WebDriver is a remote control interface that enables introspection and control of user agents. It provides a platform- and language-neutral wire protocol as a way for out-of-process programs to remotely instruct the behaviour of web browsers.

Provided is a set of interfaces to discover and manipulate DOM elements in web documents and to control the behaviour of a user agent. It is primarily intended to allow web authors to write tests that automate a user agent from a separate controlling process, but may also be used in such a way as to allow in-browser scripts to control a — possibly separate — browser.

The standard forms part of the Web Testing Activity that authors a larger set of tools commonly used for testing.

Conformance

All diagrams, examples, and notes in this specification are non-normative, as are all sections explicitly marked non-normative. Everything else in this specification is normative.

The key words “MUST”, “MUST NOT”, “REQUIRED”, “SHOULD”, “SHOULD NOT”, “RECOMMENDED”, “MAY”, and “OPTIONAL” in the normative parts of this document are to be interpreted as described in [[!RFC2119]]. The key word “OPTIONALLY” in the normative parts of this document is to be interpreted with the same normative meaning as “MAY” and “OPTIONAL”.

Conformance requirements phrased as algorithms or specific steps may be implemented in any manner, so long as the end result is equivalent.

The standard defines four broad conformance classes:

Local End

The local end represents the client side of the protocol, which is usually in the form of language-specific libraries providing an API on top of the WebDriver protocol. This specification does not place any restrictions on the details of those libraries above the level of the wire protocol.

Define the requirements on the local end somewhere.

Remote End
The remote end hosts the server side of the protocol. Defining the behaviour of a remote end in response to the WebDriver protocol forms the largest part of this specification.
Intermediary Node
Intermediary nodes are those that act as proxies, implementing both the client and server sides of the protocol. Intermediary nodes must be black-box indistinguishable from a remote end from the point of view of local end, and so are bound by the requirements on a remote end in terms of the wire protocol. However they are not expected to implement remote end steps directly.
Endpoint Node
An endpoint node is the final remote end in a chain of nodes that is not an intermediary node. The endpoint node is implemented by a user agent or a similar program. An endpoint node must be, like intermediary nodes, indistinguishable from a remote end.

Dependencies

This specification relies on several other underlying specifications.

DOM

The following terms are defined in the Document Object Model specification: [[!DOM]]

The following attributes are defined in the DOM Parsing and Serialisation specification: [[!DOM-PARSING]]

The following attributes are defined in the UI Events specification: [[!UI-EVENTS]]

ECMAScript

The following terms are defined in the ECMAScript Language Specification: [[!ECMA-262]]

This specification also presumes that you are able to call some of the internal methods from the ECMAScript Language Specification:
The ECMAScript Language Specification also defines the following types and values that are used throughout this specification:
Fetch

The following terms are defined in the WHATWG Fetch specification: [[!FETCH]]

HTML

The following terms are defined in the HTML specification: [[!HTML]]

The HTML specification also defines a number of elements which this specification has special-cased behaviour for:

The following types are also defined in the HTML specification, and referenced here:

The HTML Editing APIs specification defines the following terms: [[!EDITING]]

The following events are also defined in the HTML specification:

The “data” URL scheme specification defines the following terms: [[!RFC2397]]

HTTP and related specifications

The following terms are defined in the Cookie specification: [[!RFC6265]]

The following terms are defined in the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Status Code Registry:

The following terms are defined in the Netscape Navigator Proxy Auto-Config File Format:

The specification uses URI Templates. [[!URI-TEMPLATE]]

Styling
The following terms are defined in the CSS Values and Units Module Level 3 specification: [[!CSS3-VALUES]]
The following properties are defined in the CSS Basic Box Model Level 3 specification: [[!CSS3-BOX]]
The following terms are defined in the CSS Device Adaptation Module Level 1 specification: [[!CSS-DEVICE-ADAPT]]
The following properties are defined in the CSS Display Module Level 3 specification: [[!CSS3-DISPLAY]]
The following terms are defined in the Geometry Interfaces Module Level 1 specification: [[!GEOMETRY-1]]
The following terms are defined in the CSS Cascading and Inheritance Level 4 specification: [[!CSS-CASCADE-4]]
The following terms are defined in the CSS Object Model: [[!CSSOM]]:
The following functions are defined in the CSSOM View Module: [[!CSSOM-VIEW]]:
URLs
The following terms are defined in the WHATWG URL standard: [[!URL]]
Web IDL

The IDL fragments in this specification must be interpreted as required for conforming IDL fragments, as described in the Web IDL specification. [[!WEBIDL]]

Terminology

In equations, all numbers are integers, addition is represented by “+”, subtraction is represented by “−”, and bitwise OR by “|”. The characters “(” and “)” are used to provide logical grouping in these contexts.

The shorthand min(value, value[, value]) returns the smallest item of two or more values. Conversely, the shorthand max(value, value[, value]) returns the largest item of two or more values.

An ASCII string is a string in the range U+0000 to U+007F, inclusive.

A Universally Unique IDentifier (UUID) is a 128 bits long URN that requires no central registration process. [[!RFC4122]]

The Unix Epoch is a value that approximates the number of seconds that have elapsed since the Epoch, as described by The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 7 section 4.15 (IEEE Std 1003.1).

Interface

partial interface Navigator {
  readonly attribute boolean webdriver;
};

The webdriver IDL attribute of the Navigator interface must return the value of the webdriver-active flag, which is initially false.

This property allows websites to determine that the user agent is under control by WebDriver, and can be used to help mitigate denial-of-service attacks.

Protocol

WebDriver remote ends must provide an HTTP-based, RESTish wire protocol where the endpoints map to different commands.

As this standard only defines the remote end protocol, it puts no demands to how local ends should be implemented. Local ends are only expected to be compatible to the extent that they can speak the remote end’s protocol; no requierements are made upon their exposed user-facing API.

Algorithms

Various parts of this specification are written in terms of step-by-step algorithms. The details of these algorithms do not have any normative significance; implementations are free to adopt any implementation strategy that produces equivalent output to the specification. In particular algorithms in this document are optimised for readability rather than performance.

Where algorithms that return values are fallible, they are written in terms of returning either success or error. A success value has an associated data field which encapsulates the value returned, whereas an error response has an associated error code.

The result of getting a property with name from an Object is defined as the result of calling the [[\GetOwnProperty]] internal method of with property name name.

Commands

The WebDriver protocol is organised into commands. Each HTTP request with a method and template defined in this specification represents a single command and therefore each command produces a single HTTP response. In response to a command, a remote end will run a series of actions against the remote browser.

Each command defined in this specification has an associated list of remote end steps. This provides the sequence of actions that a remote end takes when it receives a particular command.

Processing Model

The remote end acts as a HTTP server reading requests from the client and writing responses, typically over TCP socket. For the purposes of this specification we model the data transmission between a particular local end and remote end with a connection to which the remote end may write bytes and read bytes. However the exact details of how this connection works and how it is established are out of scope.

After such a connection has been established, a remote end MUST run the following steps:

Should mention what happens if it can’t be decoded as HTTP. Note that Fetch isn’t quite right because it doesn’t specify how to construct a request from network data, or serialize a response.

  1. Read bytes from the connection until a complete HTTP request can be constructed from the data. Let request be a request constructed from the received data, according to the requirements of [[!RFC7230]].

  2. Let request match be the result of the algorithm to match a request with request’s method and URL as arguments.

  3. If request match is of type error, send an error with request match’s error code and jump to step 1.

    Otherwise, let command and url variables be request match’s data.

  4. Let session id be the corresponding variable from url variables.

  5. If command is not New Session:

    1. If session id is not equal to the ID of any session in the list of active sessions, send an error with error code invalid session id, then jump to step 1 in this overall algorithm.

      Otherwise, let the current session be the session with ID session id.

  6. If request’s method is POST:

    1. Let parse result be the result of parsing as JSON with request’s body as the argument.

    2. If parse result is an error or if it is a success but its associated data is not an Object, send an error with error code invalid argument and jump back to step 1 in this overall algorithm.

      Otherwise, let parameters be parse result’s data.

    Otherwise, let parameters be null.

  7. Let response result be the return value obtained by running the remote end steps for command with url variables as arguments.

  8. If response result is an error, send an error with error code equal to response result’s error code.

    Otherwise, if response result is a success, let response data be response result’s data.

  9. Send a response with status 200 and response data.

  10. Jump to step 1.

When required to send an error, with error code, a remote end must run the following steps:

  1. Let http status and name be the error response data for error code.

  2. Let message be an implementation-defined string containing a human-readable description of the reason for the error.

  3. Let stacktrace be an implementation-defined string containing a stack trace report of the active stack frames at the time when the error occurred.

  4. Really need a better way to construct JSON literals.

    Let data be a new JSON Object initialised with the following properties:

    "error"
    Value of name.
    "message"
    Value of message.
    "stacktrace"
    Value of stacktrace.
  5. Send a response with status and data as arguments.

When required to send a response, with arguments status and data, a remote end must run the following steps:

  1. Let response be a new response.

  2. Set response’s HTTP status to status, and status message to the string corresponding to the description of status in the status code registry.

  3. If data is not null, let response’s body be the result of serializing as JSON with data as the argument.

  4. Let response bytes be the byte sequence resulting from serializing response according to the rules in [[!RFC7230]].

  5. Write response bytes to the connection.

Routing Requests

Request routing is the process of going from a HTTP request to the series of steps needed to implement the command represented by that request.

A remote end has an associated URL prefix, which is used as a prefix on all WebDriver-defined URLs on that remote end. This must either be undefined or an path-absolute URL.

In order to match a request given a method and URL, the following steps must be taken:

  1. Let endpoints be a list containing each row in the table of endpoints.

  2. Remove each entry from endpoints for which the concatenation of the URL prefix and the entry’s URI template does not match URL’s path.

  3. If there are no entries in endpoints, return error with error code unknown command.

  4. Remove each entry in endpoints for which the method column is not an exact case-sensitive match for method.

  5. If there are no entries in endpoints, return error with error code unknown method.

  6. There is now exactly one entry in endpoints; let entry be this entry.

  7. Let parameters be the result of extracting the variables from URL using entry’s URI template.

  8. Let command be entry’s command.

  9. Return success with data command and parameters.

List of Endpoints

The following table of endpoints lists the method and URI template for each endpoint node command.

Method URI Template Command
POST /session New Session
DELETE /session/{session id} Delete Session
POST /session/{session id}/url Get
GET /session/{session id}/url Get Current URL
POST /session/{session id}/back Back
POST /session/{session id}/forward Forward
POST /session/{session id}/refresh Refresh
GET /session/{session id}/title Get Title
GET /session/{session id}/window Get Window Handle
DELETE /session/{session id}/window Close Window
POST /session/{session id}/window Switch To Window
GET /session/{session id}/window/handles Get Window Handles
POST /session/{session id}/window/fullscreen Fullscreen Window
POST /session/{session id}/window/maximize Maximize Window
POST /session/{session id}/window/size Set Window Size
GET /session/{session id}/window/size Get Window Size
POST /session/{session id}/frame Switch To Frame
POST /session/{session id}/frame/parent Switch To Parent Frame
POST /session/{session id}/element Find Element
POST /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/element Find Element From Element
POST /session/{session id}/elements Find Elements
POST /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/elements Find Elements From Element
GET /session/{session id}/element/active Get Active Element
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/selected Is Element Selected
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/attribute/{name} Get Element Attribute
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/property/{name} Get Element Property
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/css/{property name} Get Element CSS Value
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/text Get Element Text
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/name Get Element Tag Name
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/rect Get Element Rect
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/enabled Is Element Enabled
GET /session/{session id}/source Get Page Source
POST /session/{session id}/execute/sync Execute Script
POST /session/{session id}/execute/async Execute Async Script
GET /session/{session id}/cookie/{name} Get Cookie
POST /session/{session id}/cookie Add Cookie
DELETE /session/{session id}/cookie/{name} Delete Cookie
DELETE /session/{session id)/cookie Delete All Cookies
POST /session/{session id}/timeouts Set Timeout
POST /session/{session id}/actions Perform Actions
DELETE /session/{session id}/actions Releasing Actions
POST /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/click Element Click
POST /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/clear Element Clear
POST /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/sendKeys Element Send Keys
POST /session/{session id}/alert/dismiss Dismiss Alert
POST /session/{session id}/alert/accept Accept Alert
GET /session/{session id}/alert/text Get Alert Text
POST /session/{session id}/alert/text Send Alert Text
GET /session/{session id}/screenshot Take Screenshot
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/screenshot Take Element Screenshot

Handling Errors

Errors are represented in the WebDriver protocol with a HTTP response with a HTTP status in the 4xx or 5xx range, and a JSON body containing details of the error. This JSON body has three fields: error, containing a string indicating the error type; message, containing an implementation-defined string with a human readable description of the kind of error that occured; and stacktrace, containing an implementation-defined string with a stack trace report of the active stack frames at the time when the error occurred.

The following table lists each error code, its associated HTTP status, JSON error code, and a non-normative description of the error. The error response data for a particular error code is the values of the HTTP Status and JSON Error Code columns for the row corresponding to that error code.

Error Code HTTP Status JSON Error Code Description
element not selectable 400 element not selectable An attempt was made to select an element that cannot be selected.
element not visible 400 element not visible An element command could not be completed because the element is not visible on the page.
invalid argument 400 invalid argument The arguments passed to a command are either invalid or malformed.
invalid cookie domain 400 invalid cookie domain An illegal attempt was made to set a cookie under a different domain than the current page.
invalid element coordinates 400 invalid element coordinates The coordinates provided to an interactions operation are invalid.
invalid element state 400 invalid element state An element command could not be completed because the element is in an invalid state, e.g. attempting to click an element that is no longer attached to the document.
invalid selector 400 invalid selector Argument was an invalid selector.
invalid session id 404 invalid session id Occurs if the given session id is not in the list of active sessions, meaning the session either does not exist or that it’s not active.
javascript error 500 javascript error An error occurred while executing JavaScript supplied by the user.
move target out of bounds 500 move target out of bounds The target for mouse interaction is not in the browser’s viewport and cannot be brought into that viewport.
no such alert 400 no such alert An attempt was made to operate on a modal dialog when one was not open.
no such element 404 no such element An element could not be located on the page using the given search parameters.
no such frame 400 no such frame A request to switch to a frame could not be satisfied because the frame could not be found.
no such window 400 no such window A request to switch to a window could not be satisfied because the window could not be found.
script timeout 408 script timeout A script did not complete before its timeout expired.
session not created 500 session not created A new session could not be created.
stale element reference 400 stale element reference An element command failed because the referenced element is no longer attached to the DOM.
timeout 408 timeout An operation did not complete before its timeout expired.
unable to set cookie 500 unable to set cookie A request to set a cookie’s value could not be satisfied.
unable to capture screen 500 unable to capture screen A screen capture was made impossible.
unexpected alert open 500 unexpected alert open A modal dialog was open, blocking this operation.
unknown command 404 unknown command A command could not be executed because the remote end is not aware of it.
unknown error 500 unknown error An unknown error occurred in the remote end while processing the command.
unknown method 405 unknown method The requested command matched a known URL but did not match an method for that URL.
unsupported operation 500 unsupported operation Indicates that a command that should have executed properly cannot be supported for some reason.

Protocol Extensions

The protocol is designed to allow extension to meet vendor-specific needs. Commands that are specific to a user agent are called extension commands and behave no differently than other commands; each has a dedicated HTTP endpoint and a set of remote end steps.

Each extension command has an associated extension command name that is a lowercased ASCII string, and which should bear some resemblance to what the command performs. The name is used to form an extension command’s URL.

The extension command’s extension command URL is a URL composed of the extension prefix, followed by "/", and the extension command’s name. The extension command URL, along with the HTTP method and extension command, is added to the table of endpoints and thus follows the same rules for request routing as that of other built-in commands.

The remote end’s extension prefix is a lowercased ASCII string that forms a URL path element, separating extension commands from other commands to avoid potential resource conflicts with other implementations. It is suggested that vendors use their vendor prefixes without additional characters as outlined in [[CSS21]], notably in section 4.1.2.2 on vendor keywords, as the name for this path element.

Capabilities

WebDriver capabilities allow the local end to specify what features it desires or requires the remote end to fulfill to be able to create a new session.

The following table provides an overview of recognised capabilities, and their usage and effect:

Capability Key Value Type Description
Browser name "browserName" string Identifies the user agent.
Browser version "browserVersion" string Identifies the version of the user agent.
Platform name "platformName" string Identifies the system or operating system of the endpoint node.
Platform version "platformVersion" string Identifies the system version of the endpoint node.
Accept SSL certificates "acceptSslCerts" boolean Indicates that the endpoint node support invalid SSL certificates.

Implementations are free to use the capabilities dictionary passed in the request to create a new session to provide additional feature requests from any of the remote ends, including the endpoint node. Likewise the remote end may supply additional entries on the capabilities object returned from creating a new session.

When processing capabilities with argument parameters a remote end must run the following steps:

  1. Let server capabilities be a JSON Object with the following entries:

    "browserName"
    The lowercase name of the user agent.
    "browserVersion"
    The version of the user agent.
    "platformName"
    The lowercase name of the platform.
    "platformVersion"
    The version of the platform.
    "acceptSslCerts"
    Be true if the User Agent can handle invalid SSL certifications else let it be false.
  2. Let required capabilities be the result of getting a property named requiredCapabilities from capabilities.

  3. If required capabilities is not a JSON Object, set the value to an empty JSON Object.
  4. Let desired capabilities be the result of getting a property named desiredCapabilities from capabilities.

  5. If desired capabilities is not a JSON Object, set the value to an empty JSON Object.
  6. Let length be the length of required capabilities.

  7. Let k be 0.

  8. While k < length:

    1. Let capability be the entry in required capabilities at index k.

    2. If the name of the capability is among the names of entries in desired capabilities, remove the corresponding entry from desired capabilities.

    3. Increase k by 1.
  9. Let unmet capabilities be an empty JSON List.

  10. Let unprocessed capabilities be a JSON Object that contains all entries from required capabilities and all entries from desired capabilities.

  11. Let j be 0.

  12. Let capabilties length be the length of unprocessed capabilities.

  13. While j < capabilities length:

    1. Let unprocessed capability be the entry at index j in unprocessed capabilities.

    2. If during the steps below the unprocessed capability equals an entry in required capabilities and name of unprocessed capability entry among the names of entries in server capabilities and the values do not match do the following:

      1. Append a string containing the property name and the differences between the values.

    3. Let browser name be the result of getting a property named browserName from unprocessed capability. If browser name is undefined move to the next step.

    4. Let browser version be the result of getting a property named browserVersion from unprocessed capability. If browser version is undefined move to the next step.

    5. Let platform name be the result of getting a property named platformName from unprocessed capability. If platform name is undefined move to the next step.

    6. Let platform version be the result of getting a property named platformVersion from unprocessed capability. If platform version is undefined move to the next step.

    7. Let proxy be the result of getting a property named proxy from unprocessed capability. If proxy is undefined move to the next step. If proxy is defined and not a map, append a string saying that a JSON Object is required, else call set the proxy passing in proxy.

    8. Let page load strategy be the result of getting a property named pageLoadStrategy from unprocessed capability. If page load strategy is undefined, then set the entry pageLoadStrategy in server capabilities to normal.

  14. If the length of unmet capabilities is not equal to 0, return session not created with data unmet capabilities.

  15. Return server capabilities.

To set the proxy from a JSON Object proxy:

  1. Let proxy type be the result of getting a property named proxyType from proxy.

  2. Switch on proxy type:

    "pac"

    If the implementation supports proxy autoconfiguration, set the implementation’s autoproxy configuration URL to proxy autoconfiguration url.

    Otherwise return an error with error code invalid argument.

    "noproxy"

    Set the proxy to No Proxy using implementation defined steps. If this can not be set during this process return error.

    "autodetect"

    Set the proxy to Auto-Detect proxy setting from the network using implementation defined steps. If this can not be set during this process return error.

    "system"

    Set the proxy to use system proxy settings using implementation defined steps. If this can not be set during this process return error.

    "manual"
    1. Let ftp proxy be the result of getting a property named ftpProxy from proxy.

    2. Let ftp proxy port be the result of getting a property named ftpProxyPort from proxy.

    3. Let http proxy be the result of getting a property named httpProxy from proxy.

    4. Let http proxy port be the result of getting a property named httpProxyPort from proxy.

    5. Let ssl proxy be the result of getting a property named sslProxy from proxy.

    6. Let ssl proxy port be the result of getting a property named sslProxyPort from proxy.

    7. Let socks proxy be the result of getting a property named socksProxy from proxy.

    8. Let socks proxy port be the result of getting a property named socksProxyPort from proxy.

    9. If socks proxy and socks proxy port is defined:

      1. Let socks version be the result of getting a property named socksVersion from proxy.

      2. Let socks username be the result of getting a property named socksUsername from proxy.

      3. Let socks password be the result of getting a property named socksPassword from proxy.

    10. Follow implementation defined steps to set the proxy using defined variables from previous steps. If there are items that can not be set during this process return error.

    Otherwise

    Return error with error code invalid argument.

Sessions

A session is equivalent to a single instantiation of a particular user agent, including all its child browsers. WebDriver gives each session a unique session ID that can be used to differentiate one session from another, allowing multiple user agents to be controlled from a single HTTP server, and allowing sessions to be routed via a multiplexer (known as an intermediary node).

A session is started when a New Session is invoked. It is an error to send any commands before starting a session, or to continue to send commands after the session has been closed. Maintaining session continuity between requests to the remote end requires passing a session ID.

A WebDriver session represents the connection between a local end and a specific remote end. A remote end that is not an intermediary node has at most one active session at a given time.

The session is set up at the invocation of a New Session, and torn down at some later point; either explicitly by invoking Delete Session, or implicitly when Close Window is called at the last remaining top-level browsing context.

A remote end has an associated list of active sessions, which is a list of all sessions that are currently started.

Requests, except New Session requests, have an associated current session, which is the session in which that request's command will run.

A remote end has an associated maximum active sessions (an integer) that defines the number of active sessions that are supported. This may be “unlimited” for intermediary nodes, but must be exactly one for a remote end that is an endpoint node.

A session has an associated session ID (a UUID) used to uniquely identify this session. Unless stated otherwise it is null.

A session has an associated current browsing context, which is the browsing context against which commands will run.

A session has an associated current top-level browsing context, which is the current browsing context if it itself is a top-level browsing context, or the top-level browsing context for which the current browsing context is an ancestor browsing context.

The top-level browsing context is said to be no longer open if it has been discarded.

Each top-level browsing context has an associated window handle, which is a string uniquely identifying that browsing context. This string is implementation defined but MUST not be "current".

A session has an associated session script timeout that specifies a time to wait for scripts to run. Unless stated otherwise it is 30,000 milliseconds.

A session has an associated session page load timeout that specifies a time to wait for the page loading to complete. Unless stated otherwise it is 300,000 milliseconds.

A session has an associated session implicit wait timeout that specifies a time to wait for the implicit element location strategy when locating elements using Find Element and Find Elements. Unless stated otherwise it is zero milliseconds.

