

Each of the classes from the ODRL Information Model [[!odrl-model]] will be represented by an XML element of the same name. Additionally, each class property will be represented as an XML attribute of the parent element. The fixed values defined in the ODRL Information Model are represented as enumerated types. Cardinalities are also represented with XML Schema occurrence rules. Attributes are optional unless explicitly noted as REQUIRED.

Note that the Rule class is not represented in the XML encoding, only the child classes; Permission, Prohibition, and Duty.

Note that the Policy Type MAY infer additional constraints and requirements on the cardinalities of XML elements. See the definition of the Policy Types for further details.

The Policy element contains the following attributes:

NOTE: The type attribute is used to express the ODRL Policy subclass.

The Policy element MAY contain the following elements:

The Policy element MAY contain the following policy-level elements:

The Asset class is a single asset element to represent both the Asset uid and how it is related to the Rule. The Asset element contains the following attributes:

Asset element attributes MUST be used as defined by one of the sets of attributes and their cardinalities below:

  1. uid (REQUIRED), relation (REQUIRED), type (OPTIONAL), id (OPTIONAL), or
  2. idref (REQUIRED)

The asset element may also contain the constraint element.

The Party class is a single party element to represent both the Party uid and the functional role to the Rule. The Party element contains the following attributes:

Party element attributes MUST be used as defined by one of the sets of attributes and their cardinalities below:

  1. uid (REQUIRED), function (REQUIRED), type (OPTIONAL), id (OPTIONAL), or
  2. idref (REQUIRED)

The party element may also contain the constraint element.

The Permission element contains the following elements:

The Prohibition element contains the following elements:

The Duty element contains the following elements:

The Duty element contains the following attributes:

Duty element attributes MUST be used as defined by one of the sets of attributes and their cardinalities below:

  1. uid (OPTIONAL), or
  2. id (REQUIRED), or
  3. idref (REQUIRED)

The Action element contains the following attributes:

Action element attributes MUST be used as defined by one of the sets of attributes and their cardinalities below:

  1. name (REQUIRED), id (OPTIONAL), or
  2. idref (REQUIRED)

The Constraint element contains the following attributes:

NOTE: The Constraint name attribute is called leftOperand in the ODRL Information Model.

Constraint element attributes MUST be used as defined by one of the sets of attributes and their cardinalities below:

  1. name (REQUIRED), operator (REQUIRED), rightOperand and/or rightOperandReference (REQUIRED), dataType (OPTIONAL), unit (OPTIONAL), status (OPTIONAL), id (OPTIONAL), or
  2. idref (REQUIRED)

In some cases where Duties refer to (external) Assets, it will be necessary to package the ODRL XML expression with the representation of that (external) Asset. This XML Encoding specification does not mandate any specific packaging mechanism as communities will utilise their preferred options for data interoperability.

XML Example

The below example shows the XML serialisation of an ODRL Policy. In this example, the target asset and assigner and assignee parties are defined at the policy-level, and hence, are applied to both permission rules. The first permission allows the assignee to play the target asset as long as they accept they will be tracked. The second permission allows the assignee to distribute the target asset to the identified country for a compensation payment of EUR5,000.

<o:Policy xmlns:o="http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/" uid="http://example.com/policy:9001"
                type="http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Agreement">
    <o:asset uid="http://example.com/music:4545" 
             relation="http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/target"/>
    <o:party uid="http://example.com/sony"
             function="http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/assigner"/>
    <o:party uid="http://example.com/billie"
             function="http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/assignee"/>
    <o:permission>
        <o:action name="http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/play"/>
        <o:duty>
            <o:action name="http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/acceptTracking"/>
        </o:duty>
    </o:permission>
    <o:permission>
        <o:action name="http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/distribute"/>
        <o:constraint name="http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/spatial" 
                      operator="http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/eq" 
                      rightOperand="http://vocab.getty.edu/tgn/1000080"/>
        <o:duty>
            <o:action name="http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/compensate"/>
            <o:constraint name="http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/payAmount"
                operator="http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/eq"
                rightOperand="5000.00" 
                unit="http://cvx.iptc.org/iso4217a:EUR"/>
        </o:duty>
    </o:permission>  
</o:Policy>

XML Linking

The need for id/idref is now not required since the ODRL Information Model supports Policy-level Assets, Parties, and Actions. This feature maybe removed.

To support repeating the same element content across Permissions and Prohibitions, the Asset, Party, Constraint, Action, and Duty elements support the xml id and idref attributes. Any of these element that has been identified using the id attribute can then be referred to by an element with the same name using the idref attribute. In this case, the referring element must have no other content.

As shown in the below example, the Prohibition refers to elements defined in the Permission, except for the Constraint element. In this case, the assignee can play the music asset in Italy but not in France.

Note that there is an important distinction when using this feature with the Duty element which also has the uid attribute. The uid attribute is used to refer to the same Duty from multiple Permissions. In this case the Duty has to be performed only once to gain access to all the Permissions. When using the id and idref attributes then the semantics change as in this case the Duty must be performed for each time it is referenced (potentially, many times). Note that the use of the uid and id attribute for the same Duty element is not permitted.

Constraint Relations

To support Constraint Relations, constraint objects can be expressed at the Policy level and locally identified with the id attribute. The constraint (in the Permission, Prohibition, or Duty) can then refer to these contraints using its #id.

ODRL XML processing systems MUST detect the use of #id in the name attribute and rightOperand in Constraints. If detected, the processing model for Constraint Relations (defined in [[!odrl-model]]) MUST then be followed.

The below example shows two constraints defined at the Policy-level with ids C1 and C2. The Constraint in the permission refers to these using the #C1 and #C2 values.

