Sources for symbols

In addition to surveying the music fonts supplied with existing major scoring applications, the following texts were consulted as sources for musical symbols:

  • Abbās (al-), Ḥabīb Ẓāhir, et حبيب ظاهر Ḥabīb Dhāhir العباس. نظرياتالموسيقى العربية Nadhariyyāt al-Mūsīqā al-ʿArabiyya. Vol. Theorie Musique Arabe. (Baghdad – Irak) بغداد – العراق: وزارة الثقافةوالٳعلام، دائرة الفنون الموسيقية، معهد الدراسات النغمية العراقى (Wizārat a-th-Thaqāfa wa-l Iʿlām, Dāʾirat al-Funūn al-Mūsīqiyya, Maʿhad a-d-Dirāsāt a-n-Naghmiyya al-ʿIrāqiyy), 1986.

  • Agostini, Dante. Methode de Batterie. France: Carisch Musicom, 2009.

  • Apel, Willi. The Notation of Polyphonic Music 900–1600, Fourth Edition. Cambridge, MA, USA: The Medieval Academy of America, 1953.

  • Bach, J.S. (ed. Palmer, Willard). J.S. Bach: Inventions and Sinfonias, 2nd Edition. Van Nuys, CA, USA: Alfred Publishing Co., 1991.

  • Balestrieri, Donald. Registers of the Standard Stradella Keyboard Accordion. USA: Accord Magazine, 1979.7

  • Couperin, François. L'Art de Toucher Le Clavecin. France, 1716.

  • Davis, Roger E. The Organists’ Manual. New York: W. W. Norton, 1985.

  • Deyoe, Nicholas. *Lachenmann for the Conductor: Understanding, Learning, and Rehearsing Helmut Lachenmann’s "...zwei Gefühle..." Musik mit Leonardo. UC San Diego, CA, USA: 2008.

  • Doty, David B. The Just Intonation Primer. San Francisco, USA: The Just Intonation Network, 1993.

  • Draugsvoll, Geir & Højsgaard, Erik (translated Borregaard, Andreas). Handbook on Accordion Notation. Copenhagen: The Royal Danish Academy of Music in Copenhagen, 2001.8

  • Drobner, Mieczysław. Instrumentoznawstwo i akustyka (Musical Instruments and Acoustics). Cracow: PWM Edition, 1960 (7th Edition, 2008).

  • Gould, Elaine. Behind Bars. London: Faber Music, 2011.

  • Inglefield, Ruth & Neill, Lou Anne. Writing for the Pedal Harp: Standardized Manual for Composers and Harpists. University of California Press, 1985.

  • Karkoschka, Erhard (tr. Koenig, Ruth). Notation in New Music. Universal Edition, 1972.

  • McCarty, Frank. Notational Standards for Percussion: A Report on the Ghent Conference (from The Instrumentalist, xxix). Northfield, IL: The Instrumentalist Publishing Co., 1975.

  • Neumann, Frederick. Ornamentation in Baroque and Post-Baroque Music. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1978.

  • Peinkofer, Karl & Tannigel, Fritz: Handbuch des Schlagzeugs. Praxis und Technik. Mainz: Schott, 1981.

  • Poulton, Diana. A Tutor for the Renaissance Lute. London, UK: Schott, 1991.

  • Read, Gardner. Twentieth-Century Microtonal Notation. USA: Praeger, 1990.

  • Roland, Perry. Proposal for Encoding Western Music Symbols in ISO/IEC 10646. Virginia: University of Virginia, 1998.

  • Sabat, Marc. The Extended Helmholtz-Ellis JI Pitch Notation. Plainsound Music Edition, 2005.

  • Salzedo, Carlos. Modern Study of the Harp. London: G. Schirmer, 1921.

  • Secor, George & Keenan, David. Sagittal – A Microtonal Notation System. Xenharmonikôn, An Informal Journal of Experimental Music, Volume 18, 2006., 2004.

  • Sevsay, Ertugrul: Handbuch der Instrumentationspraxis. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 2005

  • Simmons, Nikita. A Primer of Kievian Square-Note (Quadratic or Synodal) Notation., 2004.

  • Smith Brindle, Reginald. Contemporary Percussion. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

  • Stiller, Andrew. Handbook of Instrumentation. Philadelphia: Kallisti Music Press, 1994.

  • Stone, Kurt. Music Notation in the Twentieth Century: A Practical Guidebook. New York: W.W. Norton, 1980.

  • Vounelakos, Antonis. Die Konzepte der Flamenco-Gitarrentranskription. Vienna: Universität Wien, 2009.

  • Weinberg, Norman. Guide to Standardized Drumset Notation. Lawton: Percussive Arts Society, Inc., 1998.

  • “Ornaments”, Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed January 24 2013)

  • AGEHR Handbell and Handchime Notation Booklet, 8th ed. Dayton: Lorenz, 2010.9

7. See
8. See
9. A summary of the main notations prescribed in this book can be found at