A session has an associated page loading strategy, which is one of none, normal, and eager. Unless stated otherwise, it is normal.

A session has an associated user prompt handler.

When asked to close the session, a remote end must take the following steps:

  1. Set the webdriver-active flag to false.

  2. Close any top-level browsing contexts associated with the session, without prompting to unload.

  3. Remove the current session from active sessions.

  4. Perform any implementation-specific cleanup steps.

Closing a session might cause the associated browser process to be killed. It is assumed that any implementation-specific cleanup steps are performed after the response has been sent back to the client so that the connection is not prematurely closed.

New Session

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session

The New Session command creates a new WebDriver session with the endpoint node. If the maximum active sessions has been reached, that is if the endpoint node already has a current session, there is a problem processing the given capabilities, or the provisioning of a remote end is impossible, a session not created error is returned.

If the remote end is an intermediary node, they are allowed to freely use the capabilities data e.g. to select a specific browser to test based on a combination of the required and desired capabilities. Typically the New Session response from the endpoint node selected in this process will then be relayed directly to the local end, as outlined in step 1 of the remote end steps.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the remote end is an intermediary node, take implementation-defined steps that either result in returning an error with error code session not created, or in returning a success with data that is isomorphic to that returned by remote ends according to the rest of this algorithm.

  2. If the maximum active sessions is equal to the length of the list of active sessions, return error with error code session not created.

  3. If there is a current user prompt, return error with error code session not created.

  4. Let capabilities be the result of getting a property named "capabilities" from the parameters argument.

  5. Let capabilities result be the result of processing capabilities with capabilities as an argument.

  6. If capabilities result is an error, return error with error code session not created.

  7. Let capabilities be capabilities result’s data.

  8. Let session id be the result of generating a UUID.

  9. Let session be a new session with the session ID of session id.

  10. Set the current session to session.

  11. Append session to active sessions.

  12. Let body be a JSON Object initialised with:

    "sessionId"
    The value of session id.
    "capabilities"
    The value of capabilities result.
  13. Initialise the following if not set while processing capabilities:

    1. Set the current session’s session script timeout to 30,000 milliseconds.

    2. Set the current session’s session page load timeout to 300,000 milliseconds.

    3. Set the current session’s session implicit wait timeout to 0 (zero) milliseconds.

    4. Set the current session’s page loading strategy to normal.

    5. Set the webdriver-active flag to true.

  14. Return success with data body.

Delete Session

HTTP Method Path Template
DELETE /session/{session id}

The Delete Session command closes any top-level browsing contexts associated with the current session, terminates the connection, and finally closes the current session.

The remote end steps are:

  1. Close the session.

  2. Return success with data null.

Set Timeout

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/timeouts

The Set Timeout command sets timeouts associated with the current session. The timeouts that can be controlled are the session script timeout, the session page load timeout, and the session implicit wait timeout.

The following table of session timeouts lists pairs of different timeouts that may be changed with the string codes used to identify them:

Type Identifier
session script timeout "script"
session page load timeout "page load"
session implicit wait timeout "implicit"

The remote end steps for the Set Timeout command are:

  1. For each row in the table of session timeouts, enumerated as type and identifier:

    1. If parameters does not have an own property identifier, continue to the next entry.

    2. Let timeout be the result of getting a property using identifier from parameters.

    3. If timeout is of the Number type and a non-negative integer, set the type timeout to timeout’s value in milliseconds.

      Otherwise, return error with error code invalid argument.

  2. Return success with data null.

Navigation

The commands in this section allow navigation of the current top-level browsing context to new URLs and introspection of the document currently loaded in this browsing context.

For commands that cause a new document to load, the point at which the command returns is determined by the session’s page load strategy. A value of normal causes the command to return after the load event fires on the new page, a value of eager causes it to return after DOMContentLoaded fires, and a value of none causes it to return immediately.

Navigation actions are also affected by the value of the session page load timeout, which determines the maximum time that commands will block before returning with a timeout error.

Get

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/url

The Get command is used to cause the user agent to navigate the current top-level browsing context a new location. From a user’s point of view, it is as if they have entered a URL into the address bar of the browser’s chrome.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts and return its value if it is an error.

  3. Let url be the result of getting a property named "url" from the parameters argument.

  4. If url is undefined, return error with error code invalid argument.

  5. Navigate the current top-level browsing context to url. If this navigation results in a HTTP 401 response, the remote end must proceed with the steps below, irrespective of how the authentication challenge is handled.

  6. If the current session’s page loading strategy is none jump to the next step in this overall set of steps.

    Otherwise:

    1. Let readiness target be "interactive" if the current session’s page loading strategy is eager, or "complete" if it is normal.

    2. Wait for the current document readiness to reach readiness target, or for the session page load timeout milliseconds to pass, whichever occurs sooner.

    3. If the previous step completed by the load timeout being reached, and the browser is not currently displaying an alert, return error with error code timeout.

  7. Set the current browsing context to the current top-level browsing context.

  8. Return success with data null.

Figure out if next paragraph is actually required:

When a page contains a META tag with the "http-equiv" attribute set to "refresh", a response MUST be returned if the timeout is greater than 1 second and the other criteria for determining whether a page is loaded are met. When the refresh period is 1 second or less and the page loading strategy is "normal" or "conservative" implementations MUST wait for the refresh to complete before responding.

Get Current URL

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/url

The Get Current URL command returns the URL of the current top-level browsing context.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts and return its value if it is an error.

  3. Let url be the serialisation of the current top-level browsing context’s active document’s document URL.

  4. Let body be a JSON Object with the "value" property set to url.

  5. Return success with data data.

Back

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/back

The Back command causes the browser to traverse one step backward in the joint session history of the current top-level browsing context. This is equivalent to pressing the back button in the browser chrome or calling window.history.back.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts and return its value if it is an error.

  3. Traverse the history by a delta –1 for the current browsing context.

  4. If the task queued by that algorithm aborted before traversing the history, return success with data null.

  5. Otherwise, wait until the current entry in the session history has changed, or for the session page load timeout milliseconds to pass, whichever occurs sooner.

    This doesn’t actually wait for the page to load if traversing the session history kicks off a navigation.

  6. If the previous step completed by the session page load timeout being reached, and the browser is not currently displaying an alert, return error with error code timeout.

  7. Return success with data null.

Forward

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/forward

The Forward command causes the browser to traverse one step forwards in the joint session history of the current top-level browsing context.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts and return its value if it is an error.

  3. Traverse the history by a delta 1 for the current browsing context.

  4. If the task queued by that algorithm aborted before traversing the history, return success with data null.

  5. Otherwise, wait until the current entry in the session history has changed, or for the session page load timeout milliseconds to pass, whichever occurs sooner.

    This doesn't actually wait for the page to load if traversing the session history kicks off a navigation.

  6. If the previous step completed by the session page load timeout being reached, and the browser is not currently displaying an alert, return error with error code timeout.

  7. Return success with data null.

Refresh

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/refresh

The Refresh command causes the browser to reload the page in in current top-level browsing context.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts and return its value if it is an error.

  3. Not sure if this needs to consider the reload override flag.

    Navigate the current top-level browsing context to the same resource as its active document, with replacement enabled.

  4. If the current session’s page load strategy is none, jump to the next step in this overall set of steps.

    Otherwise:

    1. Let readiness target be "interactive" if the current session’s page load strategy is eager, or "complete" if it is normal.

    2. Wait for the current document readiness to reach readiness target, or for the session page load timeout milliseconds to pass, whichever occurs sooner.

    3. If the previous step completed by the load timeout being reached, and the browser is not currently displaying an alert, return error with error code timeout.

  5. Return success with data null.

Get Title

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/title

The Get Title command returns the document title of the current top-level browsing context, equivalent to calling window.top.document.title.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts and return its value if it is an error.

  3. Let title be the value of the current top-level browsing context's active document's title.

  4. Let data be a new JSON Object.

  5. Set the property "value" of data to the value of title.

  6. Return success with data data.

Invalid SSL Certificates

Warning: This section has not yet been redefined to match the routing requests model, and uses old concepts and definitions. Please do not rely on it yet.

Capability Name Type
secureSsl boolean

WebDriver implementations MUST support users accessing sites served via HTTPS. Access to those sites using self-signed or invalid certificates, and where the certificate does not match the serving domain MUST be the same as if the HTTPS was configured properly.

The reason for this is that implementations of this spec are often used for testing. It's a sorry fact that many QA engineers and testers are asked to verify that apps work on sites that have insecure HTTPS configurations.

The exception to requirement is if the Capabilities used to initialize has the WebDriver session had the capability secureSsl set to true. In this case, implementations MAY choose to make accessing a site with bad HTTPS configurations cause a WebDriverException to be thrown. Remote end implementations MUST return an unknown error error code in this case. If this is the case, the Capabilities describing the session MUST also set the secureSsl capability to "true".

Command Contexts

Many WebDriver commands happen in the context of either the current browsing context or current top-level browsing context. The current top-level browsing context is represented in the protocol by its associated window handle. A top-level browsing context is selected using the Switch To Window command. Once this is done, a specific browsing context can be selected using the Switch to Frame command.

The use of the term “window” to refer to a top-level browsing context is legacy and doesn’t correspond with either the operating system notaion of a “window” or the DOM Window object.

In accordance with the focus section of the [[!HTML]] specification, commands are unaffected by whether the operating system window has focus or not.

Get Window Handle

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/window

The Get Window Handle command returns the window handle for the current top-level browsing context. It can be used as an argument to Switch To Window.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Let data be a new JSON Object.

  3. Set the property "value" on data to the value of the window handle associated with the current top-level browsing context.

  4. Return success with data data.

Close Window

HTTP Method Path Template
DELETE /session/{session id}/window

The remote end steps for the Close Window command are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. This can prompt unload, in which case the operation really failed.

    Close the current top-level browsing context.

  3. If there are no more open top-level browsing contexts, then close the session.

  4. Return the result of running the remote end steps for the Get Window Handles command.

Switch To Window

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/window

The Switch To Window command is used to select the current top-level browsing context for the current session, i.e. the one that will be used for processing commands.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If there is an active user prompt, that due to the uniqueness of the user agent prevents the focussing of another top-level browsing context, return error with error code unsupported operation.

  2. Let handle be the result of getting a property named "handle" from the parameters argument.

  3. If handle is equal to the associated window handle for some top-level browsing context in the current session, set the session’s current top-level browsing context to that browsing context, and return success with data null.

    Otherwise, return error with error code no such window.

Get Window Handles

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/window/handles

The Get Window Handles command returns a list of window handles for every open top-level browsing context. The order in which the window handles are returned is arbitary.

The remote end steps are:

  1. Let handles be a JSON List.

  2. For each top-level browsing context in the remote end, push the associated window handle onto handles.

  3. Let body be a JSON object with the property "value" set to handles.

  4. Return success with data body.

Switch To Frame

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/frame

The Switch To Frame command is used to select the current top-level browsing context or a child browsing context of the current browsing context to use as the current browsing context for subsequent commands.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts and return its value if it is an error.

  3. Let id be the result of getting a property named "id" from the parameters argument.

  4. Run the substeps of the first matching condition:

    id is null
    1. Set the current browsing context to the current top-level browsing context.

    id is a Number object
    1. If id is less than 0 or greater than 216 – 1, return error with error code no such frame.

    2. Let window be the associated window of the current browsing context’s active document.

    3. If id is not a supported property index of window, return error with error code no such frame.

    4. Let child window be the WindowProxy object obtained by determining the value of an indexed property of window with index id.

    5. Set the current browsing context to new window’s browsing context.

    id represents a web element
    1. Note that representing a web element will have to do the same document checks, or something.

      Let element be the result of getting a known element by UUID id.

    2. If element is not a frame or iframe element, return error with error code no such frame.

    3. Set the current browsing context to element’s nested browsing context.

    Otherwise
    1. Return error with error code no such frame.

  5. Return success with data null.

WebDriver is not bound by the same origin policy, so it is always possible to switch into child browsing contexts, even if they are different origin to the current browsing context.

Switch To Parent Frame

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/frame/parent

The Switch to Parent Frame command sets the current browsing context for future commands to the parent of the current browsing context.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts and return its value if it is an error.

  3. If the current browsing context is not equal to the current top-level browsing context, set the current browsing context to the parent browsing context of the current browsing context.

  4. Return success with data null.

Resizing and Positioning Windows

WebDriver provides commands for interacting with the operating system window containing the current browsing context. Because different operating system's window managers provide different abilities, not all of the commands in this section can be supported by all remote ends. Where a command is not supported, an unsupported operation error is returned.

Get Window Size

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{sessionId}/window/size

The Get Window Size command returns the size of the operating system window corresponding to the current top-level browsing context.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts and return its value if it is an error.

  3. Return success with the following JSON Object:

    "width"
    The width of the top-level browsing context’s outer dimensions, including any browser chrome and externally drawn window decorations in CSS reference pixels.
    "height"
    The height of the top-level browsing context’s outer dimensions, including any browser chrome and externally drawn window decorations in CSS reference pixels.

In some user agents the operating system’s window dimensions including decorations, are provided by the proprietary window.outerWidth and window.outerHeight [[!DOM]] properties.

Set Window Size

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/window/size

The Set Window Size command alters the size of the operating system window corresponding to the current top-level browsing context.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts and return its value if it is an error.

  3. If the remote end does not support the Set Window Size command for the current top-level browsing context for any reason, return error with error code unsupported operation.

  4. Let width be the result of getting a property named width from the parameters argument.

  5. Let height be the result of getting a property named height from the parameters argument.

  6. Set the width, in CSS reference pixels, of the operating system window containing the current top-level browsing context, including any browser chrome and externally drawn window decorations to a value that is as close as possible to width.

  7. Set the height, in CSS reference pixels, of the operating system window containing the current top-level browsing context, including any browser chrome and externally drawn window decorations to a value that is as close as possible to height.

  8. Return the value of running Get Window Size.

The specification does not guarantee that the resulting window size will exactly match that which was requested. In particular the implementation is expected to clamp values that are larger than the physical screen dimensions, or smaller than the minimum window size. Particular implemetations may have other limitations such as not being able to resize in single-pixel increments.

Maximize Window

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/window/maximize

The Maximize Window command invokes the window manager-specific “maximize” operation, if any, on the window containing the current top-level browsing context. This typically increases the window to the maximum available size without going full-screen.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts and return its value if it is an error.

  3. If the remote end does not support the Maximize Window command for the current top-level browsing context for any reason, return error with error code unsupported operation.

  4. Run the implementation-specific steps to increase the dimensions of the operating system level window containing the current top-level browsing context to the maximum available size allowed by the window manager.

  5. Return success with data null.

Fullscreen Window

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/window/fullscreen

The Fullscreen Window command invokes the window manager-specific “full screen” operation, if any, on the window containing the current top-level browsing context. This typically increases the window to the size of the physical display and can hide browser UI elements such as toolbars.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts and return its value if it is an error.

  3. If the remote end does not support the Fullscreen Window command for the current top-level browsing context for any reason, return error with error code unsupported operation.

  4. Run the implementation-specific steps, which should have the effect of making the dimensions of the window containing the current top-level browsing context as close as possible to the dimensions of the display containing the window, and may hide browser-provided UI such as toolbars.

  5. Return success with data null.

Elements

A web element is an abstraction used to identify an element when it is transported across the protocol, between remote- and local ends.

The web element identifier is a constant with the string "element-6066-11e4-a52e-4f735466cecf".

Each element has an associated web element reference (a UUID) that uniquely identifies the the element across all browsing contexts. The web element reference for every element representing the same element is the same.

An ECMAScript Object represents a web element if it has a web element identifier own property holding a UUID value.

Each browsing context has an associated list of known elements. When the browsing context is discarded, the list of known elements is discarded along with it.

To get a known element by a UUID reference, return success with the known element which web element reference matches reference. If there are none, return error with error code no such element.

To create a web element reference for an element:

  1. For each known element of the current browsing context’s known elements:

    1. If known element equals element, return success with known element’s web element reference.

  2. Let new reference be the result of generating a new UUID.

  3. Set element’s web element reference to new reference.

  4. Append element to the known elements of the current browsing context.

  5. Return success with data element’s web element reference.

When asked to serialize the element element:

  1. Let object be a new JSON Object with properties:

    web element identifier

    Value of element’s web element reference.

  2. Return object.

When required to deserialize the web element by a JSON Object object that represents a web element:

  1. If object has no own property web element identifier, return error with error code invalid argument.

  2. Let reference be the result of getting the web element identifier property from object.

  3. Let element result be the result of getting a known element by UUID reference.

  4. If element result is a success, let element be element result’s data.

    Otherwise, return element result.

  5. Return success with data element.

A stale element is a reference to a node that has been disconnected from the current browsing context’s DOM. To determine if an element is stale, run the following substeps:

  1. Let document be the current browsing context’s document element.

  2. If element is not in the same tree as document, return true.

  3. Otherwise return false.

An element is scrolled into view by calling scrollIntoView().

An element is considered editable if it is either an input element whose type attribute is not in the Button, Hidden, Image Button, Reset Button, or Submit Button states, or a textarea element, or is content editable.

An element is said to have pointer events disabled if the resolved value of its "pointer-events" style property is "none".

An element is to be considered read only if it is an input element whose readOnly attribute is set.

Element Interactability

In order to determine if an element can be interacted with using pointer actions, WebDriver performs hit-testing to find if the interaction will be able to reach the requested element.

An interactable element is an element which is either pointer-interactable or keyboard-interactable.

A pointer-interactable element is defined to be the first non-transparent element, defined by the paint order found at the centre point of its rectangle that is inside the viewport, excluding the size of any rendered scrollbars.

In order to produce a pointer-interactable elements tree from an element:

  1. If element is not in the same tree as the current browsing context’s active document, return an empty sequence.

  2. Let visible width be element’s bounding rectangle’s (max(x coordinate, x coordinate + width dimension) – the current browsing context’s innerWidth).

  3. Let visible height be element’s bounding rectangle’s (max(y coordinate, y coordinate + height dimension) – the current browsing context’s innerWidth).

  4. Let vertical centre offset be (visible width / 2.0).

  5. Let horizontal centre offset be (visible height / 2.0).

  6. Let centre point be a pair of element’s (rectangle x coordinate + horizontal centre offset) and (rectangle y coordinate + vertical centre offset).

  7. Return the elements from point given the coordinates centre point.

To get the first pointer-interactable element given a pointer-interactable elements tree, return with success the first element which style property opacity has the computed value of "1"; otherwise return an error.

Get Active Element

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/element/active

Get Active Element returns the active element of the current browsing context’s document element.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts and return its value if it is an error.

  3. Let active element be the active element of the current browsing context’s document element.

  4. Let active web element be the serialization of the element active element.

  5. Return success with data active web element.

Element Retrieval

The Find Element and Find Elements commands allows look up of individual and a collection of elements, respectively. Elements are serialised and returned as web elements. Web element references are needed to interact with individual elements.

An element location strategy is an enumerated attribute which decides what technique should be used to search for elements in the current browsing context. The following table lists the keywords and states defined for this attribute:

State Keyword
CSS selector "css selector"
Link text selector "link text"
Partial link text selector "partial link text"
XPath selector "xpath"

Warning: This rest of this section has not yet been redefined to match the routing requests model, and uses old concepts and definitions. Please do not rely on it yet.

CSS Selectors

Strategy name: css selector

If a browser supports the CSS Selectors API ([[!SELECTORS-API]]) it MUST support locating elements by CSS Selector. If the browser does not support the browser CSS Selector spec it MAY choose to implement locating by this mechanism. If the browser can support locating elements by CSS Selector, it MUST set the "cssSelector" capability to boolean true when responding to the newSession(). Elements MUST be returned in the same order as if "querySelectorAll" had been called with the Locator's value. Compound selectors are allowed.

ECMAScript

Finding elements by ecmascript is covered in the ecmascript part of this spec.

Link Text

Strategy name: link text

This strategy MUST be supported by all WebDriver implementations.

This strategy MUST return all "a" elements with visible text exactly and case sensitively equal to the term being searched for.

This is equivalent to:

            elements = driver.find_elements(by = By.TAG_NAME, value = "a")
            result = []
            for element in elements:
              text = element.text
              if text == search_term:
                result.append(element)
          

Where "search_term" is the link text being searched for, and "result" contains the list of elements to return.

Partial Link Text

Strategy name: partial link text

This strategy MUST be supported by all WebDriver implementations.

This strategy is very similar to link text, but rather than matching the entire string, only a subset needs to match. That is, this MUST return all "a" elements with visible text that partially or completely and case sensitively matches the term being searched for.

This is equivalent to:

            elements = driver.find_elements(by = By.TAG_NAME, value = "a")
            result = []
            for element in elements:
              text = element.text
              if text.search(seach_term) != -1:
                result.append(element)
          

Where "search_term" is the link text being searched for, and "result" contains the list of elements to return.

XPath

Strategy name: xpath

All WebDriver implementations MUST support finding elements by XPath 1.0 [[!XPATH]] with the edits from section 3.3 of the [[!html51]] specification made. If no native support is present in the browser, a pure JS implementation MAY be used. When called, the returned values MUST be equivalent of calling "evaluate" function from [[!DOM-LEVEL-3-XPATH]] with the result type set to ORDERED_NODE_SNAPSHOT_TYPE (7).

When the findElement() or findElements() WebDriver Command is called the following must be parameters after the local end has made a request to the remote end:

  1. Let using contain the Element Location Strategy. If it is not a valid stategy:
    • Set the HTTP Response status code to 500
    • Let status be equal to Invalid Selector
    • Let value be a statement that the strategy is invalid. It MAY return a list of valid search strategies.
  2. Let value contain a string that will be passed to the Element Location Strategy call. If value is an empty string or null:
    • Set the HTTP Response status code to 500
    • Let status be equal to Invalid Selector
    • Let value to a stating that the strategy is invalid. It MAY return a list of valid search strategies.
  3. Call the relevant Element Location Strategy and return what is described in findElement() or findElements() WebDriver Command described below.

Find Element

Warning: This section has not yet been redefined to match the routing requests model, and uses old concepts and definitions. Please do not rely on it yet.

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/element
  1. Let id be an identifier for a DOMElement returned from Element Location Strategy. If a NodeList is returned, the first element in the NodeList MUST be used.

    If id is empty:

    • Let the HTTP response status code be 501
    • Let status contain the error no such element
    • Let value contain the details of the search contained in using and value above.

    If an error is returned from Element Location Strategy do the following.(todo describe how the error is returned)

    • Let the HTTP response status code be 501
    • Let status contain the error invalid selector
    • Let value contain the details of the search contained in using and value above.
  2. Let result be equal to {"element-6066-11e4-a52e-4f735466cecf": id}
  3. Return result. The object returned will look like the following:
    {
    "value": {"element-6066-11e4-a52e-4f735466cecf": id}
    }

When searching from an element from another element the following algorithm should be used:

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/element
  1. Let element be the start node for the query in the Element Location Strategy
  2. Let id be a unique identifier for the DOMElement returned from Element Location Strategy. If a NodeList is returned, the first DOMElement in the NodeList MUST be used.

    If id is empty:

    • Let the HTTP response status code be 501
    • Let status contain the error no such element
    • Let value contain the details of the search contained in using and value above.

    If an error is returned from Element Location Strategy do the following.(todo describe how the error is returned)

    • Let the HTTP response status code be 501
    • Let status contain the error invalid selector
    • Let value contain the details of the search contained in using and value above.
  3. Let result be equal to {"element-6066-11e4-a52e-4f735466cecf": id}
  4. Return result. The object returned will look like the following:
    {
    "value": {"element-6066-11e4-a52e-4f735466cecf": id}
    }

Find Elements

Warning: This section has not yet been redefined to match the routing requests model, and uses old concepts and definitions. Please do not rely on it yet.

When there is a need to find multiple elements on a document that we can return to the local end we use the following algorithm:

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/elements
  1. Let result be equal to an empty list
  2. Let queryResult be a NodeList returned from Element Location Strategy
  3. Repeat for every value in queryResult if not an empty set else return result
    1. Let id be the unique identifier for the DOMElement.
    2. Append {"element-6066-11e4-a52e-4f735466cecf": id} to result
  4. Return result. The object returned will look like the following:
    {
    "value": [{"element-6066-11e4-a52e-4f735466cecf": id}, {"element-6066-11e4-a52e-4f735466cecf": id}]
    }

When there is a need to search from an element to find the next WebElement we use the following algorithm:

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/elements
  1. Let result be equal to an empty list.
  2. Let element be the start node for the query in the Element Location Strategy
  3. Let queryResult be a NodeList returned from Element Location Strategy
  4. Repeat for every value in queryResult if not an empty set else return result
    1. Let id be the unique identifier for the DOMElement.
    2. Append {"element-6066-11e4-a52e-4f735466cecf": id} to result
  5. Return result. The object returned will look like the following:
    {
    "value": [{"element-6066-11e4-a52e-4f735466cecf": id}, {"element-6066-11e4-a52e-4f735466cecf": id}]
    }

Element State

To calculate the absolute position of element:

  1. Let x and y both be 0.

  2. While element’s offsetParent is not null:

    1. Set x to (x + element’s offsetLeft).

    2. Set y to (y + element’s offsetTop).

    3. Set element to element’s offsetParent.

  3. Return a pair of (x, y).

When a node is said to be not in the same tree as another node, other, the following steps must be taken:

  1. If the node’s ownerDocument attribute is not other, return true.

  2. If the result of calling the node’s compareDocumentPosition with other as argument is DOCUMENT_POSITION_DISCONNECTED (1), return true.

  3. Return false.

Is Element Selected

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/selected

Is Element Selected determines if the referenced element is selected or not. This operation only makes sense on input elements of the Checkbox- and Radio Button states, or option elements.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts and return its value if it is an error.

  3. Let element result be the result of getting a known element by UUID reference element id.

  4. If element result is a success, let element be element result’s data.

    Otherwise, return element result.

  5. If element is stale, return error with error code stale element reference.

  6. Let selected be the value corresponding to the first matching statement:

    element is an input with a type attribute in the Checkbox- or Radio Button state

    The result of element’s checkedness.

    element is an option element

    The result of element’s selectedness.

    Otherwise
    False.
  7. Let body be a JSON Object with the "value" member set to selected.

  8. Return success with data body.

Get Element Attribute

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/attribute/{name}

The Get Element Attribute command will return the attribute of a web element.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts and return its value if it is an error.

  3. Let element result be the result of getting a known element by UUID reference element id.

  4. If element result is a success, let element be element result’s data.

    Otherwise, return element result.

  5. If element is stale, return error with error code stale element reference.

  6. If name is undefined, return error with error code invalid argument.

  7. Let result be the result of the first appropriate step below:
    If name is a boolean attribute

    "true" (string) if the element has the attribute, otherwise null.

    Otherwise

    The result of getting an attribute by name name.

  8. Let body be a JSON Object with the "value" member set to result.

  9. Return success with data body.

Please note that the behaviour of this command deviates from the behaviour of getAttribute in [[DOM]], which in the case of a set boolean attribute would return an empty string. The reason this command returns true as a string is because this evaluates to true in most dynamically typed programming languages, but still preserves the expected type information.

Get Element Property

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/property/{name}

The Get Element property command will return the result of getting a property of a element.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts and return its value if it is an error.

  3. Let element result be the result of getting a known element by UUID reference element id.

  4. If element result is a success, let element be element result’s data.

    Otherwise, return element result.

  5. If element is stale, return error with error code stale element reference.

  6. Let property be the result of calling the [[\GetProperty]] internal method of element with property name name.

  7. Let result be the value of property if not undefined, or null.

  8. Let body be a JSON Object with the "value" property set to result.

  9. Return success with data body.

Get Element CSS Value

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/css/{property name}

The Get Element CSS Value command retrieves the computed value of the given CSS property of the given web element.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts and return its value if it is an error.

  3. Let element result be the result of getting a known element by UUID parameter element id.

  4. If element result is a success, let element be element result’s data.

    Otherwise, return element result.

  5. If element is stale, return error with error code stale element reference.

  6. Let computed value be the computed value of parameter property name from element’s style declarations if the current browsing context’s document type is not "xml", else let it be "".

  7. Let body be a JSON Object with the "value" member set to computed value.

  8. Return success with data body.

getElementText()

Warning: This section has not yet been redefined to match the routing requests model, and uses old concepts and definitions. Please do not rely on it yet.

There is concern that element text visibility is not something WebDriver should define because there does not exist enough platform primitives to future-proof it. Specifically this relates to technologies such as web components and shadow DOM. Note that a decision on this matter will also affect the future of the elements selector strategies for link text and partial link text.

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/text

The following definitions are used in this section:

Whitespace
Any text that matches the ECMAScript regular expression class \s.
Whitespace excluding non-breaking spaces
Any text that matches the ECMAScript regular expression [^\S\xa0]
Block level element
A block-level element is one which is not a table cell, and whose effective CSS display style is not in the set ['inline', 'inline-block', 'inline-table', 'none', 'table-cell', 'table-column', 'table-column-group']
Horizontal whitespace characters
Horizontal whitespace characters are defined by the ECMAScript regular expression [\x20\t\u2028\u2029].

The expected return value is roughly what a text-only browser would display. The algorithm for determining this text is as follows:

Let lines equal an empty array. Then:

  1. if the element is in the head element of the document, return an empty string otherwise carry on with the algorithm below.
  2. For each descendent of node, at time of execution, in order:
    1. Get whitespace, text-transform, and then, if descendent is:
      • a node which is not displayed, do nothing
      • a [[!DOM]] text node let text equal the nodeValue property of descendent. Then:
        1. Remove any zero-width spaces (\u200b, \u200e, \u200f), form feeds (\f) or vertical tab feeds (\v) from text.
        2. Canonicalize any recognized single newline sequence in text to a single newline (greedily matching (\r\n|\r|\n) to a single \n)
        3. If the parent's effective CSS whitespace style is 'normal' or 'nowrap' replace each newline (\n) in text with a single space character (\x20). If the parent's effective CSS whitespace style is 'pre' or 'pre-wrap' replace each horizontal whitespace character with a non-breaking space character (\xa0). Otherwise replace each sequence of horizontal whitespace characters except non-breaking spaces (\xa0) with a single space character
        4. Apply the parent's effective CSS text-transform style as per the CSS 2.1 specification ([[!CSS21]])
        5. If last(lines) ends with a space character and text starts with a space character, trim the first character of text.
        6. Append text to last(lines) in-place
      • an element which is displayed. If the element is a:
        • BR element: Push '' to lines and continue
        • Block-level element and if last(lines) is not '', push '' to lines.
        And then recurse depth-first to step 1 at the beginning of the algorithm with descendent set to the current element
      • If element is a TD element, or the effective CSS display style is 'table-cell', and last(lines) is not '', and last(lines) does not end with whitespace append a single space character to last(lines) [Note: Most innerText implementations append a \t here]
      • If element is a block-level element: push '' to lines
  3. The string MUST then have the white space normalised as defined in the [[!XPATH]] normalize-space function which is then returned.

If the ELEMENT does not represent a Document element, or it represents a Document element that is no longer attached to the document's node tree, then the WebDriver implementation MUST immediately abort the command and return a stale element reference error. If the top level browsing context currently receiving commands is no longer open a no such window error MUST be raised.

Get Element Tag Name

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/name

The Get Element Tag Name command returns the qualified tag name name of the given web element.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts and return its value if it is an error.

  3. Let element result be the result of getting a known element by UUID reference parameter element id.

  4. If element result is an error, return element result.

  5. Let element be element result’s data.

  6. If element is stale, return error with error code stale element reference.

  7. Let qualified name be the result of getting element’s tagName content attribute.

  8. Let body be a JSON Object with the "value" member set to qualified name.

  9. Return success with data body.

Get Element Rect

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/rect

The Get Element Rect command returns the dimensions and coordinates of the given web element. The returned value is a dictionary with the following members:

x
X axis position of the top-left corner of the web element relative to the current browsing context’s document element in CSS reference pixels.
y
Y axis position of the top-left corner of the web element relative to the current browsing context’s document element in CSS reference pixels.
height
Height of the web element’s bounding rectangle in CSS reference pixels.
width
Width of the web element’s bounding rectangle in CSS reference pixels.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts and return its value if it is an error.

  3. Let element result be the result of getting a known element by UUID reference parameter element id.

  4. If element result is an error, return element result.

  5. Let element be element result’s data.

  6. If the element is stale, return error with error code stale element reference.

  7. Calculate the absolute position of element and let it be coordinates.

  8. Let rect be element’s bounding rectangle.

  9. Let body be a new JSON Object initialised with:

    "x"
    The first value of coordinates.
    "y"
    The second value of coordinates.
    "width"
    Value of rect’s width dimension.
    "height"
    Value of rect’s height dimension.
  10. Return success with data body.

Is Element Enabled

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/enabled

Is Element Enabled determines if the referenced element is enabled or not. This operation only makes sense on form controls.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts and return its value if it is an error.

  3. Let element result be the result of getting a known element by UUID reference element id.

  4. If element result is a success, let element be element result’s data.

    Otherwise, return element result.

  5. If element is stale, return error with error code stale element reference.

  6. Let enabled be a boolean initially set to true if the current browsing context’s document type is not "xml".

    Otherwise, let enabled to false and jump to the last step of this algorithm.

  7. Set enabled to false if a form control is disabled.

  8. Let body be a JSON object with the "value" member set to enabled.

  9. Return success with data body.

Element Interaction

The element interaction commands provide a high-level instruction set for manipulating form controls. Unlike the Actions interface, they will implicitly scroll elements into view and check that it is an interactable element.

Element Click

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/click

The Element Click command scrolls into view the element and then attempts to click the centre of the visible area of the first element of the DOMRectList array. In case the element is not displayed, an element not visible error is returned.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Let element result be the result of getting a known element by UUID reference element id.

  3. Let element be element result’s data if it is a success. Otherwise return element result.

  4. If element is not displayed, return error with error code element not visible.

  5. Scroll into view the element.

  6. DOMRectList has disappeared from [[GEOMETRY-1]] and been replaced by ArrayClass, but there is no reference to it

  7. Let rect be the rectangle that is the first element of the DOMRectList array returned by calling getClientRects on element.