<o:Policy xmlns:o="http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/" uid="http://example.com/policy:9001"
                type="http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Offer">
    <o:party uid="http://example.com/billie"
             function="http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/assignee"/>
    <o:permission>
        <o:asset uid="http://example.com/music:4545" 
                 relation="http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/target"/>
        <o:action name="http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/distribute"/>
        <o:constraint name="#C1" 
                      operator="http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/xor" 
                      rightOperand="#C2"/>
    </o:permission> 
    <o:constraint id="C1" name="http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/spatial" 
                  operator="http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/eq" 
                  rightOperand="http://vocab.getty.edu/tgn/1000080"/>
    <o:constraint id="C2" name="http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/spatial" 
                  operator="http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/eq" 
                 rightOperand="http://vocab.getty.edu/tgn/1000090"/>
</o:Policy>

Inline Assets

In some scenarios, the Asset of an ODRL Policy maybe also be XML or HTML markup. In these specific cases, it makes sense to enable the ODRL Policy to be articulated as part of the Asset and to support abbreviated expressions. All default values should be assumed. The preferred method of linking is to utilise the XML ID attribute. The source Asset markup may be identified with an ID attribute and the ODRL Asset element can then refer to this ID as the UID (as an IRI hash fragment). An example is shown below.

<rnews:Article xml:id="item8HEX">
    <rnews:title>Allies are Split<rnews:title>
    <rnews:description>Rebel fighters take control...<rnews:description>
    ...
    <o:Policy xmlns:o="http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/"
       type="http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Set" uid="http://example.com/policy:ABAABA">
      <o:permission>
        <o:asset uid="#item8HEX"/>
        <o:action name="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/2/distribute"/>
        <o:constraint name="http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/dateTime" 
             operator="http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/gteq" rightOperand="2011-11-11"/>
      </o:permission>
    </o:policy>
    ...
</rnews:Article>

Privacy Considerations

ODRL Policies that support the Privacy subclass may contain links to potentially sensitive personal information such as the identity of parties and the identity of the existance of assets containing such data related to the parties. Implementations that produce or consume ODRL Privacy expressions must take steps to communicate to all relevant users the manner in which the policy is being used, the identity of any other party with whom that policy is being shared, and the reason the policy is being shared with other parties.

Deprecated Terms

LabelIdentifierDeprecated By
Devicehttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/devicehttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/systemDevice
Systemhttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/systemhttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/systemDevice
proximityhttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/proximity
Appendhttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/appendhttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/modify
Append Tohttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/appendTohttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/modify
Copyhttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/copyhttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/reproduce
Exporthttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/exporthttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/transform
Leasehttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/lease
Licensehttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/licensehttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/grantUse
Lendhttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/lend
Payhttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/payhttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/compensate
Payee Partyhttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/payeePartyhttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/compensatedParty
Previewhttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/preview
Secondary Usehttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/secondaryUse
Writehttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/writehttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/modify
Write tohttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/writeTohttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/modify
Ad-hoc sharinghttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/adHocShare
Extract characterhttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/extractChar
Extract pagehttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/extractPage
Extract wordhttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/extractWord
Attach policyhttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/attachPolicyhttp://creativecommons.org/ns#Notice
Attach sourcehttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/attachSourcehttp://creativecommons.org/ns#SourceCode
Share-alikehttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/shareAlikehttp://creativecommons.org/ns#ShareAlike
Commercializehttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/commercializehttp://creativecommons.org/ns#CommercialUse
Sharehttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/sharehttp://creativecommons.org/ns#Distribution
Timed Counthttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/timedCount
Inherit Relationhttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/inheritRelation
Undefined Termhttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/UndefinedTerm
Handle Undefined Termhttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/undefined
Ignore Undefined Actionshttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/ignore
Support Undefined Actionshttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/support
Asset Scopehttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/AssetScope
Party Scopehttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/PartyScope
Scopehttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/scope
Grouphttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Group
Individualhttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Individual
Allhttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/All
All First-Level Connectionshttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/AllConnections
All Second-level Connectionshttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/All2ndConnections
All Group Connectionshttp://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/AllGroups

Acknowledgements

The POE Working Group gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the ODRL Community Group and the earlier ODRL Initiative. In particular the editors would like to thank Susanne Guth (Vocabulary), Jonas Öberg (JSON), and Lu Ai (JSON) for their past editorial contributions.

For the current specification, the POE Working Group would like to thank contributions from Gregg Kellogg (JSON-LD Context).

Relationship to the W3C ODRL Community Group Reports

The basis for the deliverables for the Permissions & Obligations Expression Working Group are the reports created by the W3C ODRL Community Group. The ODRL Community Group has developed a family of specifications to support innovative expression of asset usage for the publication, distribution and consumption of content services. The final outputs of the ODRL Community Group were the Version 2.1 specifications that were a major update for ODRL and superseded the original ODRL Version 1.1 [[odrl]] (published as a W3C NOTE)

The following documents are part of the ODRL Community Group report series:

The ODRL Vocabulary and Expression was derived from the combination and merger of four of the ODRL Community Group's outcomes; ODRL V2.1 Common Vocabulary, ODRL V2.1 XML Encoding, ODRL V2.1 Ontology, and ODRL V2.1 JSON Encoding. Details of the differences between the W3C Working Group deliverables and the ODRL Community Group Reports are maintained in the Appendix. All new ODRL implementations are expected to use the deliverables of the W3C Permissions & Obligations Expression Working Group.

Changes from Previous Versions

Changes Changes from the First Public Working Draft 21 July 2016:

Changes Changes from the Working Draft 23 February 2017: