This document describes and prioritises gaps for the support of Javanese written with the Javanese script on the Web and in eBooks. In particular, it is concerned with text layout. It checks that needed features are supported in W3C specifications, in particular HTML and CSS and those relating to digital publications. It also checks whether the features have been implemented in browsers and ereaders. This is a preliminary analysis.
This document describes and prioritises gaps for the support of Javanese written with the Javanese script on the Web and in eBooks. In particular, it is concerned with text layout. It checks that needed features are supported in W3C specifications, in particular HTML and CSS and those relating to digital publications. It also checks whether the features have been implemented in browsers and ereaders. It is linked to from the language matrix that tracks Web support for many languages.
This document is an individual contribution, and is not currently a work item in any group, however, you can contact the Internationalization Working Group for more information. We welcome contributions to this and/or other documents.
Sending comments on this document
If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please raise them as github issues. Only send comments by email if you are unable to raise issues on github (see links below). All comments are welcome.
To make it easier to track comments, please raise separate issues or emails for each comment, and point to the section you are commenting on using a URL.
The W3C needs to make sure that the text layout and typographic needs of scripts and languages around the world are built in to technologies such as HTML, CSS, SVG, etc. so that Web pages and eBooks can look and behave as people expect around the world.
This page documents issues for languages using the Javanese script, including Javanese, in terms of support by specifications or user agents (browsers, e-readers, etc.).
A summary of this report and others can be found as part of the language matrix.
This version of the document is a preliminary analysis
Gap analysis work usually starts with a preliminary analysis, conducted quickly by one or a small group of experts. Then a more detailed analysis is carried out, involving a wider range of experts. The detailed analysis may involve the development of tests, in order to illustrate issues and track results for browsers. The next phase is ongoing maintenance. It is expected that the resulting document will not be frozen: as gaps are fixed, this should be noted in the document. It is also possible that new gaps are noticed or arise, and they can be added to this document when that happens.
This document not only describes gaps, it also attempts to prioritise them in terms of the impact on the local user. The prioritisation is indicated by colour.
It is important to note that these colours do not indicate to what extent a particular features is broken. They indicate the impact of a broken or missing feature on the content author or end user.
Basic styling is the level that would be generally accepted as sufficient for most Web pages. Advanced level support would include additional features one might expect to include in ebooks or other advanced typographic formats. There may be features of a script or language that are not supported on the Web, but that are not generally regarded as necessary (usually archaic or obscure features). In this case, the feature can be described here, but the status should be marked as OK.
The decision as to what priority level is assigned to a described gap is down to the experts doing the gap analysis. It may not always be straightforward to decide. If a given section in this document refers to more than one feature that is broken, each with different impacts on Web users, the priority for the section should be the lowest denominator.
A cell can be scored as OK if the feature in question is specified in an appropriate specification, and is supported by user agents. A specification that is in CR or later and has two implementations in 'major' browsers will count. This means that the feature may not be supported in all browsers yet. (At some point in the future we may try to distinguish, visually, whether support is available in a specification but still pending in major browsers or applications.)
Are there any character repertoire issues preventing use of this script on the Web? Do variation selectors need attention?
Do the standard fallback fonts used in browsers (eg. serif, sans-serif, cursive, etc.) match expectations? Are special font or OpenType features needed for this script that are not available? See available information or check for currently needed data.
There are only a handful of Javanese script fonts, and some of those have problems. Google's Noto font is disliked.
Do italic fonts lean in the right direction? Is synthesised italicisation problematic? See available information or check for currently needed data.
Does the script in question require additional features to support alterations to the position or shape of glyphs, for example adjusting the distance between the base text and diacritics, or changing the glyphs used in a systematic way? See available information or check for currently needed data.
No special glyph issues. Usage of combining characters for diacritics needs further investigation.
If this script is cursive (eg. Arabic, N'Ko, Syriac, etc), are there problems or needed features related to the handling of cursive text? Do cursive links break if parts of a word are marked up or styled? Do Unicode joiner and non-joiner characters behave as expected? See available information or check for currently needed data.
Are there any issues when dealing with quotations marks, especially when nested? Should block quotes be indented or handled specially? See available information or check for currently needed data.