  8. Let visible width be rect’s bounding rectangle’s (max(x coordinate, x coordinate + width dimension)).

  9. Let visible height be element’s bounding rectangle’s (max(y coordinate, y coordinate + height dimension)).

  10. Let vertical centre offset be (visible width / 2.0).

  11. Let horizontal centre offset be (visible height / 2.0).

  12. Let centre point be a pair of rect’s (rectangle x coordinate + horizontal centre offset) and (rectangle y coordinate + vertical centre offset)

  13. Run interaction steps on coordinate.

  14. Return success with data null.

Element Clear

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/clear

The Element Clear command scrolls into view a submittable element excluding buttons or editable element, and then attempts to clear its value, checkedness, or text content.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Let element result be the result of getting a known element by UUID reference element id.

  3. Let element be element result’s data if it is a success. Otherwise return element result.

  4. If element is not displayed, return error with error code element not visible.

  5. If element is disabled, non-editable, read only, or has pointer events disabled, return error with error code invalid element state.

  6. Scroll into view the element.

  7. If element is editable, set its innerHTML IDL attribute to an empty string.

    Otherwise:

    1. Match on element’s type attribute:
      Checkbox state
      Radio Button state

      Set the checkedness to false.

      Otherwise

      Set the value to an empty string.

    2. Fire a change event.

  8. Return success with data null.

Element Send Keys

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/sendKeys

The Element Send Keys command scrolls into view the form control element and then sends the provided keys to the element. In case the element is not displayed, an element not visible error is returned.

Should this also work for contenteditable elements?

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Let element result be the result of getting a known element by UUID reference element id.

  3. Let element be element result’s data if it is a success. Otherwise return element result.

  4. If element is not displayed, return error with error code element not visible.

  5. Scroll into view the element.

  6. Interact with the element.

  7. Return success with data null.

Document Handling

Getting Page Source

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/source

The Get Page Source command returns a string serialisation of the DOM of the current browsing context active document.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts and return its value if it is an error.

  3. Let source be the result returned from the outerHTML IDL Attribute of the Document Element of the current browsing context active document.

  4. If source is null:

    Let source be the result of serialising to string the the current browsing context active document.

  5. Return success with data source.

Executing Script

When required to JSON deserialize with argument value, and optional argument seen, a remote end must run the following steps:

  1. If seen was not provided, let seen be an empty set.

  2. Jump to the first appropriate step below:

    If value is null, or has type Boolean, Number or String:

    Return success with data value.

    If value is an Object that represents a web element:

    Return the result of running the deserialize the web element algorithm with object value.

    If value if value is an Array object or an Object object:

    Return the result of running the clone an object algorithm with arguments value and seen, and the JSON deserialize algorithm as the clone algorithm.

    Otherwise:

    Return error with error code javascript error.

When required to make a JSON clone with argument value, a remote end must run the following steps:

  1. Let seen be an empty set.

  2. Return the result of calling the internal JSON clone algorithm with arguments value and seen.

When required to run the internal JSON clone algorithm with arguments value and seen, a remote end must return the value of the first matching statement, matching on value:

undefined
null

Success with data null.

type Boolean
type Number
type String

Success with data value.

instance of element

Serialize the element with argument value.

instance of NodeList
instance of HTMLCollection
instance of Array
instance of Object
  1. If value is in seen, return error with error code javascript error.

  2. Add value to seen.

  3. Produce the value of running the clone an object algorithm with arguments value and seen, and the internal JSON clone algorithm as the clone algorithm.

Otherwise

Error with error code javascript error.

When required to clone an object with arguments value and seen and clone algorithm, run the following steps:

  1. Let result be the value of the first matching statement, switching on value:

    instance of NodeList
    instance of HTMLCollection
    instance of Array

    A new Array object, which length property has the result of getting a property named "length" from value.

    Otherwise

    A new Object object.

  2. For each enumerable own property in value, run the following substeps:

    1. Let name be the name of the property.

    2. Let source property value be the result of getting a property named name from value. If doing so causes script to be run, and that script throws an exception, return error with error code javascript error.

    3. Let cloned property result be the result of calling the clone algorithm with arguments source property value and seen.

    4. If cloned property result is a success, set a property of result with name name and value equal to cloned property result’s data.

    5. Otherwise, return cloned property result.

The steps for extracting the script arguments from a request are:

  1. If the current browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Let script be the result of getting a property named script from the parameters argument.

  3. If script is not a String, return error with error code invalid argument.

  4. Let args be the result of getting a property named args from the parameters argument.

  5. If args is not an Object or its [[\Class]] internal property is not Array or Object, return error with error code invalid argument.

  6. Let arguments be a List consisting of a json deserialization of each item in args with the order preserved.

  7. Return success with data script and arguments.

When required to execute a function body with arguments body and arguments, a remote end must run the following steps:

  1. Let window be the associated window of the current browsing context’s active document.

  2. Let environment settings be the environment settings object for window.

  3. Let script environment be the script execution environment for JavaScript obtained from environment settings.

  4. If body is not parsable as a FunctionBody or if parsing detects an early error, return error with error code javascript error.

  5. If body begins with a directive prologue that contains a use strict directive then let strict be true, otherwise let strict be false.

  6. Using the script execution environment script environment, let function be the result of calling create a function object with parameter list of an empty List, body body, scope of the global environment, and strict flag strict.

  7. Let script be a new script.

  8. Let script’s code entry-point be function.

  9. Let script’s settings object object be script settings.

  10. Invoke the [[\Call]] internal method of function, providing window as the this value and parameters as the argument values. If doing so does not produce an exception, let result be success with data set to the return value from this function call. Otherwise let result be error with error code javascript error.

  11. If result is an error, return result.

  12. Otherwise let json data be a JSON clone of result’s data.

  13. Return success with data json data.

Execute Script

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/execute/sync

The Execute Script command executes a JavaScript function in the context of the current browsing context and returns the return value of the function.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts, and return its value if it is an error.

  3. Let script arguments be the result of extracting the script arguments from a request with argument parameters.

  4. If script arguments is an error, return script arguments.

  5. Let body and arguments be script arguments’ data.

  6. Let result be the result of calling execute a function body, with arguments body and arguments.

  7. If result is an error, return result.

    Otherwise let value be result’s data.

  8. Let data be a new JSON Object.

  9. Set the property "value" of data to value.

  10. Return success with data data.

Execute Async Script

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/execute/async

The Execute Async Script command causes JavaScript to execute as an anonymous function. Unlike the Execute Script command, the result of the function is ignored. Instead an additional argument is provided as the final argument to the function. This is a function that, when called, returns its first argument as the response.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts, and return its value if it is an error.

  3. Let script arguments be the result of extracting the script arguments from a request with argument parameters.

  4. If script arguments is an error, return script arguments.

  5. Let body and arguments be script arguments’ data.

  6. This next step might not quite set up all the right machinery.

    Let webdriver callback result be a flag which can have three values: unset, expired, or set, with the set value having associated data. Initially it is in the unset state.

  7. Let callback be a function whose [[\Call]] internal method runs the execute async script callback algorithm initialized with argument webdriver callback result.

  8. Append callback to arguments.

  9. Let result be the result of calling execute a function body with arguments body and arguments.

  10. If result is an error, return result.

  11. Wait for webdriver callback result to enter the set state, or for session script timeout milliseconds to expire, whichever happens sooner.

  12. If the previous step completed due the session script timeout being reached, set webdriver callback result to expired and return error with error code script timeout.

  13. Otherwise, let result be webdriver callback result’s data.

  14. If result is an error, return result.

  15. Let value be result’s data.

  16. Let data be a new JSON Object.

  17. Set the property value of data to value.

  18. Return success with data data.

The execute async script callback algorithm is initialized with a single argument webdriver callback state. It defines a function with a single optional argument result. When this function is called, the following steps are run:

  1. If webdriver callback state is not in the unset state, return undefined.

  2. If result is not present, let result be null.

  3. Let json result be a JSON clone of result.

  4. Set the webdriver callback state to set with data json result.

  5. Return undefined.

Cookies

This section describes the interaction with cookies as described in [[!RFC6265]].

A cookie is described in [[!RFC6265]] by a name-value pair holding the cookie’s data, followed by zero or more attribute-value pairs describing its characteristics.

The following table for cookie conversion defines the cookie concepts relevant to WebDriver, how these are referred to in [[!RFC6265]], what keys they map to in a serialised cookie, as well as the attribute-value keys needed when constructing a list of arguments for creating a cookie.

For informational purposes, the table includes a legend of whether the field is optional in the serialised cookie structure provided to Add Cookie, and a brief non-normative description of the field and the expected input type of its associated value.

Concept RFC 6265 Field JSON Key Attribute Key Optional Description
Cookie name name "name" The name of the cookie.
Cookie value value "value" The cookie value.
Cookie path path "path" "Path" The cookie path. Defaults to "/" if omitted when adding a cookie.
Cookie domain domain "domain" "Domain" The domain the cookie is visible to. Defaults to the current browsing context’s document’s URL domain if omitted when adding a cookie.
Cookie secure only secure-only-flag "secure" "Secure" Whether the cookie is a secure cookie. Defaults to false if omitted when adding a cookie.
Cookie HTTP only http-only-flag "httpOnly" "HttpOnly" Whether the cookie is an HTTP only cookie. Defaults to false if omitted when adding a cookie.
Cookie expiry time expiry-time "expiry" "Max-Age" When the cookie expires, specified in seconds since Unix Epoch. Defaults to 20 years into the future if omitted when adding a cookie.

A serialised cookie is a JSON Object structure where a cookie’s [[!RFC6265]] fields listed in the table for cookie conversion is mapped using the JSON Key and the associated field’s value from the cookie store. The optional fields may be omitted.

To get all associated cookies to a document, the user agent must return the enumerated set of cookies that meet the requirements set out in the first step of the algorithm in [[RFC6265]] to compute cookie-string for an ‘HTTP API’, from the cookie store of the given document’s address.

When the remote end is instructed to create a cookie, this is synonymous to carrying out the steps described in [[!RFC6265]] section 5.3, under receiving a cookie, except the user agent may not ignore the received cookie in its entirety (disregard step 1).

To delete cookies given an optional filter argument name that is a string:

  1. For each cookie among all associated cookies of the current top-level browsing context’s active document, if:

    name is undefined
    name is equal to cookie name

    Set the cookie expiry time to a Unix timestamp in the past.

Get Cookie

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/cookie/{name}

The Get Cookie command returns all cookies associated with the address of the current browsing context’s active document.

Provided with an optional name parameter, the returned set will consist of only a single cookie matching an entry’s cookie name in the cookie store, or be empty.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts, and return its value if it is an error.

  3. Let result be an initially empty JSON List.

  4. For each cookie among all associated cookies of the current top-level browsing context’s active document, matching on name:

    cookie name

    Append the serialised cookie to result, and break out of the loop.

    undefined

    Append the serialised cookie to result.

  5. Return success with data result.

Add Cookie

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/cookie

The Add Cookie command adds a single cookie to the cookie store associated with the active document’s address.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts, and return its value if it is an error.

  3. If the current top-level browsing context’s document element is a cookie-averse Document object, return error with error code invalid cookie domain.

  4. Let data be the result of getting a property named "cookie" from the parameters argument.

  5. If data is not a JSON Object with all the required (non-optional) JSON keys listed in the table for cookie conversion, return error with error code unable to set cookie.

  6. If cookie name or cookie value is null, cookie domain is not equal to the current browsing context’s active document’s domain, cookie secure only or cookie HTTP only are not boolean types, or cookie expiry time is not an integer type, return error with error code unable to set cookie.

  7. Create a cookie in the cookie store associated with the active document’s address using cookie name name, cookie value value, and an attribute-value list of the following properties from data:

    Cookie path

    The value if the entry exists, otherwise "/".

