Understanding Success Criterion 2.4.13: Fixed Reference Points

Success Criterion 2.4.13 Fixed Reference Points (Level A): When a web page or set of web pages is an electronic publication with pagebreak locators, a mechanism is available to navigate to each locator and each locator maintains its place in the flow of content, even when the formatting or platform change.


This understanding document is part of the draft WCAG 2.2 content. It may change or be removed before the final WCAG 2.2 is published.


The purpose of this success criterion is to allow users with disabilities to find references to content based on the page locators found in the default view or printed version of a publication.

The term “on the same page” is common in English to describe when two people are talking about the same thing and agree on the content of the conversation. This success criterion makes sure that all users can literally be on the same page.

Page numbering has long been a fundamental way to identify and communicate the location of written content. They are used constantly in references, footnotes, endnotes, and bibliographies. Particularly, they are critical in academic and learning environments.

Electronic publishing has provided valuable access to content for people who are blind, have low vision, dyslexia or other cognitive disabilities. In order to consume the information the content may be adapted to use a different layout, or presented to them using assistive technology. If there is no clear way to find a specific page from the print version that was referenced by a professor in class, because the electronic version is zoomed-in and that paragraph is on page 145 of the user’s version of the content, the user misses out on valuable and sometimes critical information to understanding the reference.


The term “article” in the success criterion does not refer to the <article> tag in PDF or InDesign.




Each numbered item in this section represents a technique or combination of techniques that the WCAG Working Group deems sufficient for meeting this Success Criterion. However, it is not necessary to use these particular techniques. For information on using other techniques, see Understanding Techniques for WCAG Success Criteria, particularly the "Other Techniques" section.

Sufficient Techniques

  1. H99: Providing a Page List

Key Terms

set of web pages

collection of web pages that share a common purpose and that are created by the same author, group or organization

Examples include a publication which is split across multiple Web pages, where each page contains one chapter or other significant section of the work. The publication is logically a single contiguous unit, and contains navigation features that enable access to the full set of pages.


Different language versions would be considered different sets of Web pages.

web page

a non-embedded resource obtained from a single URI using HTTP plus any other resources that are used in the rendering or intended to be rendered together with it by a user agent


Although any "other resources" would be rendered together with the primary resource, they would not necessarily be rendered simultaneously with each other.


For the purposes of conformance with these guidelines, a resource must be "non-embedded" within the scope of conformance to be considered a Web page.

A Web resource including all embedded images and media.

A Web mail program built using Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX). The program lives entirely at http://example.com/mail, but includes an inbox, a contacts area and a calendar. Links or buttons are provided that cause the inbox, contacts, or calendar to display, but do not change the URI of the page as a whole.

A customizable portal site, where users can choose content to display from a set of different content modules.

When you enter "http://shopping.example.com/" in your browser, you enter a movie-like interactive shopping environment where you visually move around in a store dragging products off of the shelves around you and into a visual shopping cart in front of you. Clicking on a product causes it to be demonstrated with a specification sheet floating alongside. This might be a single-page Web site or just one page within a Web site.