HTML sets no default quotation marks for the
q element in a Javanese page (see the list of defaults), because quotation marks are not listed in CLDR. There's an issue asking for expert advice on whether the fallback quotes are ok for Javanese, or whether ꧊ [U+A9CA JAVANESE PADA ADEG] or ꧌ [U+A9CC JAVANESE PADA PISELEH] and ꧍ [U+A9CD JAVANESE TURNED PADA PISELEH] would be a better choice?
Firefox currently doesn't set default quotes at all based on the language of the content.
Neither are the default quotation marks for the
q element set to the appropriate characters by the browser when the element appears inside a Javanese section within a page. This is currently per the HTML specification (both W3C and WhatWG).
Javanese quotes embedded in text in another language can also be problematic if the outer language uses different quotation marks. This is due to the browsers choosing default quotation marks based on the language of the quotation, rather than that of the surrounding text. This is specified in the WhatWG version of the HTML spec, but not in the W3C version. There is an issue raised against the WhatWG version for this to be changed. That issue also addresses the need to change the default inside a section of a page with a different language (which is relevant to both W3C and WhatWG specs.)
Marking this as advanced, because use of the
q element is optional (quote characters can be used instead), and it can be styled using CSS for the general case.
If the script has its own set of number digits, are there any issues in how they are used? Does the script or language use special format patterns that are problematic (eg. 12,34,000 in India)? What about date/time formats and selection - and are non-Gregorian calendars needed? Do percent signs and other symbols associated with number work correctly, and do numbers need special decorations, (like in Ethiopic or Syriac)? See available information or check for currently needed data.
When you double- or triple-click on the text, is the expected range of characters highlighted? When you move through the text with the cursor, or backspace, etc. do you see the expected behaviour? Are there issues when applying punctuation than could be fixed by the application? (Some of the answers to these questions may be addressed in other sections, such as line-breaking, or initial-letter styling.) See available information or check for currently needed data.
Double-click doesn't highlight a word. Instead, it highlights a whole phrase between spaces.
Does your script need special text transforms that are not supported? Does your script convert letters to uppercase, capitalised and lowercase alternatives according to your typographic needs? Do you need to to convert between half-width and full-width presentation forms? See available information or check for currently needed data.
Should case transforms in CSS map ordinary characters to murda or mahaprana equivalents? I imagine not, since the actual characters that need to be changed are not easily chosen automatically. Therefore, marking this as OK.
Some scripts create emphasis or other effects by spacing out the letters or syllables in a word. Are there requirements for this script/language that are unsupported? (For justification related spacing, see below.) See available information or check for currently needed data.
The ruby spec currently specifies an initial subset of requirements for fine-tuning the typography of phonetic and semantic annotations of East Asian text, including furigana, pinyin and zhuyin fuhao systems. Is is adequate for what it sets out to do? What other controls will be needed in the future? See available information or check for currently needed data.
Some aspects related to the drawing of lines alongside or through text involve local typographic considerations. Do underlines need to be broken in special ways for this script? Do you need support for additional line shapes or widths? Does the distance or position of the lines relative to the text need to vary in ways that are not achievable? Are lines correctly drawn relative to vertical text? See available information or check for currently needed data.
Assumed same as for Latin.
Bold and italic are not always appropriate for expressing emphasis, and some scripts have their own unique ways of doing it, that are not in the Western tradition at all. Does this script require support for emphasising or highlighting text that cannot be achieved currently? See available information or check for currently needed data.
If this script runs right-to-left, are there any issues when handling that? Is bidirectional text adequately supported? What about numbers and expressions? Do the Unicode bidi controls and HTML markup provide the support needed? Is isolation of directional runs problematic? See available information or check for currently needed data.
Does the script have special ways of representing inline notes (such as wakiten or kumimoji in Japanese) or other inline features that need to be supported? See available information or check for currently needed data.
Does the browser capture the rules about the way text in your script wraps when it hits the end of a line? Does line-breaking wrap whole 'words' at a time, or characters, or something else (such as syllables in Tibetan and Javanese)? What characters should not appear at the end or start of a line, and what should be done to prevent that? See available information or check for currently needed data.
Wrapping needs to occur at orthographic syllable boundaries, which are not delimited by punctuation or spaces. Orthographic syllables are different from phonetic syllables, in that consonant clusters using pangkon are not split.
Unlike Thai, which uses dictionary lookup to wrap word-by-word, the basic break points in Javanese can be calculated using a grammar for syllables. (There are likely to be additional considerations to check related to punctuation, digits, etc.)
See this discussion for examples.
See also the Hyphenation section for information about use of TALING.
This section marked as broken because browsers do not apply the necessary algorithm to to insert line-break opportunities at orthographic syllable boundaries for Javanese text in normal HTML. As a result, a line of text tends to run off the right edge of the window. See this test.
It is possible to fudge things, using CSS properties, so that the text wraps, but the resulting line breaks are not always correct. It is also possible to make the breaking happen by inserting ZWSP at appropriate places, but we cannot expect Javanese users to do that accurately and consistently. ( See this test.)
Note, however, that lines ARE broken by orthographic syllable in a
textarea element. See this test.
Is hyphenation used for your script, or something else? If hyphenation is used, does it work as expected? See available information or check for currently needed data.
In some texts, when a new line begins with ◌ꦺ [U+A9BA JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN TALING], an additional spacing version of that character is placed at the end of the previous line. (See this discussion for examples.)
"Since hyphenating taling turns out can also be found in handwritten manuscripts, and I've recently founded such taling from as late as 1960s handwritten Primbon, maybe we should say that it is common in printed and handwritten colonial era texts, but not used by contemporary standards." (@adtbayuperdana)
This behaviour is not supported by any browser, and in fact support would require a special algorithm to be defined for line-breaking, however it doesn't appear to be needed in modern Javanese text. Therefore the status for this section ignores that behaviour.
When text in a paragraph needs to have flush lines down both sides, does it follow the rules for your script? Does the script need assistance to conform to a grid pattern? Does your script allow punctuation to hang outside the text box at the start or end of a line? Where adjustments are need to make a line flush, how is that done? Do you shrink/stretch space between words and/or letters? Are word baselines stretched, as in Arabic? See available information or check for currently needed data.
Currently no stretching is applied to a line in order to justify both edges, but it's not clear whether that is a requirement for Javanese anyway.
The CSS Counter Styles specification describes a limited set of simple and complex styles for counters to be used in list numbering, chapter heading numbering, etc.The rules plus more counter styles (totalling around 120 for over 30 scripts) are listed in the document Ready-made Counter Styles. Do these cover your needs? Are the details correct? Are there other aspects related to counters and lists that need to be addressed? See available information or check for currently needed data.
Does the browser or ereader correctly handle special styling of the initial letter of a line or paragraph, such as for drop caps or similar? How about the size relationship between the large letter and the lines alongide? where does the large letter anchor relative to the lines alongside? is it normal to include initial quote marks in the large letter? is the large letter really a syllable? etc. Are all of these things working as expected? .See available information or check for currently needed data.
Initial-letter styling of the kind that ressembles drop caps doesn't appear to be a feature of Javanese script (although there is one example of Sundanese written with the Javanese script).
Does the browser support requirements for baseline alignment between mixed scripts and in general? See available information or check for currently needed data.
In your script, is the first line of text typically indented at the start of a paragraph? Are there other features of paragraph design that are peculiar to your script? See available information or check for currently needed data.
When content can flow vertically and to the left or right, how do you specify the location of objects, text, etc. relative to the flow? For example, keywords 'left' and 'right' are likely to need to be reversed for pages written in English and page written in Arabic. See available information or check for currently needed data.
Are the script requirements for vertically oriented text met? What about if you mix vertical text with scripts that are normally only horizontal? Do you need a switch to use different characters in vertical vs. horizontal text? Does the browser support short runs of horizontal text in vertical lines (tate-chu-yoko in Japanese) as expected? Is the orientation of characters and the directional ordering of characters supported as needed? See available information.
Does your script have special requirements for notes, footnotes, endnotes or other necessary annotations of this kind in the way needed for your culture? See available information or check for currently needed data.
Are there special conventions for page numbering, or the way that running headers and the like are handled? See available information or check for currently needed data.
Some cultures define page areas and page progression direction very differently from those in the West (eg. kihon hanmen in Japanese). Is this an issue for you? Are widows and orphans relevant? In what order do pages progress, RTL or LTR? See available information or check for currently needed data.
Sometimes a script or language does things that are not common outside of it sphere of influence. This is a loose bag of additional items that weren't previously mentioned. This section may also be relevant for observations related to locale formats (such as number, date, currency, format support).
There are many other CSS modules which may need review for script-specific requirements, not to mention the SVG, HTML, Speech, MathML and other specifications. What else is likely to cause problems for worldwide deployment of the Web, and what requirements need to be addressed to make the Web function well locally?