    Cookie domain

    The value if the entry exists, otherwise the current browsing context’s active document’s domain.

    Cookie secure only

    The value if the entry exists, otherwise false.

    Cookie HTTP only

    The value if the entry exists, otherwise false.

    Cookie expiry time

    The value if the entry exists, otherwise a Unix timestamp 20 years into the future from now.

    If there is an error during this step, return error with error code unable to set cookie.

  8. Return success with data null.

Delete Cookie

HTTP Method Path Template
DELETE /session/{session id}/cookie/{name}

The Delete Cookie command allows you to delete either a single cookie by parameter name, or all the cookies associated with the active document’s address if name is undefined.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts, and return its value if it is an error.

  3. Delete cookies using the name parameter as the filter argument.

  4. Return success with data null.

Delete All Cookies

HTTP Method Path Template
DELETE /session/{session id}/cookie

The Delete All Cookies command allows deletion of all cookies associated with the active document’s address.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts, and return its value if it is an error.

  3. Delete cookies, giving no filtering argument.

  4. Return success with data null.

Interactions

The Actions API gives you a mechanism to pipeline interaction actions to be performed atomically by sending over a JSON object that can then be used to dispatch commands. The commands are then processed by the user agent, allowing complex interactions to be created.

An activation trigger generated by the WebDriver API User need to be indistinguishable from those generated by a real user interacting with the browser. In particular, the dispatched events will have the isTrusted attribute set to true. The most robust way to dispatch these events is by creating them in the browser implementation itself. Sending OS-specific input messages to the browser's window has the disadvantage that the browser being automated may not be properly isolated from a user accidentally modifying input source state; use of an OS-level accessibility API has the disadvantage that the browser's window must be focused, and as a result, multiple WebDriver instances cannot run in parallel.

Actions

Terminology

Section needs to be fleshed out more or moved to the top of the document with other terms.

low-level action The smallest operation an input source can do. These are used to build chains of actions. Example: keyDown

action chain A chain of low-level actions

input source The source from which the inputs will originate. MUST support 'keyboard' and 'pointer'.

Creating Actions

The Perform Actions command allows you to create sequential interactions that can be sent over from the local end to the remote end. This type of interactions allow emulations like drag and drop.

As well as handling a sequence of actions there is also the ability to create parallel interactions. This allows complex interactions between keyboard and mouse or the ability to have multiple touch points. See the example below.

The following table of actions enumerates all supported commands

Actions Input Type
keyDown Keyboard
keyUp Keyboard
pointerMove Pointer
pointerDown Pointer
pointerUp Pointer
pointerCancel Pointer
pause General

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/actions

The remote end steps are:

  1. Let actions be the result of getting a property named "actions" from the parameters argument.

  2. If actions is not a JSON List, return error code with error code invalid argument.

  3. Let length be the length of actions.

  4. Let k be 0.

  5. While k < length:

    1. Let action be the entry in actions at index k.

    2. If action is a JSON List:

      1. Let longest action sequence be the length of longest action JSON List.

      2. Let j be 0.

      3. While j < longest action sequence:

        1. Let parallel sources length be the length of actions.

        2. Let i be 0.

        3. While i < parallel sources length:

          1. Let raw action be the entry at i in action for entry j in actions

          2. Append raw action to parallel actions.

    3. Dispatch commands with argument action.

  6. Return success with data null.

Releasing Actions

HTTP Method Path Template
DELETE /session/{session id}/actions

The Release Actions command is used to cancel all current action chains. This is the equivalent of releasing all modifiers from input sources.

The remote end steps are:

  1. This needs to be completed.

  2. Return success with data null.

Actions

General Actions

The pause command:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open , return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts and return its value if it is an error.

  3. Let duration be the result of getting a property named "duration".

  4. If duration is not a Number return error with error code invalid argument.

  5. Wait until duration milliseconds have passed.

Keyboard Actions

The keyUp command:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open , return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts and return its value if it is an error.

  3. Let key be the result of getting a property named "value".

  4. If element id is undefined jump to step 9.

  5. Let element result be the result of getting a known element by UUID reference element id.

  6. If element result is a success, let element be element result’s data.

  7. If element is stale, return error with error code stale element reference.

  8. Run the focusing steps for the element.

  9. Let active element be the active element of the current browsing context’s document element.

  10. Let key to type be the result of processing keys with argument key.

  11. Generate keyUp Keyboard Event against active element for key to type.

The keyDown command:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open , return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts and return its value if it is an error.

  3. Let key be the result of getting a property named "value".

  4. If element id is undefined jump to step 9.

  5. Let element result be the result of getting a known element by UUID reference element id.

  6. If element result is a success, let element be element result’s data.

  7. If element is stale, return error with error code stale element reference.

  8. Run the focusing steps for the element.

  9. Let active element be the active element of the current browsing context’s document element.

  10. Let key to type be the result of processing keys with argument key.

  11. Generate keyDown Keyboard Event against active element for key to type.

The steps for processing keystrokes are:

  1. Run the focusing steps for the element.

  2. Let modifiers be equal to:

    control
    false
    shift
    false
    alt
    false
    meta
    false

    This needs to be a global

  3. Let length be the length of keys.

  4. Let k be 0.

  5. While k < length

    1. Let key be the entry in keys at index k.

    2. If key is equal to the Character Types code set key to be equal to the value Character Types Key.

    3. If key is equal to Character Types Key and Character Types Type is equal to "Modifier" set modifiers key with name equal to Key to true

    4. Generate keyboard event order against WebElement using key. Set the according modifier on Keyboard Event from values in modifier.

    5. Increase k by 1.

The steps for releasing modifiers are:

  1. Set modifiers be equal to:

    control
    false
    shift
    false
    alt
    false
    meta
    false
Character Types

The value parameter contains a mix of printable characters and pressable keys that aren't text. Pressable keys that aren't text are stored in the Unicode PUA (Private Use Area) code points, 0xE000-0xF8FF. The following table describes the mapping between PUA and key:

Key Code Type
NULL\uE000NULL
CANCEL\uE001Special key
HELP\uE002Special key
BACK_SPACE\uE003Special key
TAB\uE004Special key
CLEAR\uE005Special key
RETURN\uE006Special key
ENTER\uE007Special key
SHIFT\uE008Modifier
CONTROL\uE009Modifier
ALT\uE00AModifier
PAUSE\uE00BSpecial key
ESCAPE\uE00CSpecial key
SPACE\uE00DSpecial key
PAGE_UP\uE00ESpecial key
PAGE_DOWN\uE00FSpecial key
END\uE010Special key
HOME\uE011Special key
ARROW_LEFT\uE012Special key
ARROW_UP\uE013Special key
ARROW_RIGHT\uE014Special key
ARROW_DOWN\uE015Special key
INSERT\uE016Special key
DELETE\uE017Special key
SEMICOLON\uE018Special key
EQUALS\uE019Special key
NUMPAD0\uE01ASpecial key
NUMPAD1\uE01BSpecial key
NUMPAD2\uE01CSpecial key
NUMPAD3\uE01DSpecial key
NUMPAD4\uE01ESpecial key
NUMPAD5\uE01FSpecial key
NUMPAD6\uE020Special key
NUMPAD7\uE021Special key
NUMPAD8\uE022Special key
NUMPAD9\uE023Special key
MULTIPLY\uE024Special key
ADD\uE025Special key
SEPARATOR\uE026Special key
SUBTRACT\uE027Special key
DECIMAL\uE028Special key
DIVIDE\uE029Special key
F1\uE031Special key
F2\uE032Special key
F3\uE033Special key
F4\uE034Special key
F5\uE035Special key
F6\uE036Special key
F7\uE037Special key
F8\uE038Special key
F9\uE039Special key
F10\uE03ASpecial key
F11\uE03BSpecial key
F12\uE03CSpecial key
META\uE03DSpecial key
COMMAND\uE03DSpecial key
ZENKAKU_HANKAKU\uE040Special key

Pointer Actions

The pointerUp command:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open , return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts and return its value if it is an error.

  3. If element id is undefined jump to step 9.

  4. Let element result be the result of getting a known element by UUID reference element id.

  5. If element result is a success, let element be element result’s data.

  6. If element is stale, return error with error code stale element reference.

  7. Run the focusing steps for the element.

  8. Let active element be the active element of the current browsing context’s document element.

  9. Scroll into view the active element .

  10. Let x, y be the result of getting a property named x and y.

  11. If x or y are undefined:

    1. Let visible width be active element ’s bounding rectangle’s (max(x coordinate, x coordinate + width dimension) – the current browsing context’s innerWidth).

    2. Let visible height be active element’s bounding rectangle’s (max(y coordinate, y coordinate + height dimension) – the current browsing context’s innerHeight).

    3. Let x be (visible width / 2.0).

    4. Let y be (visible height / 2.0).

  12. Let button be the result of getting a property named "button".

    Do we need symbols here?

    Do we need to base events off source? E.g. if a pen?

  13. Generate mouseup Mouse Event against element.

    What about touch/pointer events?

The pointerDown command:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open , return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts and return its value if it is an error.

  3. If element id is undefined jump to step 9.

  4. Let element result be the result of getting a known element by UUID reference element id.

  5. If element result is a success, let element be element result’s data.

  6. If element is stale, return error with error code stale element reference.

  7. Run the focusing steps for the element.

  8. Let active element be the active element of the current browsing context’s document element.

  9. Scroll into view the active element .

  10. Let x, y be the result of getting a property named x and y.

  11. If x or y are undefined:

    1. Let visible width be active element ’s bounding rectangle’s (max(x coordinate, x coordinate + width dimension) – the current browsing context’s innerWidth).

    2. Let visible height be active element’s bounding rectangle’s (max(y coordinate, y coordinate + height dimension) – the current browsing context’s innerHeight).

    3. Let x be (visible width / 2.0).

    4. Let y be (visible height / 2.0).

  12. Let button be the result of getting a property named "button".

    Do we need symbols here?

    Do we need to base events off source? E.g. if a pen?

  13. Generate mousedown Mouse Event against element.

    What about touch/pointer events?

The pointerMove command:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open , return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts and return its value if it is an error.

  3. If element id is undefined jump to step 9.

  4. Let element result be the result of getting a known element by UUID reference element id.

  5. If element result is a success, let element be element result’s data.

  6. If element is stale, return error with error code stale element reference.

  7. Let x, y be the result of getting a property named x and y.

  8. If x or y are undefined:

    1. Let visible width be element’s bounding rectangle’s (max(x coordinate, x coordinate + width dimension) – the current browsing context’s innerWidth).

    2. Let visible height be element’s bounding rectangle’s (max(y coordinate, y coordinate + height dimension) – the current browsing context’s innerHeight).

    3. Let x be (visible width / 2.0).

    4. Let y be (visible height / 2.0).

  9. Move the pointer from it's last location based on the previous Action Command to x, y generating the relevant mouse events order.

    What about Pointer/Touch Events?

The pointerCancel command:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open , return error with error code no such window.

  2. Handle any user prompts and return its value if it is an error.

  3. to be completed

User Prompts

Non-normative summary:

This chapter describes interaction with various types of user prompts. The common denominator for user prompts is that they are modal windows requiring users to interact with them before the event loop is unpaused and control is returned to the current top-level browsing context.

By default user prompts are not handled automatically unless a user prompt handler has been defined. When a user prompt appears, it is the task of the subsequent command to handle it. If the subsequent requested command is not one listed in this chapter, an unexpected alert open error will be returned.

User prompts that are spawned from beforeunload event handlers, are dismissed implicitly upon navigation, regardless of the defined user prompt handler.

The following table of simple dialogues enumerates all supported simple dialogues, along with the commands that are allowed to interact with it as a non-normative reference:

Definition Dialogue Interactions
Alert window.alert Accept Alert
Dismiss Alert
Get Alert Text
Confirm window.confirm Dismiss Alert
Accept Alert
Get Alert Text
Prompt window.prompt Dismiss Alert
Accept Alert
Get Alert Text
Send Alert Text

The current user prompt is said to be the active user prompt, which can be one of the entries on the table of simple dialogues, the window.print dialogue, or a dialogue spawned by showModalDialog() should this be supported by the user agent.

To dismiss the current user prompt, do so as if the user would click the Cancel or OK button, whichever is present, in that order.

To accept the current user prompt, do so as if the user would click the OK button.

A user prompt handler is an enumerated attribute defining what action the remote end must take when a user prompt is encountered. The following table lists the keywords and states for the attribute:

Keyword State Description
"dismiss" Dismiss state All simple dialogues encountered should be dismissed.
"accept" Accept state All simple dialogues encountered should be accepted.

In order to handle any user prompts a remote end must take the following steps:

  1. If there is no current user prompt, abort these steps and return success.

  2. Match on the user prompt handler:

    dismiss state

    Dismiss the current user prompt.

    accept state

    Accept the current user prompt.

    missing value default state
    not in the table of simple dialogues

    Return error with error code unexpected alert open.

  3. Return success.

Dismiss Alert

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/alert/dismiss

The Dismiss Alert command dismisses a simple dialogue if present. A request to dismiss an alert user prompt, which may not necessarily have a dismiss button, has the same effect as accepting it.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. If there is no current user prompt, return error with error code no such alert.

  3. Dismiss the current user prompt.

  4. Return success with data null.

Accept Alert

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/alert/accept

The Accept Alert command accepts a simple dialogue if present.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. If there is no current user prompt, return error with error code no such alert.

  3. Accept the current user prompt.

  4. Return success with data null.

Get Alert Text

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/alert/text

The Get Alert Text command returns the message of the current user prompt. If there is no current user prompt, it returns with null.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. If there is no current user prompt, return error with error code no such alert.

  3. Let message be the text message associated with the current user prompt, or otherwise be null.

  4. Let body be a JSON Object with the "value" property set to message.

  5. Return success with data body.

Send Alert Text

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/alert/text

The Send Alert Text command sets the text field prompt to a given value, and only makes sense on window.prompt.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. If there is no current user prompt, return error with error code no such alert.

  3. Match on current user prompt:

    alert
    confirm

    Return error with error code element not visible.

    prompt

    Do nothing.

    Otherwise

    Return error with error code unsupported operation.

  4. Let character array be the result of getting a property text from the parameters argument.

  5. Let text be the result of joining together each element in character array to a string.

  6. Set the current user prompt’s text field value to the value of text.

  7. Return success with data null.

Screen Capture

Screenshots are a mechanism for providing additional visual diagnostic information. They work by dumping a snapshot of the initial viewport’s framebuffer as a lossless PNG image. It is returned to the local end as a Base64 encoded string.

WebDriver provides the Take Screenshot command to capture the top-level browsing context’s initial viewport, and a command Take Element Screenshot for doing the same with the visible region of an element’s bounding rectangle after it has been scrolled into view.

In order to draw a bounding box from the framebuffer, given a rectangle:

  1. If either the initial viewport’s width or height is 0 CSS reference pixels, return error with error code unable to capture screen.

  2. Let paint width be the initial viewport’s width – min(rectangle x coordinate, rectangle x coordinate + rectangle width dimension).

  3. Let paint height be the initial viewport’s height – min(rectangle y coordinate, rectangle y coordinate + rectangle height dimension).

  4. Let canvas be a new canvas element, and set its width and height to paint width and paint height, respectively.

  5. Let context, a canvas context mode, be the result of invoking the 2D context creation algorithm given canvas as the target.

  6. Complete implementation specific steps equivalent to drawing the region of the framebuffer specified by the following coordinates onto context:

    X coordinate
    rectangle x coordinate
    Y coordinate
    rectangle y coordinate
    Width
    paint width
    Height
    paint height
  7. Return success with canvas.

To encode as Base64 a canvas element:

  1. If the canvas element’s bitmap’s origin-clean flag is set to false, return error with error code unable to capture screen.

  2. If the canvas element’s bitmap has no pixels (i.e. either its horizontal dimension or vertical dimension is zero) then return error with error code unable to capture screen.

  3. Let file be a serialisation of the canvas element’s bitmap as a file, using "image/png" as an argument.

  4. Let data url be a data: URL representing file. [[!RFC2397]]

  5. Let index be the index of "," in data url.

  6. Let encoded string be a substring of data url using (index + 1) as the start argument.

  7. Return success with data encoded string.

Take Screenshot

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/screenshot

The Take Screenshot command takes a screenshot of the top-level browsing context’s viewport.

The remote end steps are:

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Let root rect be the current top-level browsing context’s document element’s rectangle.
  3. Let screenshot result be the result of calling draw a bounding box from the framebuffer, given root rect as an argument.

  4. If screenshot result is an error, return screenshot result.

  5. Let canvas be screenshot result’s data.

  6. Let encoding result be the result of encoding as Base64 the canvas element.

  7. If encoding result is an error, return encoding result.

  8. Let encoded string be encoding result’s data.

  9. Let body be a JSON Object with the "value" property set to encoded string.

  10. Return success with data null.

Take Element Screenshot

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/screenshot

The Take Element Screenshot command takes a screenshot of the visible region encompassed by the bounding rectangle of an element. If given a parameter argument scroll that evaluates to false, the element will not be scrolled into view.

  1. If the current top-level browsing context is no longer open, return error with error code no such window.

  2. Let scroll be true if it is undefined.

  3. Let element result be the result of getting a known element by UUID reference parameter element id.

  4. If element result is an error, return element result.

  5. Let element be element result’s data.

  6. Let element rect be element’s rectangle.

  7. If asked to scroll, scroll into view the element.

  8. Let screenshot result be the result of calling draw a bounding box from the framebuffer, given element rect as an argument.

  9. If screenshot result is an error, return screenshot result.

  10. Let canvas be screenshot result’s data.

  11. Let encoding result be the result of encoding as Base64 the canvas element.

  12. If encoding result is an error, return encoding result.

  13. Let encoded string be encoding result’s data.

  14. Let body be a JSON Object with the "value" property set to encoded string.

  15. Return success with data body.

Privacy

It is advisable that remote ends create a new profile when creating a new session. This prevents potentially sensitive session data from being accessible to new sessions, ensuring both privacy and preventing state from bleeding through to the next session.

Security

A user agent may rely on a command-line flag or a configuration option to test whether to enable WebDriver. Another option is to make the user agent initiate or confirm the connection through a privileged content document or control widget, in case the user agent does not directly implement the HTTP endpoints.

To prevent arbitrary machines from connecting and creating sessions, only connections from loopback devices are allowed by default. Remote ends do however support a scenario where the local end runs on a different machine from the remote end.

The remote end must include a configuration option to limit the accepted IP range allowed to connect and make requests. The default setting for this should be to limit connections to the IPv4 localhost CIDR range 127.0.0.0/8 and the IPv6 localhost address ::1. [[!RFC4632]]

Element Displayedness

Although WebDriver does not define a primitive to ascertain the visibility of an element in the viewport, we acknowledge that it is an important feature for many users. Here we include a recommended approach which will give a simplified approximation of an element’s visibility, but please note that it relies only on tree-traversal, and only covers a subset of visibility checks.

The visibility of an element is guided by what is perceptually visible to the human eye. In this context, an element's displayedness does not relate to the visibility or display style properties.

The approach recommended to implementors to ascertain an element's visibility is based on crude approximations about its nature and relationship in the tree. An element is in general to be considered visible if any part of it is drawn on the canvas within the bounderies of the viewport.

When asked to normalize style pixel values to floating point for a value s of the type string:

  1. Let trimmed string be a substring of s where the suffix "px" is removed.

  2. Let pixels be the result of parsing trimmed string as a float.

  3. If pixels is not a valid float or the previous operation did not succeed, return 0.0.

  4. Round off pixels using a ceiling function so that it has no more than four decimals.

  5. Return pixels.

To normalize style pixel values to floating point is almost equivalent to calling parseFloat from [[!ECMA-262]] with the exception that non-valid float return values are returned as 0.0.

This algorithm is not the same as the one used by Selenium. To provide backwards compatibility, we should change it to be an accurate description of what Selenium does.

The element displayed algorithm is a boolean state where true signifies that the element is displayed and false signifies that the element is not displayed. To compute the state on element:

  1. If the attribute hidden is set, return false.

  2. If the computed value of the display style property is "none", return false.

  3. Not really sure what this means, needs review:

    If it has a [[!CSS3-2D-TRANSFORMS]] or [[!CSS3-3D-TRANSFORMS]] style property that gives a negative X or Y coordinates to the canvas, return false.

  4. If element is the document's root element, that is document.documentElement:

    1. If the computed value of the background-color property is "transparent", run these substeps:

      1. If element is an HTML HTML element [[!HTML]], and the computed value of the background-color style property of the first body element descendant of the element in tree order, relative to that element, is also "transparent", return false. Otherwise return true.

  5. If element is an option or optgroup element, and element's parent node is a select element:

    1. Apply the element displayed algorithm on element's parent node.

    2. If the return value is false, abort these steps and return that value.

  6. If element is a map element:

    1. Let any images visible be a boolean initially set to false.

    2. For each img element, image element, in the document with a name attribute matching the value of element's usemap attribute, run these substeps:

      1. Run the element displayed algorithm on image element and set any images visible to any images visible bitwise OR its return value.

    3. If any images visible is true, abort these steps and return its value.

  7. If element is an area element:

    1. For each ancestral element parent, in tree order:

      1. If parent is a map element, apply the element displayed algorithm on it.

      2. If the return value is false, abort these steps and return that value.

      3. Otherwise apply step 7.1 on parent.

  8. If element is a [[!DOM]] text node, return true.

  9. If it has equal to or more than one direct descendant elements:

    1. Let visible children be a boolean initially set to false.

    2. For each direct descendant element child:

      1. Let rectangle be child’s bounding rectangle.

      2. If the value of the height property of rectangle is greater than zero CSS reference pixels, and the value of the width property of rectangle is greater than zero CSS reference pixels:

        1. Set visible children to visible children bitwise OR true.

  10. For each ancestral element parent, in tree order:

    1. Apply the element displayed algorithm to parent.

    2. If the return value is false, abort these steps and return that value.

    3. If parent is a block element box and the computed values of either overflow-x or overflow-y is "hidden":

      1. DOMRectList has disappeared from [[GEOMETRY-1]] and been replaced by ArrayClass, but there is no reference to it.

        Let parent dimensions be the rectangle that is the first element of the DOMRectList array returned by calling getClientRects on parent.

      2. Let element dimensions be the rectangle that is the first element of the DOMRectList array returned by calling getClientRects on element.

      3. Let parent style be the computed style of parent.

      4. Return false if any the following conditions evaluate to false:

      5. Run step 10 on the parent elements of parent, if any.

  11. Return true.

Acknowledgements

Many thanks to Robin Berjon for making our lives so much easier with his cool tool. Thanks to Jason Leyba, Malcolm Rowe, Ross Patterson, Andrey Botalov, and Berge Schwebs Bjørlo for proof reading and suggesting areas for improvement. Thanks to Jason Leyba, Eran Messeri, Daniel Wagner-Hall, Malini Das, Luke Inman-Semerau, Andreas Tolfsen, James Graham, and John Jansen for contributing sections to this document. Also thanks to the following people for their contribution of patches and test cases: