Cognitive Accessibility Roadmap and Gap Analysis

W3C Working Draft

This version:
https://www.w3.org/TR/2018/WD-coga-gap-analysis-20181017/
Latest published version:
https://www.w3.org/TR/coga-gap-analysis/
Latest editor's draft:
https://w3c.github.io/coga/gap-analysis/
Previous version:
Editors:
(W3C)

Abstract

This document is a gap analysis and roadmap for the state of accessibility for people with learning and cognitive disabilities when using the Web and information technologies. It builds on the information presented in Cognitive Accessibility User Research [coga-user-research] and Cognitive Accessibility Issue Papers [coga-issue-papers] to evaluate where user needs remain to be met in technologies and accessibility guidelines. For various accessibility issues, this document provides a summary of issues and techniques, then identifies gaps and unmet user needs and suggest ways technologies may meet these needs in the future.

This document also contains a section with practical advice on how to make content usable for people with learning and cognitive disabilities. Content developers may prefer to start there. We hope it will meet the needs of web developers, content creators and policy makers.

This document is part of a set of related informative publications from the Cognitive and Learning Disabilities Accessibility Task Force (COGA TF), a joint task force of the Accessible Platform Architectures Working Group (APA WG) and the Accessibility Guidelines Working Group (AG WG) of the Web Accessibility Initiative.

Status of This Document

This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at https://www.w3.org/TR/.

This document was published by the Accessible Platform Architectures Working Group and the Accessibility Guidelines Working Group as a Working Draft. This document explores user needs for people with cognitive or learning disabilities and identifies where additional web content authoring guidance is needed to help authors meet these needs. This information is important to new guidance being added to Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.1.

Feedback on any aspect of the document is accepted. For this publication, the Working Groups particularly seek feedback on the following questions:

To comment, file an issue in the W3C coga GitHub repository. If this is not feasible, send email to public-coga-comments@w3.org (comment archive). Comments are requested by 25 June 2018. In-progress updates to the document may be viewed in the publicly visible editors' draft.

This document was published by the Accessible Platform Architectures Working Group and the Accessibility Guidelines Working Group as a Working Draft.

Comments regarding this document are welcome. Please send them to public-coga-comments@w3.org (archives).

Publication as a Working Draft does not imply endorsement by the W3C Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.

This document was produced by groups operating under the W3C Patent Policy. The group does not expect this document to become a W3C Recommendation. W3C maintains a public list of any patent disclosures (Accessible Platform Architectures Working Group) and a public list of any patent disclosures (Accessibility Guidelines Working Group) made in connection with the deliverables of each group; these pages also include instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains Essential Claim(s) must disclose the information in accordance with section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy.

This document is governed by the 1 February 2018 W3C Process Document.

1. Introduction

This section is non-normative.

The Cognitive and Learning Disabilities Accessibility Task Force's aim is to improve web accessibility for people with cognitive and learning disabilities.

This document contains a gap analysis and review of key issues, a roadmap for inclusion for different user needs.

It is designed for standards groups and policy makers. However, it has useful information for anyone trying to understand the topic. There is also an appendix on how to make content usable for people with leaning and cognitive disabilities. Content developers may find this section the most useful.

This is being done as part of the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) and Accessible Platform Architecture Working Group (APA WG), part of the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) of the W3C. Challenges facing this work include:

Addressing these issues requires us to make a broader view of solutions for accessibility, such as a content focused approach and to explore personalization solutions that incorporate inclusive design. To address these issues we have adopted the following strategies:

  1. Select a phased approach. In our first phase we looked at eight different disabilities or categories that cut across types of cognitive impairment in terms of severity and brain function. Although some user needs might not have been identified in this phase, this approach made the work involved practical and it is likely that most key needs will have been identified. Other cognitive disabilities and emotional disabilities may be included in phase 2 and the current user groups may be re-examined.
  2. Compile user research and literature reviews on the selected disability groups. These literature reviews mean that key findings are in the public domain and are easily available.
  3. Compile a list of authoring techniques that include the most useful strategies from all the different user group research 
  4. Create testable and widely adoptable sets of success criteria that let authors know exactly what they need to do and when they have completed the task. (This might then be added to WCAG [WCAG20] for cognitive disabilities)
  5. Author a series of issue papers [coga-issue-papers] that explore topics beyond simple content such as security or personalization.
  6. Review the techniques and issue papers to identify the gaps between what is currently supported in accessibility guidelines and in the web architecture and what is needed to enable accessibility for people with cognitive disabilities
  7. Create a roadmap to show how we can fill these gaps.

In addition to this gap analysis we have first drafts of the following accompanying documents: (Note they are works in progress and may change.)

The diagram shows how these need to be integrated to enable accessibility for people with cognitive disabilities

what we are doing as hexagons
Figure 1 Figure 1. Diagram showing user research leading to techniques & WCAG extension, specific issues, semantics for adaptive interfaces and preferences with integration of standards

A roadmap must enable the integration of all the pieces that can make accessibility for people with cognitive disabilities workable. A roadmap must also address the author needs and issues that will help make this work practical. For example: Best practice documents and how to ensure that personalization is practical and testable.

Roadmap
Figure 2 Figure 2 Anticipated Roadmap

The diagram shows what we are anticipating moving towards a roadmap. (Note that this work has yet to be completed.)

Then we can start the process again with phase 2 for additional research and new user groups, possibly including emotional disabilities.

1.1 Importance of This Document

This document is important because enabling people with learning and cognitive disabilities to use the Web and Web technologies is of critical importance to both individuals and society.

More and more, the Internet and the Web have become the main way people stay informed and current on news and health matters; keep in touch with friends and family; and it can provide independence such as convenient shopping etc. People who cannot use these interfaces will have an increased feeling of having a disability and of being alienated from society.

Further, with the advent of the Web of Things, everyday physical objects are connected to the Internet and have Web interfaces. Being able to use these interfaces now is an essential component of allowing people to maintain their independence, stay in the work force for longer, and stay safe.

Consider that the population is aging. The global share of population aged 60 years or over is expected to reach 21.1 per cent by 2050 and is typically higher in developed countries. A majority of people over 60 years old notice a decline in memory and executive function such as an Age Associated Memory Impairment (38.4%), Mild Cognitive Impairment (15.3%) or less frequently, dementia (8.8%). That means more and more people are dependent on others for things that they could do themselves, increasing the crippling cost of care and reducing human dignity.

We therefore invite you to review this draft; and comment and consider how your technologies and work may be affected by these issues.

1.2 People with Cognitive and Learning Disabilities and the Web

People with cognitive and learning disabilities may be unable to use web content because of the design choices of the author. Examples include:

1.3 Finding your way around this document

It is a long document and we know it can be hard to find your way around it. ( In the meantime here are some sections of particular interest:

Editor's note: This section will added

We are aware that it is difficult to find your way around this document. We intend to add this section to help. Suggestions for other ways to improve it are welcome.

1.4 Assumptions

There is a huge number of cognitive disabilities and variations of them. If we attempt an analysis of all the possibilities, the job will be too big, and nothing will be achieved. Therefore, we are adopting a phased approach, selecting in phase one a limited scope of eight diverse disabilities, and hope to achieve something useful within that scope. Also note that helping users improve skills, and emotional disabilities, are out of scope for phase one. We anticipate this analysis will continue to a second or third phase where more user groups are analyzed, and the existing analyses are updated with new research and with new technologies and scenarios.

1.5 Maturity of This Publication

The first and second sections of this document are an introduction that analyses the current situation and discusses many issues. Although we are expecting more work to be done on these sections, we consider them to be a mature.

Subsequent sections (the roadmap) identifies unmet user needs and proposes way to solve these needs. These sections are not mature and are often incomplete. We are publishing them early to solicit early feedback on the format and the identification of user needs. You can follow our work on this section and see the latest draft from our wiki.

2. Summary of Issues and Techniques

As discussed above, the task force reviewed different disabilities to identify techniques that supported their using the web. The task force also reviewed issues that went beyond standard Web content, but affected the use of the Web for people with cognitive and learning disabilities.

This section is a summary of these findings. The full reports can be found from our wiki.

2.1 Overview of Techniques

Most designers want people to be able to use their site. However designs that might be difficult for some people to use can actually bar people with cognitive and learning disabilities from using the content at all. Typically this happens because content providers may not be familiar with the needs of users having these impairments. We have reviewed multiple user groups as a first phase to identify user needs and challenges that are not fully included in WCAG. From this research we have identified techniques and themes though the techniques that authors need to be aware of (and are not full addressed in WCAG 2.0) The key themes are:

  1. Help as many users as possible understand the site and know how to use it. This often involves using things that are clear and familiar to the user so that they do not have to learn new symbols, terms or design patters. Personalization based on user needs and markup properly annotated with cognitive semantics can help make the symbols and design as familiar to the user as possible.
  2. Prevent the user from making mistakes and make it easy to correct mistakes when they do occur. A good design and use of proven scripts will make errors less likely, but when they do occur the user should know how to correct them, without having to render other data or start from the beginning.
  3. Help the user to refocus and to restore context if attention is lost. Items like breadcrumbs can help orientate the user and help the user restore the context when it is lost. (Making breadcrumbs clickable can also help the user undo mistakes)

Main techniques include:

A full list of the authoring techniques identified can be found on our wiki.

2.2 Summary of Technique Solutions

To help bridge the gap we propose the following strategies:

1. Construct a full list of techniques.

2. Support an extension to [WCAG] that supports the techniques. This will include:

  1. Writing new WCAG Success criteria and techniques.
  2. Suggesting changes to existing success criteria such as changing the text or the conformance level
  3. Proposing new success criteria when necessary.
(See appendix two for details of the new WCAG Success criteria and techniques.)

As part of this effort it is important to make this guidance as clear and prescriptive as possible, so that author knows what they need to do and when they have met the requirements.

3. Create a new semantics specification to define the associated semantics required for content adaptation.

  1. This could be done via a WAI- ARIA module or a new Cognitive semantics specification
  2. The techniques for adaptation MUST use these semantics
  3. Specify concrete user settings to represent user preferences that can be used to direct a web application on how to modify the content
(See appendix one for details on the proposed semantics.)

4. Define testing criteria to ensure the authors know when they are done.

  1. This may include new rule sets
  2. This may require the creation of a test suite or specification.

5. Support, and when appropriate, enable better personalization and adaption of content to meet our users' needs. This has the following advantages:

  1. It reduces the effort needed by the author. The author will just need to enable personalization, which is easier then working on issues such as simplification and clarity.
  2. Enables author creativity. Ideally an author could create any interface that they wish, but by enabling API's and personalization, our user groups can receive an adapted interface that is suitable for their needs.
  3. Better accessibility and inclusion. Sometimes, especially with these user groups, user needs can conflict. With adaptability and personalization the interface is personalized to the individuals user needs.

See the discussion on personalization below.

2.3 Summary of Issue Papers

The following sections provide a summary of the issues and solutions. Full versions can be found from our wiki.

2.3.1 Flat Design

Since 2013, flat design has become a popular UI design pattern characterized by clean flat areas of color, clear typography and simply iconography.

2.3.1.1 Problem with Flat Design

Many people can not learn easily new design metaphors (most coga groups) or remember things that they learned (such as people with a Mild Cognitive Impairment or dementia). Without these skills it can be much harder or impossible to:

  • locate a desired items to interact with and
  • know what interaction may do
2.3.1.2 Solutions for Flat Design
  1. In the authoring techniques and in proposal for WCAG we are recommending that content provide clear visual affordances (See appendix two for details on the proposed semantics.)
  2. In personalization we are adding settings to allow buttons and controls to have clear affordances
  3. In aria or in the native semantics all roles should be identified. (See appendix one for details on the proposed semantics.)
2.3.1.3 Further Work for Flat Design

How to recommend white spaces which can be confusing if over done for people with low visions? How to recommend clear groups

2.3.2 Web Security and Privacy Technologies

For security purposes, web security and privacy introduce intentional barriers to task completion.

2.3.2.1 Problems with Security and Privacy

Many people (most COGA groups) have memory issues that can make copying text, or remembering passwords, difficult or impossible. Other contributing issues include impaired executive function. Difficult security mechanisms often bar people with cognitive disabilities from accessing content or using a service at all.

2.3.2.2 Solutions for Security and Privacy

We recommend a variety of solutions, which may work independently or jointly with others, such as:

2.3.2.3 Further Work for Security and Privacy

Develop ease-of-use ideas, such as:

  • alternative authentication factors
  • consistent user interfaces
  • plain-language instructions and feedback

2.3.3 User Safety

2.3.3.1 Problems with User Safety

People with impaired reasoning, attention or memory are particularly vulnerable to all types of cyber crime. Examples of types of criminals active on the internet include:

  • Con-artists or cheats, who misled people into giving them money.
  • Hackers, who may steal identity, information, or money without the user being aware of what is happening.
  • Sexual predators, who use the Internet to identify vulnerable people and exploit them, either online or offline.
2.3.3.2 Solutions for User Safety
  1. All user information must be kept safe, to the fullest extent possible. Any clues that the user has cognitive disabilities (such as a request for a simplified version) should be protected information.
  2. Security should be strong AND easily used by those with cognitive disabilities, such as a biometrics option. For a full discussion see the section on security.
  3. Personalization systems can be designed so that any information implying vulnerabilities are on the user device and are secure. Use of functional requirements can also be a safer alternative to describing user needs in systems such as meta-data. Other systems are addressing this issue and further work should include looking at existing solutions.
  4. A site with a chat option should prevent any exchange of personal information.
  5. Users should be regularly warned to avoid scams.
  6. Getting help and /or reporting something worrying should be extremely easy to do. Users should know they will never be penalized for reporting something.
  7. Users should find it easy to report to the cyber crime fighters in their jurisdiction.
  8. Provide easy to use videos and tips that provide explanations about cyber criminals, how to stay safe, and how to report anything you find odd.
  9. Server side solutions can be employed for finding cyber-criminals, such as analytics.
  10. Advertisements and paid articles should be vetted for reliability. They should be clearly marked as external content in an easy to understand way.
  11. Users should be made aware when they are leaving your site or going to a less trustworthy site, including when following links they have been given by users.
  12. Sites offering sexual content or intended for chats of sexual nature should state that clearly.

2.3.4 Math

2.3.4.1 Problems with Math

Numeracy issues can occur due to a range of difficulties, the most severe being the inability to read or understand numbers. It should be noted that different users may find math easer to understand than long text.

2.3.4.2 Solutions for Math
  • Move towards digital math that can be extended (not numbers in images)
  • Enable highlighting of sections as they are being discussed
  • Link sections of numbers to extra help that can be read together
  • Enable replacing math sections with words or summaries for users who prefer this.

2.3.5 Multi-modal Content Delivery

Text, which comprises the vast majority of content on the Web, is difficult to understand by many people (most COGA groups).

Also, use cases include:

  1. Jumping to the relevant part of content (This is typically not supported, making content less usable.)
  2. Finding pieces in the content once focus is lost
  3. Going back a step when something was not understood
  4. Going back and forth between where a term was explained and the content of focus
  5. Multi-modal supplements can aid understanding - such as visual maps and spider diagrams
  6. Too many multi-modal items on a page can make the page confusing or overwhelming
2.3.5.1 Solutions for Multi-modal Content Delivery

Text can be made easier to understand when delivered in different modes. Ideally, people should be able to choose that content is delivered in the mode they comprehend best, such as:

  • Text To Speech
  • Video
  • Text With Contextually-Relevant Images
  • Text with Consistent Icons and Graphics
  • Text Replaced or Augmented by Symbol Sets

Further, video and audio should be navigable, such as:

  1. Having the content structured such that it is clearly identified or signposted (e.g., with a slide that says "step two - remove the old washer" or "step three - put on the new washer")
  2. The structure is navigable (e.g., a person can jump directly to step two)
  3. Keywords are identified, and can be jumped to directly
  4. Enabling bookmarks and annotations (that can be navigated)
2.3.5.2 Further Work for Multi-modal Content Delivery

Develop ease-of-use ideas, such as development and/or application of:

  • plain-language standards
  • visual and organizational structures
  • font size and font type

2.3.6 Personalization and User Preferences

This summary pulls together a few different issue papers and addresses them together. They are:
  • User Preferences
  • Adaptable Links and Buttons
  • Symbols for Non-Verbal
  • Personalization
  • Providing graded help
  • Interoperable preference
  • (meta data support - to be added)

Full versions can be found from our wiki.

What it is: Personalization involves tailoring aspects of the user experience to meet the preferences or needs of the user. Technology holds the promise of being extremely flexible and the design of many systems includes the expectation that users will be able to optimize their interaction experience according to their personal preferences or accessibility requirements (needs).

We need personalization because:

  1. Different user needs can conflict.
  2. Learning new design patterns (and widgets) can be confusing - we want to allow users to stick with what works for them.
  3. Extra support can be annoying to people who do not need it.
  4. Making content predictable is necessary for accessibility but can often be considered boring design.
  5. Ability to change levels of complexity (increase or decrease) - As the person's skills improve or decrease over time or context.
  6. Enable content providers to really meet the user needs.

For example, using a familiar design, terms and symbols is key to being able to use the web for people who can not remember new symbols (such as some people with memory related impairments like dementia). However, what is familiar for one user may be new for another. Personalization could include loading a set of symbols that is appropriate for the specific user, ensuring that all users find the design and icons simple and familiar.

(See [coga-user-research] section 3.4.15.3 )

2.3.6.1 Problems with Personalization
2.3.6.1.1 Preferences for Cognitive Disabilities

Typical configurable features include adjustments such as colors, text and icon size, sounds or mouse double click speed. Current preferences tend to focus on physical needs that help the user use the content and not on cognitive needs and preferences that help the user understand the content. Meta data and ontologies for preferences also currently focus on physical accessibility needs. For our purposes we need the ontologies to support issues such as:

  1. Types of Language support – such as non-literal language or simple language
  2. Types of Help available
  3. Types of graphics and symbols
  4. API and add on compatibility, such as to help with filling forms or passwords
  5. Adaptable controls for simple and know interfaces
  6. Simplified content with less options
  7. Features to help the user keep and restore context
2.3.6.1.2 Setting and Gathering Preferences

People with cognitive disabilities can be become daunted, or worse, completely unable to select their desired preferences. Indeed depending on the individual and the technology being used it may be impossible with a supporter's assistance.

So specific problems for people with cognitive disabilities include:

  1. Too many settings and/or options for each
  2. Not knowing what their preferences are in terms of the available technical solutions
  3. Not being aware of possible solutions

The use of custom templates of default preferences for particular groups of users is one method . Selection a base to immediately provided useful settings across a wide range of products and services as a starting point.

Inferring Preferences is one solution but the technology is not yet mature. Another issue is multiple devices and applications.

There is also a significant risk that, if done badly, user information and vulnerabilities can be exposed, exposing the most vulnerable users at the greatest risk.

Interoperable personalization schemes. Interoperable personalization schemes are where users want or need products and services to be personalized, they would prefer or need this to happen across the widest possible range of products or services. Personalization schemes that deliver this ideal will only succeed if they are standardized and if that standard is adopted by the widest range of product and service providers. However there are many critical issues for any personalization scheme to resolve such as funding and adoption.

Current works in progress are [GPII] (See [GPII] which is compatible with ISO/IEC 24751) and [ETSI] (see [ETSI-EG-202-325],[ETSI-ES-202-746], [ETSI-ES-202-642], [ETSI-TS-102-747] )


Another issue is Contextual personalization which includes optimizing the personalization of a product or service is to ensure that the personalization is appropriate for the current context of use. For example, settings that will suit the user of a mobile phone in their office or home will not be well suited to that user when they are driving a car.

Metadata is another related topic. Metadata allows the user to find content that they can use and suites their personal needs and preferences. A lot of work has been done for enabling metadata that helps people with physical disabilities find versions of content that they can use. However the semantics and terms do not support the specific requirements of people with different cognitive disabilities.

2.3.6.2 Solutions for Personalization
  1. Promote and support advancements in technologies in these area. For example, our recommending for WCAG will be along the lines of "Use semantics and standardized techniques and that enable the content to be adapted to the user scenario and enable additional support " (See appendix two for details.)
  2. Enable compatibility with standards such as [GPII] but do not depend on them.
  3. Develop the semantics and terms to support the specific requirements of people with different cognitive disabilities. (See appendix one for details on the proposed semantics.)
  4. Enable simple solutions that are extendable - encouraging more complex solutions in the future, such as having preferences be easily cascaded to allow for contextual personalization and for portability in the future.
2.3.6.3 Further Work for Personalization
  1. Support in WCAG that encourages support the features of the operating system or standards that enable adaption , such as adding additional success criteria.
  2. Develop supporting techniques so authors know exactly what to do
  3. Encourage or develop the terms or ontology for support for cognitive disabilities so that projects like [GPII] and [ETSI] can use them.
  4. Develop Semantics for the content so that personalization systems can know more about the content and enable adaptability of the content
  5. Encourage development of at least one end-to-end solution (critical mass) that makes it practical to develop additional solutions that address specific points in the process.
  6. Ensure any solutions architecture protects the user's privacy, such as client side adaptations and metadata that reflect functional requirements only. We also suggest an additional issue paper on related ethics.
2.3.6.3.1 End to End Basic Solution

We need standardized terms and supportive syntax that can be linked to associated symbols, terms, translations and explanations for the individual use, possibly via an aria attribute and personal preferences.

For example, assume an author can make it programmatically known that a button is used to send an email. At the user end, the button could be rendered with a symbol, term, and/or tooltips that are understandable for this particular user. It could automatically integrate with F1 help that explains the send function in simple terms. It could be identified with a keyboard short cut that will always be used for send. In addition it could be identified as important and always rendered, or rendered as a large button.

Working examples of how this could be used in practice with user preferences are available Full versions can be found from our wiki. It demonstrates personalization for any use - including people with learning and memory issues

It is made of 4 parts:

  1. JSON files for user setting:
  2. Aria proposal for new syntax: Adaptable Links and Buttons
  3. An HTML page that uses some of the new aria syntax:
  4. Scripts that a web author can use or include that read the user settings in the JSON files and adapt the page for the user needs.

This is only one example way to use the semantics. Others may follow. It is also worth noting that the [GPII] project is working on making user preferences portable which would also enhance this work.

2.3.6.3.2 Special Case

Products for people who are non-verbal often use symbols to help users communicate. These symbols are in fact peoples' language. Unfortunately many of these symbols are both subject to copyright AND are not interoperable. That means end-users can only use one device, and can not use apps or content from a different company. If we enabled mapping to open sets of symbol codes that, in turn, map to open or proprietary symbol sets, then they can be interoperable. At the user end , the user agent can load the symbols that the user knows. Symbol sets might still be proprietary but they would also be interoperable. That means the end user could use them across different devices, or any compatible content or applications.

Our members are working on projects to enable interoperable symbol sets and the semantics that would enable it. Such as (Pseudocode):

<img coga-concept="<a rel="nofollow" href="http://symbo.arosac.org/somepage#girlnode">http://symbo.arosac.org/somepage#girlnode</a>" scr="girlwithbow.gif" />

This will require

  • incorporating this as a technique for WCAG and
  • build the necessary semantic support, for web language such as aria.

2.3.7 Distractions

2.3.7.1 Problems with Distractions

Distractions can cause people with cognitive disabilities to lose focus on the current action being performed or draw attention away from the primary content and can be difficult for some users to know how to understand, avoid and/or stop them. Distractions can come in the form of overlays, auto-playing content, animated side-bar content, advertisements, prompts, pop-ups, scrolling or auto-updating content and so on.

2.3.7.2 Solutions for Distractions
  • Use personalization options to inform the content provider of accommodations required so the presentation of content can be modified.

For overlays, pop-up or pop-over windows:

  • Avoid using overlays.
  • Ensure overlays are easy to close.
  • Ensure overlay content is accessible and doesn't interfere with other accommodations made for AT interoperability.
  • Allow user to turn off overlays while still providing equivalent information and functionality.

For Advertisements:

  • Animation, audio and video plays only on user request (not automatically).
  • Clearly mark advertisements as such.
  • Avoid overlaying content with advertisements, or auto-close the advertisement and return the user to the content when complete.
  • Make advertisements easy to close.

Notifications:

  • Make notifications easy to dismiss or opt out of.

Application installation prompts:

  • Should be accessible, clear and easy to dismiss.
  • Confirm with the user if user action would open an external website.
  • Inform the user which is more accessible and customizable - the application or the website.
2.3.7.3 Further Work for Distractions

Form a cross-application and cross-device distraction matrix that manages all distractions in one setting. In conjunction with this there could be a mechanism for the user to select or modify the distraction matrix to allow distractions only from certain users and/or applications.

2.3.8 Voice Menu Systems

2.3.8.1 Problem with Voice Menu Systems

Voice menu systems and Voice XML are used to develop audio and voice response applications similar to automated telephone menu systems. These systems can cause issues for people with cognitive disabilities who may not have the reasoning skills to understand the instructions or have trouble processing the instructions quickly enough while listening to an array of options to choose from. A person with a cognitive disability may have trouble with short-term memory resulting in the inability to remember the number or verbal response required by the application, or may take a longer period of time to verbalize or enter in a response.

2.3.8.2 Solutions for Voice Menu Systems
  • Should have an easily remembered or standard instruction to reach a person for help, such as "0".
  • Describe the option before giving the instruction of what information or option is used to select that option.
  • Use simple terms or language for better comprehension.
  • Pause between phrases, or options, to give time for the user to process the verbal information.
  • Allow more time for the user to provide a response.
  • Provide options for the user to slow down the speech, increase pauses, and allow the user to request more time to respond.
  • Make it easy to go back to a previous menu item, preferably in a standard way, such as '9'.
  • Make it easy to recover from errors, without hanging up on the user, causing them to start from the beginning, or giving even more complex instructions/menus.
  • Avoid advertisements, as they are a distraction that can cause the user further confusion and difficulty remembering options.
  • When designing a voice response system as a product, provide examples and advice that demonstrate how to reduce cognitive load.

2.3.9 Online Payments

2.3.9.1 Problems with Online Payments

People with various cognitive impairments can have a variety of difficulties with the online payment systems used in e-commerce. These difficulties range from having trouble understanding the instructions and process to be followed to complete a transaction to issues in providing the necessary personal and financial information to make an online payment. If an online payment system requires a lot of user input for required information, the presentation of the input fields could cause a cluttered look, which can be distracting and make it difficult for the user to process the steps to take to complete the transaction, adding to their frustration and stress. If the online payment system has voiced commands, persons with speech perception issues may not be able to fully understand the instructions to respond appropriately.

2.3.9.2 Solutions for Online Payments

The solutions are split into five categories as follows:

  • Navigation
    • Standardize any controls, features and navigation in the online payment system for consistency.
    • Keep menus short with clear labels and signs.
    • Provide ways to navigate back step-by-step or start over.
    • Provide prompts and feedback on the user's progress, give appropriate help when an error is encountered.
    • Limit the number of options to lower cognitive overload.
  • Functionality
    • Use CSS to provide the user control of how information is presented, such as: font, font size, line height, spaces between lines of text, the size of click/touch areas, mouse-over highlighting of text, changes of background and text colors.
    • Provide user with list of information they need to have ready prior to using the web payment system.
    • Provide definitions and explanations for technical terms, acronyms, etc. used by the web payment system.
    • Keep alerts and feedback on the screen until the user explicitly dismisses them.
    • Provide search capabilities tolerant of misspellings and typos.
    • For users with low-literacy or processing impairments, include speaking text/narration.
  • Content and Text
    • Use plain language and short, concise sentences.
    • Use appropriate graphics to enhance understanding.
    • Place critical content "above the fold" to avoid scrolling, if possible.
    • Use bulleted lists and a single idea per paragraph to make more digestible "chunks" of information.
    • Provide meaningful headings.
    • Avoid full justification of text (left and right margins) which can cause large white areas between words.
    • The line length of text should be less than 70-80 characters.
    • Avoid the use of non-literal text and colloquialisms in the text.
    • For people with memory limitations, reduce the standard 7 ± 2 elements per screen to 4 ± 2.
    • Provide the ability for the user to request longer or shorter content to either increase or decrease details provided.
  • Layout
    • Use a consistent layout for each page or step in the web payment system.
    • Streamline the page and reduce any extra information not key to completing the web transaction.
    • Use plenty of white space for an uncluttered look
    • Highlight urgent or important information to be easier to find.
    • Avoid menus that appear or disappear with mouse hover and text that moves or changes.
    • Use high contrast between text and the background.
  • Multimedia
    • As applicable, use typical accessibility techniques: captions, audio description, subtitles.
    • Use sounds to enhance the visual experience, such as auditory feedback to signal a change of state or completion of an action.
    • Avoid animated graphics which can be distracting, or provide controls to allow the user to adjust the speed of the motion.
    • Use graphics and icons as navigation aids, or to indicate progression through the steps for completing a web payment transaction.

2.3.10 Symbol Users with Speech, Language, and Literacy Difficulties

2.3.10.1 Problems with Symbol Users with Speech, Language, and Literacy Difficulties

Some users communicate through the use of symbols, rather than written text, as part of an Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) system. Symbol users face a wide variety of barriers to accessing web content, but one of the main challenges is a lack of standard interoperability or a mechanism for translating how a concept is represented in one symbol set to how it may be represented in another symbol set.

2.3.10.2 Solutions for Symbol Users with Speech, Language, and Literacy Difficulties

Map symbol libraries to common concepts, so that symbols can be accurately converted to text in any language and then presented to other users in their preferred symbol library.

2.3.10.3 Further Work for Symbol Users with Speech, Language, and Literacy Difficulties
  • Explore the use of AUI-symbol = "uri" and the Concept Coding Framework (CCF) to link and map symbols based on concept coding
  • Work with symbol dataset providers to publish symbols and concepts as "Linked Open Data"

See https://w3c.github.io/personalization-semantics/content/index.html#symbol-explanation and https://github.com/w3c/personalization-semantics/wiki/Implementations-of-Semantics for progress on this work.

2.3.11 Task Completion and Emotional Disabilities

2.3.11.1 Problems with Task Completion and Emotional Disabilities

Users experiencing anxiety, depression or other emotional disabilities may experience difficulty completing online tasks. This is especially true if the tasks are timed or require the user to complete steps involving multiple screens.

2.3.11.2 Solutions for Task Completion and Emotional Disabilities

Provide feedback to users if a task is not complete and provide a way for users to know:

  • How long a task will take
  • Where they are within a task
  • How to move to the next step or go back to a previous step
  • How to make corrections or change their input
  • How to receive help online and/or from a human being
  • How to extend timed tasks
  • Reduce unwanted interruptions, without reducing critical or wanted interruptions
  • Reducing the amount of "noise," distractions and cognitive load
2.3.11.3 Further Work for Task Completion and Emotional Disabilities
  • Outline existing WCAG 2.1 success criteria that support task completion and define techniques for the remaining solutions
  • Create additional techniques
  • Create supporting architectures

See Adaptable Tools (https://w3c.github.io/personalization-semantics/tools/index.html) and https://github.com/w3c/personalization-semantics/wiki/Implementations-of-Semantics for progress on this work.

More research and literary reviews are needed on the effect of emotional disabilities on usability.

2.3.12 Graded Help

2.3.12.1 Problems with Graded Help

Users with cognitive impairments may need different levels and different types of help, depending on their circumstances.

2.3.12.2 Solutions for Graded Help

Offer multiple means of help and a consistent mechanism for users to choose the type of help they need. For example:

  • Help is located in one location on every screen
  • The user is able to customize the type of help they want (e.g. tool tips, definitions, etc.)
  • It is clear how to open and close the help feature
  • Help may be left open while the task is being completed so that the user can refer back to the help
  • Users can choose different types of help files (e.g. graphic, text, symbol, flowchart, etc.)
  • Information is provided for how to contact human help
  • Enable help to change as user needs and abilities change
2.3.12.3 Further Work for Graded Help
  • Define help use cases for various platforms and language needs
  • Create supporting techniques and semantics
  • Define user needs to include help preferences

See Adaptable Help and Support (https://w3c.github.io/personalization-semantics/help/index.html) and user needs collections (https://github.com/w3c/personalization-semantics/wiki/User-needs-collections) for progress on this work.

2.3.13 Way Finding

2.3.13.1 Problems with Way Finding

People with cognitive impairments may experience problems navigating through buildings such as museums, hospitals, airports, and public transportation stations. Navigation difficulties can be caused by problems with:

  • Memory
  • Executive function
  • Attention
  • Language
  • Perception processing and or
  • Knowledge

Problems with wayfinding apps include:

  • Interruptions
  • Difficulty finding controls and settings
  • Changes in the directions that increase the chances of the user getting lost
  • Inability to select simplicity of speed
  • Changes in the screen orientation
  • Confusion over instructions and terms used
  • Confusion with directional terms such as left and right
2.3.13.2 Solutions for Way Finding
  • Ease-of-use principles (e.g. use of color, consistent layout, use of symbols or images, clearly marked directions, etc.)
  • Guidelines for wayfinding technologies
  • Guidelines for wearable technologies
2.3.13.3 Further Work for Way Finding
  • Explore current wayfinding technologies and applications for people with cognitive impairments
  • Develop example wayfinding techniques to use when designing solutions with the needs of cognitive impairments in mind

2.3.14 Web of Things (WoT)

2.3.14.1 Problems with Web of Things (WoT)

People with cognitive impairments may experience multiple difficulties with devices that are part of the Internet of Things. For example, some people may have trouble processing text and numbers. The test or symbols used may not be intuitive to the user. Other people may have difficulty with auditory information, spatial orientation, or responding to prompts on devices before the prompts time out. These types of difficulties could prohibit people with cognitive disabilities from operating smart devices that have impacts on their health and safety.

In addition, user data is used to drive decision making across smart systems. If systems are not usable by people with disabilities, then these groups of people become invisible to the decision making process. Analysis of data needs to ensure that all disability groups are represented in user data and feedback.

2.3.14.2 Solutions for Web of Things (WoT)
  • Provide guidance to support consistent design for navigation, familiar terms and symbols, functional user preferences, contextual clues and personal use patterns, consistent layout, and the effective use of multimedia.
  • Provide interfaces to support:
    • Adaptability and easily personalizable content so that the user is familiar with the terms and symbols used
    • Compatibility with supportive API's, or
    • Alternative simplified control
  • Offer guidance for data-driven smart systems to include user data from all disability groups.
2.3.14.3 Further Work for Web of Things (WoT)
  • Review and evaluate the application of API's such as URC http://www.openurc.org/
  • Review IoT API's to determine if they provide cognitive supports, such as the ability to have fewer features presented to the end user and understandable, familiar interfaces
  • Define simplification requirements for IoT APIs
  • Ensure proper semantic markup of web and IoT interfaces
  • Create guidance to ensure that data-driven smart systems include user data from all disability groups.

See https://w3c.github.io/personalization-semantics for progress on this work.

3. Roadmap of Solutions Against User Needs

COGA gap analysis, tables of user needs

This section identifies the different needs of the community and proposes suggestions on how standards and technologies could be developed to meet these needs. This section is designed for standards’ groups and policy makers. Each section addresses a different group of related user needs. Related user needs have been grouped together to help define a coherent solution space. It identifies user needs that are not currently fully addressed by accessibility.

Tables of user needs: each table addresses a group of user needs. The tables show how related user needs can be met.

Users needs are also represented by a few related user stories in the form of "As a <role>, I want <goal/desire> so that <benefit>".

Editor's note

The task force intend to update this section with:

  • Updates due to changes in the personalization specification and the web accessibility guidelines,
  • updates from new research,
  • editorial changes and
  • changes to make it easier to read and follow.

We would like suggestions that could be used to make this section more understandable.

There is also an issue summary.

Please note this table is incomplete, and is a work in progress.)

3.1 Table 1: Authentication and Safety

About users: Many users (most COGA groups) have memory issues that can make transcribing text or remembering passwords difficult or impossible. Other contributing issues include impaired executive function.

Sometimes security and authentication put a barrier between users and the tasks they are doing. For example, requiring remembering and/or transcribing passwords often bar users with cognitive disabilities from accessing content or using a service.

This leads to the following user stories.

  1. As a user who has memory impairments and often forgets passwords, I need to be able to use a site, without remembering or transcribing passwords and user names, so I can use its service.
  2. As a user who has impairments, I need to use a site without being required to transcribe items in the correct sequence.
  3. As a user who has weak executive function, I need the login process to be simple, and not multi-step, so I can use it.
  4. As a symbol user, I need a login process I can use.
User Needs *

WCAG

Proposed Success Criteria *

Authoring Techniques*

Proposed New Semantics *

Personalization* Operating System / Other *

I need a method of secure website authentication that I find easy to use.

(Assume I have cognitive and memory impairments.) 

more 

Accessible authentication

Level A

--------

Editor's note

does this support symbol users?

Minimize the cognitive skills required to use the content - the examples in security.

Techniques should include how to have security that uses passwords or transcribing, such as biometrics and tokens.

None
Editor's note

we need to capture types of security these users can employ and, maybe, if they require the use of an API such as password storage.

Hardware and operating systems could provide authentication to websites and applications.
Editor's note

needs further investigation and risk analysis.

Encourage a standardized third party sign in, which is exclusively for authentication, and helps users login anywhere. 

 

I need a safe way to interact online. 

(Assume I do not have the cognitive function to identify all risks.)

more  

As above

and

Safe

Use known techniques to keep user information safe, and warn users of any known risk.

and

Do not automatically choose options that may disadvantage users without their approval, or add mechanisms likely to confuse users in a way that may do them harm.

Level A

Keep users safe.

Editor's note

Add: notify users when they are leaving a website if leaving it may cause them harm.

Give positive and negative examples.

We need to ensure users are not put at risk due to personalization and storing data. Proposals include use of functional requirements and employing personalization on users' devices. Tools for users to warn them when a post or an activity may expose them, or is considered inappropriate.

Discussion

Privacy and Security issue paper

Online Safety issue paper

Script for Personalization and example for personalization

Semantics

Proposal for WCAG

Techniques

3.2 Table 2: Context and Distractions

About users: distractions can cause users with cognitive disabilities to lose focus on the current action being performed; or draw attention away from primary content; and can be difficult for some users to know how to understand, avoid, and/or stop them.

Once users become distracted, it can be difficult for them to remember what they were doing. This is especially problematic for users with both low attention and impaired memory, such as users with dementia.

This leads to the following user stories.

Editor's note

The task force intends to add user stories.

User needs

User Needs *

WCAG

Proposed Success Criteria *

Authoring Techniques *

Proposed New Semantics *

Personalization* Operating System / Other *

I need to consume content or complete a task without unnecessary distractions.

(Assume I have an attention related disability.)

 more 

Change 2.2.4 Interruptions:

Level A

--------

Editor's note

this was accepted into WCAG 2.1 at level AAA.

Attention and Focus

Proposed attribute: aui-distraction

Proposed attribute: aui-reminder

Enable users to turn off less-helpful reminders.

Editor's note

we need the formal user setting to enable different responses to semantics.

I need to know the context, where I am, and what I just did, or what just happened to me.

(Assume I have an attention disability and/or an impaired short-term memory.)

as above

and

Clear purpose

(Requires signposts for sub tasks.)

Clear structure and relationships:

Also see:

Help

Manageable blocks

As above, and WCAG techniques to include the following.

Headings and titles are provided that provide context.

In a multi step process, both the process and the step are identified.

Items such as breadcrumbs can help orient users, and help users restore context when it is lost.

(Making breadcrumbs clickable can also help users undo mistakes.)

Any choices made by users in a process are easy to review in one clearly-labeled action.

Users can get back to the place they were at in one clearly labeled action.

For an uncomplicated task, the website is identified (broader scope).

Proposed attribute:

aui-LOG

Should we enable a programmable way of identifying what are normal hidden variables of:

  • labels for steps in the process;
  • current step;
  • key selections; and
  • URL to repair?
Enable users to identify what orientation tools they prefer for presentation of steps in a process, such as breadcrumbs. For example, identity an adaptable widget to interpret the crumbs. Adaptable widgets for context

I need to restore context when I forget where I am or get distracted.

(Assume I have an impaired short-term memory.)

As above.

(See: A clear navigational path is provided for all content that: )

As above

Help users orient themselves and regain focus when it is lost.

I need to restore context in multimedia. I need to go back to that bit I just missed, or reorient myself if I lost context.

(Assume I have an attention disability and/or an impaired short-term memory.)

As above. Help users orient themselves and regain focus when it is lost.

For multimedia,  provide  labels for sections such that the labels can provide an outline of the content.
For multimedia, users can directly navigate to each section of the content.
Unique
Media over five minutes long are divided into programmatically determinable and logical sections. Each section must be shorter than five minutes.
For multimedia,  chunks may include: steps in a process, slide changes, topic changes.

..

I need reminders of important information.

(Assume I have an attention disability and/or an impaired short-term memory.)

Reminders

Enable users to set a reminder for date-and-time sensitive events. Reminders should be set only at users' request. Users should be able to personalize the reminder method.

As above. And, if there is a calendar / mail program, it could provide a feature to notify users of an impending meeting or of tasks (broader scope).

Proposed attributes:

aui-messageimportance

messagefrom

messagecontext

messagetime

Enable users to turn off less-helpful reminders.

User settings for how reminders are handled, including preferred modalities of different levels. Examples are: email, SMS, call, pop up.

Personalizing a reminder could include setting a type (e.g., personal, work, family).

or

by user-defined groups of users and sites (most important to least important).

or

by types users can define of reminders (e.g., office, important) and how they are handled

Note there are also location-sensitive events (for example "remind me to do x when I get home".)

I need to turn off distractions 1) to be a default, and 2) to be a trivial option in real time.

(Assume I have an attention disability, and/or an impaired short-term memory, and/or impaired executive function).

As above

and

Change 2.2.4 Interruptions:

and

Upgrade 3.2.5 Change on Request:

Support personalization.

Enable users to determine levels of interruptions as easily as possible.

As above.

User settings for distractions need to be interoperable.

Users should be able to handle:

  • groups of interruptions based upon user, urgency, location, and other semantics;
  • secondary content, such as special offers or complementary material, which can be easily identified, controlled, and turned off;
  • sudden changes that occur on the site;
  • media events that can be easily controlled and turned off;
  • chat that can be easily turned off and on again; and
  • non-critical messages that can easily be turned off and on again.

Operating System Tool

See Integrated solution.

It is based on a matrix for distractions at the operating system, browser, or cloud level. Users can turn off distractions, such as Skype and Facebook, across different devices, and then may forget to turn them back on. This idea manages all distractions by forming a cross-application and cross-device distraction matrix that manages all distractions in one setting.

Discussion

Distractions issue paper

Script for personalization and Example for personalization

Semantics

Proposal for WCAG

Techniques

3.3 Table 3: Entering Data, Error Prevention, & Recovery

About users: Completing forms and similar tasks can be overwhelming for most users with cognitive and learning disabilities. This includes relatively minor learning disabilities, such as Dyslexia, or attention related disabilities. Many users (most COGA groups) have memory issues that can make transcribing text difficult or impossible. Other contributing issues include impaired executive function.

Many users with learning disabilities cannot remember numbers, such as those for their post/zip code, Social Security, or credit card. Many users even need to check their phone numbers. This makes entering information slow, and they may need to leave their desks or take breaks.

Many users find it very difficult to transcribe information due to low visual memory or impaired executive function.

This leads to the following user stories.

User Needs

User Needs *

WCAG

Proposed Success Criteria *

Authoring Techniques *

Proposed New Semantics *

Personalization* Operating System / Other *

I need help avoiding mistakes and minimizing the mistakes I might make.

 more 

3.3.3 Minimize user errors 

Editor's note

part of this could be adressed in WCAG 2.1 at level AA by 1.3.4 on autofill.

Editor's note

change to 3.3.2 Labels or Instructions.

Editor's note

add and identify changes.

Undo

Editor's note

change to 3.3.4 Error Prevention.

Safe

and

3.3.5 Help: (AA)

Provided content and information that help users understand complex information, long documents, numerical information, forms, and nonstandard controls. 

Where an understanding of math is not a primary requirement for using content, reinforce numbers with non-numerical values. 

Simple search forms are excluded (context-sensitive help as technique).

Clear controls​

--------

Where there is no way to make visual controls clear, ensure instructions are provided (technique COGA explain).

Ensure these criteria work in any modality, including voice, and in emerging technologies such as bots, so that techniques are evolvable.

A - provide beginner help, or easy access to human help, on forms and interactive controls for critical services.

AA - provide beginner help, and easy access to human help, on forms and interactive controls for critical services.

Prevent Errors

..

Provide Help

..

COGA Techniques 2.7: aui-explain to explain any nonstandard UI where they cannot be.

Explain and feedback

Adding Context

Standardize supportive syntax and terms that can be linked, for users, to associated symbols, terms, translations, and explanations.

Log

This proposal is to track tasks users have done so they can be reminded of them; and return to or fix a task.

Help

Some users may need additional information, or specifically additional-help information. We request additonal attributes so an author can indicate existence of additional information.

Proposed attribute: aui-moreinfo

Supported values: URI

Proposed attribute: aui-extrahelp

Supported values: URI

Proposed attribute: aui-helptype

Settings for how help is handled

aui-Log

Keep login (binary)

Show log

access key

help panel

icon

Breadcrumbs Options:

show name

show action

show clickable

use script (URI)

location

Help panel

Options:

When I click an icon/text
Never
Always open

location

Help panel content

tooltips / human help / more help / topics earch

/automated / FAQs / help form / simplified / glossary/

dictionary / thesaurus

explain / feedback

tooltips

on / off

chat support

When I click an icon / text
never / always
open location.

Settings for how explain and feedback are handled:

modality

text

text and speech

none

positions

vertical (bottom / top in-line)

(left, right, center?)

Adaptable widgets, which read help information, and create a help panel or other adaptable widget for different users.

Login across application

I need to know what mistake I made and how to correct a mistake. It does not cause undue alarm when I make a mistake and can correct it easily. Provide Feedback

Undo

A simple mechanism is provided to enable users to undo mistakes. Users can repair information via clearly-labeled actions. Users can get back to the place they were at in one clearly-labeled action with unwanted loss of data.

Editor's note

also covered in WCAG in 3.3.1.

Editor's note

making error-message text understandable is covered in WCAG in Understandable language.

Instructions, labels, navigation ..

Editor's note

also see WCAG 3.3.4 Error Prevention (Legal, Financial, Data) (financial legal and user data) and 3.3.6 (All).

Editor's note

change to 3.3.4 Error Prevention.

Editor's note

WCAG 3.3.4 to include important information (such as health).

Editor's note

add/check?

Error messaging should be clear, concise, and reassuring.

Make it easy to undo mistakes.

Explain and Feedback

Editor's note

change feedback to a role.

aui-moreinfo

This supports a URI where more help is provided (often with an aui-extrahelp support).

aui-extrahelp

This is really an element with a help role.

The attribute defines which type of help it is: tooltips / human help / more help.

/glossary / dictionary / thesaurus

Editor's note

add the use case of an error message with aui-moreinfo, and aui-extrahelp to the semantics document.

See Settings for how Explain and feedback above.

Should aui-moreinfo links be shown:

  • never;
  • text;
  • icon;
  • icon and text?

aui-helptype - for each type

tooltips / human help/ more help

/ glossary / dictionary / thesaurus, etc.:

  • show never;
  • help panel (default closed);
  • help panel (default open);
  • inline;
  • under link text;
  • under icon;
  • under both icon and linked text.

Help panel should have its own settings.

I need enough time, and not lose my work. Changes to timed events.

Help users complete and check their work.

Enough Time

Avoid Loss of data.

Users can set that the data are / are not stored.

Users can set a time minimum for controlling how long they see timeout messages.

Editor's note

issue paper may be needed to explore how to enable automatic acceptance of cookies, and stored data, to avoid data loss for certified or safe sites; and for limited usage or time.

I want to use applications or APIs that help me, such as remembering my information so I do not need to enter it again, and to help me (such as spelling).

Help

Support APIs (may change)

..

Avoid form autocomplete="off"

Correctly use tags, such as list items, so that text to speech, with synchronized text highlighting, works correctly.

Where helpful, identify in metadata what features and APIs are supported in the content.

Metadata that identify API and feature support that match with personalization settings.

Enable users to specify API support ([GPII] and [ETSI]) for the browser and the user agent.

Portal that matches support of an application and content; and users' needed support of features and APIs.

I want to know where I am in a process, including what I have done and what my next step is.

Clear Purpose

(Text: The main purpose of each page and section of content is clear. Extraneous information, not directly relevant to the main purpose of a page, is distinctly separated and programmatically determinable. For multi-step tasks, signposts should be provided to clarify the broader context, including steps completed, current step, and pending steps.)

See also:

Clear structure and relationships

Help:

Help users orient themselves, and regain focus when it is lost.

..

LOG

Editor's note

add how to identify steps in a process, and current position, so users can have breadcrumbs or other mechanisms of their choice.

There should not be more than one login per page.

Enable users to specify the mechanism that they understand.

Users specify which information in the login they want shown.

Users can specify a widget that shows the login.

Users can specify where the login should be:

  • top;
  • top of main;
  • bottom of main;
  • bottom page;
  • left / right /center.
a cross browser, cross application login, or breadcrumb.
I want to be able to check my work and go back without losing the work I have just done.
Editor's note

change to 3.3.4 Error Prevention (Legal, Financial, Data)

Undo

See also:

Help

Change to timed events.

The timeframe for reversing transactions is machine readable.

Make it easy to undo mistakes.

Log

Enable users to identify orientation tools they prefer for the presentation of steps in a process, such as breadcrumbs. For example, identity an adaptable widget to interpret the breadcrumbs.

Editor's note

add at phase 2?

People with bipolar illness and others can be supported for easy retracting of orders within a set timeframe; and

metadata to support the site identifying which timeframe transactions can be undone;

metadata to support site identification of context, or support transactions, such as groceries and travel;

transaction categories, such as noncritical transactions, non-financial (signing up for a news letter, etc.);

user preferences, which are hard to reset, and that set the preferred timeframe;

user preferences that block websites which do not conform to the timeframe for different types of transactions (glossary or technology - different context);

user preferences that inform a caregiver of a transaction above a specified amount in a given category (such as groceries, travel);

Adaptable widgets for context

Discussion

Script for Personalization and Example for personalization

Semantics

Proposal for WCAG

Techniques

3.4 Table 4: Help and support

About Users

Editor's note

To be completed.

This leads to the following user stories.

User Needs *

WCAG

Proposed Success Criteria *

Authoring Techniques *

Proposed New Semantics *

Personalization* Operating System / Other *

I need more explanations, such as context sensitive help and short tips.

 more 

3.3.5 Help: (AA)

Provide content and information that help users understand. complex information, long documents, numerical information, forms, and nonstandard controls. 

Where an understanding of math is not a primary requirement for using content, reinforce numbers with non-numerical values. 

Simple search forms are excluded.

3.3.2 Labels or Instructions: Labels or instructions are provided when content requires user input. Labels and instructions: 

  • fully describe an input's function;
  • use the default format and standards for localized content, in the   location of users, and enable for changes of format for labels and user input. (An exception is provided where any standard format is accepted.);
  • explain where to get required information. (An exception is provided where the information is known by the intended audience, such as users' names.)

Level A

COGA Techniques 2.7: Prevent Errors.

..

Provide Help.

..

COGA Techniques 2.7

For icons and jargon:

  • All icons and jargon have short explanations available where a standard mechanism exists for the platform or technologies in which it should be used.

For forms and nonstandard controls:

  1. Where a standard mechanism for the platform or technologies exists for context sensitive help, it should be used. (Simple search forms are excluded.)
  2. Instructions should be available for nonstandard controls.

..

..

Adding context (that adds help)

..

Editor's note

check that the way sufficient techniques are done really meet the use cases.

Adding Context

Standardize supportive syntax and terms that can be linked to associated symbols, terms, translations, and explanations for users.

More Help

See help personalization in table above.

I know how to get more information.

 more 

Support Personalization.

Editor's note

part of this could be adressed in WCAG 2.1 at level AAA by 1.3.5.

..

Critical features and important information are above the fold on users' devices, and are accentuated in the preferred modality of a user, or they appear before other main content. 

 Navigation uses clear words and a familiar interface.

Help and support page or function should be reachable with one user interaction. When human help is available, contact information or the correct mechanism should be reachable within two user interactions.

..

Support is provided that helps users understand the content, which includes:

Level A

--------

a familiar interface to identify help and contact us;

search and critical information have a familiar interface.

---

Editor's note

add at AAA. Provide links to more information.

..

Explain and Feedback

Adding Context

For users, standardize supportive syntax and terms that can be linked to associated symbols, terms, translations, and explanations

More Help

..

Requirement: Some users may need additional information, or specifically additional help information. There should be extra attributes so an author can indicate the existence of additional information.

Proposed attribute: aui-moreinfo

Supported values: URI

Proposed attribute: aui-extrahelp

Supported values: URI

Proposed attribute: aui-helptype

Supported values: tooltips / human help / more help / topic search / automated / faqs / help form / simplified / glossary / dictionary / thesaurus

 

Example:

<button type="button" aui-extrahelp="uri2 uri3" >undo</button>

URI 2 may read:

<div id="uri2" aui-helptype="morehelp" 
aria-hidden="true">  
Pressing the undo button will erase
all your work on a page. 
Use this button with care.If you press it by mistake,
press control and z at the same time.Your work will then come back.</div> <a href="functiongethelp()"
aui-helptype="humanhelp"
aui-hidden="true">
I want a person to help me</a>  
<div id="uri3" aui-extrahelp="glossary"
aui-hidden="true">

..

See help personalization in the table above, and personalization settings for the context (includes help types).

I need to easily get human help.

As above.

Finding Help. A help and support page or function should be reachable with one user interaction. When human help is available, contact information or the correct mechanism should be reachable within two user interactions.

Barriers: When there is a barrier, between content and users, which requires additional abilities, an alternative is provided that does not require additional abilities. (wording will change)

This affects reaching human help.

AAA human help is provided

Provide Human Help

..

More Help

(see above)

I need symbols that help me understand content.

Provide content and information that help users understand content.

Use symbols and images to show meaning.

Editor's note

add technique to enable interoperable symbol mapping for products for nonverbal users. Part of this could be adressed in WCAG 2.1 at level AAA by 1.3.5.

In the Web Content: Syntax: ARIA-concept = "URI". Example (Pseudo-code): <img ARIA-concept=http://wordnet.org/somepage#girlnode" scr="girlwithbow.gif" />

  • Add technique at a user-agent symbol file end:

    <mysymbol scr="girlwithskirt.gif" ARIA-concept="http://wordnet.or g/somepage#girlnode" lang="en" /> Note that this is not about standardizing symbols, but is instead a way of mapping them.

..

Adding Context

I need contextually-relevant graphs and pictures to supplement text so I can understand a point without a lot of reading.

3.3.5 Help: (AA) (changes)

Provide content and information that help users understand complex information, long documents, numerical information, forms, and nonstandard controls. 

sufficient techniques

..

(See COGA Techniques 2.7.)

For icons and jargon:

  • All icons and jargon have a short explanation available. Where a standard mechanism exists for a platform or technologies, it should be used. (COGA Techniques 2.7.)
    Editor's note

    removed to technique: Short tooltips on all icons and jargon, which clarify the meaning, are provided.

For content relating to numbers and complex information:

  • Charts or graphics are provided where they aid comprehension of complex information (COGA Techniques 2.7.3.)

..

Help meaning

Use symbols and images to show meaning.

Adding Context

I need speech support, with synchronized highlighting, so I can follow as I go. Support known standardized APIs for tools that help users understand and use content. This includes: Provide Speech Support

Editor's note

do we need semantics that identify phrases?

Use ARIA described to correlate pictures and focus rings (sections of pictures); and sections of math with text; or

Editor's note

do we need a new semantic?

Automatic speech setting for:

  • all text;
  • title and instructions;
  • title and main content;
  • title and main content and complementary content;

user driven speech in touch, click, double click, etc.;

speech with synchronized highlighting;

highlight color on / off;

I need rapid feedback.

Provide Feedback.

..

..

aui-feedback

Feedback is spoken: on / off

Highlight section of image, chart, or math, while the section is read.

All relationships - use ARIA-details.

Note 1.3.1 Info and Relationships: information, structure, and Relationships conveyed through presentation can be programmatically determined, or are available in text.

This is not inclusive as it is not visually presented.

Relationships need to be programmatically determined.

I need more space between letters, words, sentences, and/or lines of text.

I need even word spacing or x justification.

Editor's note

check if we have justified text. Has justification been included?

space between sentences

normal, high, very high

space between words

(as above)

Space between phrases / clauses (as above)

setting for

even word spacing

auto / always

justification

auto / right / left / center

I need reminders, or I will forget appointments, and when I was meant to do things. Reminders: enable users to set a reminder for date and time sensitive events. Reminders should be set only at users' requests. Users should be able to personalize a reminder method. Where a standard mechanism exists for the platform or technologies, it should be used. if there is a calendar / mail program, it could provide a feature to notify users of an impending meeting or of tasks (broader scope).

setting to personalize a reminder method, such as:

email, pop up, SMS, phone call.

Set importance level of reminders for each modality/method.

I do not want too many reminders, as I will be distracted. Reminders: Reminders should be set only at users' requests. Users should be able to personalize the reminder method. Where a standard mechanism exists for the platform or technologies, it should be used. Attention and Focus

Proposed attribute: aui-reminder

Enable users to turn off less-helpful reminders.

See table 2.

See table 2.

See table 2.
I want to be confident that I can manage my tasks.
Editor's note

add and look at as issue.

3.5 Table 5: Simple and Clear Interface

About users: many users cannot easily learn new design metaphors, or remember things they learned, such as users with mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Without these skills, it can be much harder or impossible to locate desired items to interact with, and to know what interactions may do.

Many users can be overwhelmed by too many options, or too much information. If reading is slow, then too much information mixed together will make it difficult or impossible to find the information needed.

This leads to the following user stories.

Editor's note

to be completed.

User Needs *

WCAG

Proposed Success Criteria *

Authoring Techniques *

Proposed New Semantics *

Personalization* Operating System / Other *

Controls are clear.

 more 

clear controls

Level A

--------

Editor's note

to add

Use clear visual affordances.

Adding Context

Identify how to present different roles, elements, and context elements.

See table 6.

Show borders, white space, etc.

A predictable design is used within a set of pages that includes:

I need to understand the menu terms so I know where to find things. Understandable Language

Support personalization.

The author can use simple and well understood terms.

OR

Authors need to make sure content adapts to user personalization settings to meet this need.

Adding Context

Editor's note

add new text on known elements.

See table 6 row 1

I can find the controls that I need.

Familiar Layout

Critical features and important information.

Headings,

Changes to 3.2.4 - Consistent Identification:

Changes to 3.2.3 Consistent Navigation:

clear controls

See also

support personalization.

..

 

..

Adding Context

Position, text, and format on known elements are settable by users.

Hiding of less important content

See table 6, row 1.

I need a structure that is easy follow.

Manageable chunks

3.2.4 Consistent identification

Clear controls

Familiar layout

Clear structure and relationships

3.2.3 Consistent Navigation

2.1.1 Consistent styles

Critical features and important information

..

Editor's note

add a technique on how to mark up a site map so it is adaptable.

Log

Editor's note

add semantics for a sitemap page.

(heading structure)

log customizable breadcrumbs

format and navigation for the site map

I can easily find content I need.

As above and

3.3.5 Help: (AA)

Provide search

as above as above
I need signposts so I can find information I need. Clear Purpose

See also

Critical features

3.3.5 Help: (AA)

Sufficient techniques for long documents include keywords.

Editor's note

change to  2.4.10  to AA, with the addition that headings are available, and a technique that headings are shown via personalization.

use of headings

adding part of the page to landmarks roles

Potential parts of a page
  • key points;
  • examples;
  • notes;
  • warnings; and
  • steps.

Settings needed for headings should always be shown.

Editor's note

how should parts of a page, landmarks, ePub, and COGA roles be handled?

options;

call out box (CSS reference);

symbol;

generate Nav lists;

other.

keyword format: CSS options

keyword navlist options: on / off

Multimedia - understandable structure. I find it easy to find the content needed.

Manageable blocks of information

Support personalization.(or the links can become a distraction).

Clear headings include multimedia.

Editor's note

add TOC in the summary with a TOC tag.

Use of SMIL.

TOC as an ARIA type

User settings for how a TOC or nav list should be presented:

in the description of a video;

under an icon;

under text label;

icon and text;

position of icon, TOC, etc.

I can easily separate what I need, and do not need, and find what I need.

Support Personalization.

Critical features and important information

Clear and understandable layout

3.3.3 Minimize user errors 

Consistent cues are provided that identify  different content types; and the status of elements and regions that help users understand their roles or states.

..

Editor's note

make technique for the following.

  1. Non-native content and sponsored content are clearly marked, and are visually differentiated by standardized techniques.
  2. Clearly differentiate between facts and less-substantiated opinions.
    Editor's note

    was rewritten from "Clearly differentiate between opinions and facts. "

Simplification

Adding Context

Potential parts of a page
Editor's note

add opinion

I know what an advertisement is, or one from a different website. consistent cues

sufficient technique for third party content

support personalization

Editor's note

part of this could be adressed in WCAG 2.1 at level AAA by 1.3.5.

Non-native content and sponsored content are clearly marked, and are visually differentiated by standardized techniques.

Proposed attribute: aui-distraction

Potential parts of a page

Examples:

  • external - for external content, such as sponsored or advertising (Not sign in - that is external.);
  • offers - for special offers complementary to the main content or task;
  • advertisement - advertisement or sponsored content;

how to format different elements

See row 1, table 6.

I know where to find things on a page.

Familiar layout:

and

Changes to 3.2.2 - 3.2.4

Editor's note

techniques to include - making common components and icons programmatically determinable enables their positions to be standardized via personalization.

Editor's note

techniques to include: example of COGA-WCAG technique.

In 2015, in websites with English text, a standard layout includes:
  • a search box in the upper0right corner;
  • a link to the home page in the upper-left corner;
  • a site map in the footer; and
  • main menus at the tops of pages, under login and search, or on the left side.

Adding Context

Setting for positioning of elements (see above).

Enabling users to set a familiar layout, such as Android, Windows, iOS, and which version (or this should set individual settings as a template).

I know the design patterns.

clear controls

..

Familiar layout

..

Support personalization

(See COGA Techniques 2.3)
  1. Interactive controls are visible.
  2. Interactive controls, including links, are visually discriminable, and their boundaries are visually clear.
    1. Boundaries on interactive controls, and boundaries of icons, should have a sufficient color contrast of 1.5.
  3. Interactive controls, with the same role, are consistently presented across a set of web pages.
  4. The qualities or properties of a control define its possible uses. It is clear how it can or should be used, and what action it will trigger.
  5. Actions and actionable items, which can be interacted with, should have a clear visual style that indicates how to interact with them (e.g., buttons that look like buttons). Visually clear controls can be made easily available though easy-to-use personalization (when available).
Adding Context

Setting how roles and elements should be presented.

Button view, CSS associated classes for each role or element type with pseudo states

Unambiguous affordances - I know what things are and what they do.

clear controls

Familiar layout

Understandable language (instructions, labels, navigation, and important information )

..

Support personalization

..

3.3.5 Help: (AA)

(Provided content and information that help users understand complex information, long documents, numerical information, forms, and nonstandard controls.)

..

aui-explain for more details on users interface Language type support

..

aui-explain for more details on users' interfaces

as above

user settings - how should aui-explain be shown?

aui-explain -

  • show never;
  • inline;
  • in-help panel (default closed);
  • in-help panel (default open);
  • inline;
  • under link text (with positions);
  • under icon (with positions);
  • under both icon and linked text (with positions).

3.6 Table 6: Familiar interface

About users: many users cannot easily learn new design metaphors, or remember things they learned, such as users with mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Without these skills, it can be much harder or impossible to locate desired items to interact with, and to know what interactions may do. Users can feel lost or overwhelmed.

Using a familiar design, terms and symbols are key to being able to use the web for users who cannot remember new symbols (such as some users with memory related impairments like dementia). Therefore, users need things to be familiar including:

However, what is familiar for one user may be new for another. So, the interface needs to be familiar to the individual user.

This leads to the following user stories:

Editor's note

to be completed.

User Needs *

WCAG

Proposed Success Criteria *

Authoring Techniques *

Proposed New Semantics *

Personalization* Operating System / Other *

I am familiar with the UI, and I know how to work it and what will happen when I work it.

 more 

Support personalization.

Level A

Editor's note

part of this could be addressed in WCAG 2.1 at level AAA by 1.3.5.

--------

Familiar layout:

Adding Context

In adding a semantic for the context (what the thing is for), such as:

aui-action="undo"

or

aui-destination="home"

and additional landmarks or regions, such as

role="warning"

Editor's note

part of this could be addressed in WCAG 2.1 at level AAA by 1.3.5.

User settings will need to address how to handle different contexts, such as aui-action="undo", for example, and which symbol to load for the setting.

A mechanism is needed to read users' settings and adapt the page. Open source script is available being worked on at https://github.com/ayelet-seeman/coga.personalisation

User settings for each contextual element include:

text;

tooltip;

Longdesc (extra help);

symbol

shortcut

@ARIA-hidden

(and any other attribute)

to add : location)

Editor's note

also add for other COGA attributes.

"@aui-simplification": [{ "critical": { "settings": [{ "@ARIA-hidden": "false", "CSS": "visibility:visible;" }] }

designs that are familiar

A vocabulary of design elements, such as hamburger menus, pop-ups, help swipe right, setting swipe left, etc., is needed.

For each one, familiar options:

fluent;

familiar;

unknown symbol (URL)

text =""

locations

  • any;
  • top;
  • top of main;
  • bottom of main;
  • bottom page;
  • left / right / center.

Also, a user setting is needed: how to handle when personalization and context information are available.

Personalization options

auto;

auto with default button (URI);

none;

personalization option button (URI);

toolbar button (URI);

menu button (URI);

combo box with additional options {default, json1 uri, json2uri, etc}.

All these above may be set by users identifying a familiar operating system or some familiar pages.

A taxonomy of support end values is needed.

A taxonomy is needed for user preferences.

[GPII], [ETSI], and other standards will need to enable these preferences to be portable.

Step-by-step instructions may be needed for setting personalization settings.

Definitions of tested values for personalization, test pages so authors can run a small test suite, and tests for all settings in the test suite range.

Schemes for personalization need to include context and changes in abilities.

I need symbols I understand immediately. as the above Techniques for using correct semantics, and importing a script that adapts a web page. Adding Context

And adding context nodes.

See above.

The author will need to ensure content adapts to user personalization settings to meet this need.

For example, an open-source script could be included that would read user settings and import correct symbols.

See: http://rawgit.com/ayelet-seeman/COGA.personalisation/demo/conactUs.html

I need different types of messages to be consistent in different parts of the screen. as above as above

Use of location as above with any element role, or context, or type.

see help table 3

I need controls to be consistently positioned on the screen. as the above Adding Context

Use of location as above with any element role, or context, or type.

Discussions

Editor's note

clarify the following user needs and add them to the above table.

Editor's note

add the above user needs to the table, mapping user needs to solutions.

3.7 Table 7: Clear and understandable content and text.

About Users

Editor's note

to be completed.

This leads to the following user stories.

User needs for understandable text:

See also user needs for understandable content addressed in table 4:

User Needs *

WCAG

Proposed Success Criteria *

Authoring Techniques *

Proposed New Semantics *

Personalization* Operating System / Other *

Understandable use of vocabulary, syntax, and other aspects of language.

Clear language

 more 

Understandable language (on instructions, labels, navigation, and important information)

Level A and AA

also

Support personalization.

--------

To add

Provide clear language for all content.

Level AAA

2.3 Writing style

Use a clear writing style.

2.3.1 Be clear and to the point.

aui-alternative

aui-easylang

Alternative is to use of EMMA

Editor's note

we still need to standardize the terms, such as for complexity.

aui-literal

Emotional ML can also be used to identify emotions in content (also for multimedia).

Editor's note

do we need another way of adding emotions or sarcasm into content?

We need user settings for:

1. What type of COGA alternative text, e.g., easylang numberfree vocab1000.

2. Type of COGA alternative non-text.

This will match the terms in HTML (with extra semantics), or in EMMA so a user agent or website know which one to render.

User settings are needed for:

1. Who prefers literal text, and

2. Who wants less implicit information?

When there is a preferred alternative for navigation / text / labels, always specify each one separately.

  • Show it in brackets after the text.
  • Change the text format, and put the alternative in a tooltip (Specify Format).
  • Put both the original and alternative in a help panel.
  • Replace original text.

Authoring tools can be created to check if content is in need of alternatives.

A taxonomy is needed for user preferences.

[GPII], [ETSI], and other standards will need to enable these preferences to be portable.

Tools can build the literal-text values or Emotional ML languages.

User agents or cloud services can provide and display clarifying information.

Clarify implied information and provide unambiguous information.

 more 

Understandable language (on instructions, labels, navigation, and important information)

Clear language in instructions - use literal text:(AA)

and

Each step in instructions are identified and concrete wording is used.

------------

Support personalization.

Editor's note

add to AAA.

Clarify implied information and clarify the emotional content.

Use a clear Writing style.

2.3.1 Be clear and to the point.

..

2.3.2 Give instructions clearly

aui-literal

Emotional ML can also be used to identify emotions in content (also for multimedia).

Editor's note

do we need another way of adding the emotions or sarcasm into content?

[EMMA] can also be used in content.

User settings must be available to identify when a user prefers literal content without implicit content.

Reduction of dependence on understanding math concepts.

  • To use content without understanding math concepts.
  • Representation of math by words instead of numbers.

(representation of math by words instead of numbers)

 more 

3.3.5 Help

Provide content and information that help users understand. complex information, long documents, numerical information, forms, and nonstandard controls. 

Where an understanding of math is not a primary requirement for using content,  reinforce numbers with non-numerical values. 

Simple search forms are excluded.

Editor's note

make sure there are sufficient techniques for complex information and numbers.

  • Charts or graphics are provided to aid comprehension of complex information (COGA Techniques 2.7.3 )
  • Tables are provided to aid comprehension of information.
  • Understanding of math is not a primary requirement for using content. Reinforce numbers with non-numerical values, e.g., Very Cold, Cold, Cool, Mild, Warm, Hot, Very Hot.

------

Also see

Support personalization.

..

Ability to have mathematical notation with text to speech to aid understanding.

Use of synchronized highlighting of complex graphics and formula with speech.

Associate maths, sections of math, and sections of complex items, with explanations.

2.6.3.5 Relative values
Editor's note

this is not clear.

Use semantics to provide extra help.

Explain mathematical concepts with non-mathematical language. For example "change 90% agree", to "most users (90%) agree".

aui-numberfree

User settings must identify:

1. when a user prefers content with less numerical content and prefers words;

2. when a user prefers content without dependence on math concepts;

3. users who prefer mathematical content;

possible settings

format - CSS class =underline / bold

Show as=

tooltip/onclick/help panel/replace.

Can select more than one, do the first option if available, and, if not, do the next option.

For example "tooltip onclick" - do tooltip if available. If not, use onclick.

Support for slow readers

Manageable blocks of information:

Understandable language

clear structure and relationships.

When there is a barrier, between content and users, which requires additional cognitive function, an alternative is provided that does not require additional cognitive function.

Support personalization.

clear text and voice

Critical features and important information are above the fold on most users' devices, and are accentuated in the preferred modalities of users, or they appear before other main content. 

Clear headings

Enable APIs

Help: (AA)

Provide content and information that help users understand complex information, long documents, numerical information, forms, and nonstandard controls. 

Where an understanding of math is not a primary requirement for using content, reinforce numbers with non-numerical values. 

Editor's note

ensure sufficient techniques, as in the next volume.

Use a clear writing style.

Use a clear structure.

2.5 Help meaning

Editor's note

ensure sufficient techniques.

For icons and jargon:

  • All icons and jargon have short explanations available. Where a standard mechanism exists for the platform or technologies, it should be used (COGA Techniques 2.7.)
    Editor's note

    removed to technique: Short tooltips on all icons and jargon that clarify the meaning are provided.

For content with more than 200 words, provide a summary.

  1. For pieces of content with fewer than 200 words, headings may act as summaries.
  2. The content owner identifies at least two keywords that aid comprehension for users. Keywords are programmatically determinable, and emphasized in the preferred modalities of users.

For key content and call out boxes:

  • Symbols are provided to help users identify key content including: types of contact information, main functions, warnings, and key points. Where a standard mechanism exists for the platform or technologies, it should be used.

For events:

  • Enable users to set a reminder for date and time sensitive events. Reminders should be set only at the users request. Users should be able to personalize the reminder method. Where a standard mechanism exists for the platform or technologies, it should be used

For forms and nonstandard controls

  1. Where a standard mechanism for the platform or technologies exist for context sensitive help, it should be used. (Simple search forms are excluded.)
  2. Instructions should be available for nonstandard controls.

And others...

As above

Also, having less content is helpful for slow readers,

aui-simplification= "simplest"

()

Enabling APIs is also important.

()

User settings should be enabled, saying:

what levels of symbols, graphics, and support users need. (See table 4.)

synchronized highlighting

simplification level

What APIs do users need?

User agents or cloud based software to adapt content, and to enable users to jump to keywords.

tools to add extra semantics

tools to identify when extra semantics are missing

I need to understand (familiar) symbols.

New technique for 1.3.1

Editor's note

under 1.3.1, add technique to enable interoperable symbol mapping for products for nonverbal users.

In the Web Content: Syntax: ARIA-concept = "URI". Example (Pseudo-code): <img ARIA-concept=http://wordnet.org/somepage#girlnode" scr="girlwithbow.gif" />

Editor's note

make sure this is proposed.

-----------

Support personalization.

3.3.5 Help: (AA)

with sufficient techniques .

For key content and callout boxes:

  • symbols are provided to help users identify key content, including: types of contact information, main functions, warnings, and key points. Where a standard mechanism exists for the platform or technologies, it should be used.
Adding Context

Ensure symbols can be are associated with types for call out boxes.

Identify preferred symbol sets for concept mapping.

I need to understand images and multi-media.

3.3.5 Help: (AA)

with sufficient techniques

For icons and jargon:

  • All icons and jargon have short explanations available. Where a standard mechanism exists for the platform or technologies, it should be used. (COGA Techniques 2.7.)
    Editor's note

    removed to technique: Short tooltips on all icons and jargon that clarify the meaning are provided..

multimedia - See table 2 and 5 above.

Editor's note

To do: ensure multimedia headings have sufficient techniques.

Editor's note

add emotional clarity. Clarify implicit information in pictures and multimedia, such as sarcasm and mood - AAA.

as above

Editor's note

how to clarify information (mood and literal) in media?

as above

Editor's note

To do: add user settings to clarify information (mood and literal) in media.

Discussions

Emotional ML

EMMA examples

Script for personalization

and

Example for personalization

Semantics

Proposal for WCAG

Techniques

3.8 Table 8: Navigating the system

About users: Many users (most COGA groups) have memory issues and/or language issues that can make remembering numbers, while processing words, difficult or impossible. Other contributing issues include impaired executive function.

Sometimes developers put a barrier between users and the task they are doing so users cannot use the content or service.

This leads to the following user stories.

  1. As a user who has memory impairments and weak language processing skills, I want to get help, without going though a Voice-ML menu system, so I can set an appointment or find out some information.
  2. As a user who has weak executive function, I need a process to get help to be simple, and not multi-step, so I can use it.
  3. Users can have trouble identifying the right words to say in a voice menu.
Editor's note

To do: integrate the issue paper on Voice ML.

User Needs *

WCAG

Proposed Success Criteria *

Authoring Techniques *

Proposed New Semantics *

Personalization* Operating System / Other *

I need to find information I need without deciphering a lot of words or symbols.

 more 

Accessible authentication

and voice over IP criteria on barriers

Editor's note

to be added

----------------------------

See also

Understandable language

Manageable blocks

Clear and understandable layout

A familiar design

Critical features

Support personalization

..

  Simplification

 

Adding Context

Settings for simplification and adding context as above.  

I need to quickly identify options I need.

As above.

and

Help

Support personalization

Where the number of steps in a process can be reduced, users can control the tradeoff between function and simplification.

Editor's note

to be completed.

Simplification

 Support for simplification as above,
Editor's note

to be completed.

Editor's note

to be completed.

I need simple-to-navigate menu systems.

Clear language:

See: In menus with sub menus:

  1. the text of each main menu item is easy to understand.

Clear structure and relationships:

  1. each sub-menu item is clearly associated with a main menu item under which it falls. (This can be due to being an industry or a platform default.)

)

Help

..

Editor's note

further work?

Editor's note

needs further investigation.

I need simple-to-navigate voice-menu systems.

more

1.4.4 When there is a barrier between content and users, which requires additional abilities, an alternative is provided that does not require additional abilities.

Editor's note

add best practices?

Human help

Editor's note

can we add a method to repeat a last option?

Minimize the cognitive skills required to use content when there is a known alternative.

Can semantics help? Operators and functions, such as main menu, undo, back, and repeat a last option, are standardized. Can standard functions be mapped, to be available for users, which enable specific shortcuts to be standardized (such as 0 for a human, x for back, etc.)

Integration with standards. (Which are relevant?)

Best practices in Voice ML need to consider cognitive disabilities.

Editor's note

also added to open issues: how difficulty with speech could affect voice systems.

I can find a human. Finding help: Help and support page or function should be reachable with one user interaction. When human help is available, the correct contact information or mechanism should be reachable within two user interactions.

Human help should be one click away. Example: use available standards to get human help, such as using the 0 digit on voice menu systems.

Standard terms for human help in voice systems.

Discussion

Voice ML Issue Paper

EMMA examples

Script for personalization and Example for personalization

Semantics

Proposal for WCAG

Techniques

3.9 Table 9: Navigation and GPS

About Users

Editor's note

to be completed.

This leads to the following user stories.

User needs for understandable navigation:

Editor's note

The task force intends to add more user needs.

User Needs *

WCAG

Proposed Success Criteria *

Authoring Techniques *

Proposed New Semantics *

Personalization* Operating System / Other *

root option for simplicity - let me balance complexity and speed.

 more 

Support personalization.

 

Where the number of steps in a process can be reduced, enable users to control the trade off between function and simplification.

Editor's note

to be completed.

Editor's note

add for GPS.

User settings must be available to identify preferences.

Editor's note

to be completed.

Understandable terms, which make sense to users, and do not depend on knowing left and right, or on number dependence. 

3.3.5 Help: (AA)

Provide content and information that help users understand complex information, long documents, numerical information, relative and cardinal directions, forms, and nonstandard controls. 

Where an understanding of math is not a primary requirement for using content, reinforce numbers with non-numerical values. 

Editor's note

add for GPS.

Editor's note

add for GPS.

No automatic rerouting without user consent. Change on Request: Changes of context, functionality, settings, and roots are initiated only by a user request. An easy-to-use mechanism is available to turn off such changes. Ask users if they want to be rerouted.

Enable auto rerouting: always / never / ask.

understandable symbols Familiar layout: Navigation mechanisms and common icons are easily identifiable and available to users in one or more of the following ways: (AA)

Adding context

Editor's note

add terms for GPS.

no change of context Interruptions and media events can be easily identified; and turned off and turned on again; except critical messages and interruptions involving an emergency. Use standard techniques when available. As tables above As tables above
No change to orientation.
Editor's note

add to 3.2.5 Change on Request

4. Personalization Semantics

The ARIA Working Group is developing Personalization Semantics 1.0 [personalization-semantics-1.0], a vocabulary of terms to indicate personalization preferences to applications which began in the Cognitive and Learning Disabilities Accessibility Task Force.

A. Appendix: Making content usable for people with cognitive and learning disabilities

This appendix on how to make content usable for people with learning and cognitive disabilities. It contains practical advice and developer resources. We hope it will meet the needs of web developers, content creators and policy makers. It includes:

A.1 Change Log

The full commit history to gap analysis is available.

A.1.1 Significant editorial changes since the First Public Working Draft

  • 2018-03-08: Changed the prefix from coga- to aui-;
  • 2018-04-05: Updated the content and link in table for use needs;
  • 2018-05-01: Added the Making content usable for people with cognitive and learning disabilities document to appendix of gap analysis;
  • 2018-05-28: Added the persona document as a link to appendix;

A.2 Acknowledgments

This section is non-normative.

A.2.1 Participants active in the Cognitive and Learning Disabilities Task Force at the time of publication

  • Renaldo Bernard (University of Southampton)
  • Shari Butler (Pearson plc)
  • Alastair Campbell (Nomensa)
  • Pietro Cirrincione (Invited expert)
  • Michael Cooper (W3C/MIT)
  • Deborah Dahl (Invited expert)
  • Chaohai Ding (University of Southampton)
  • E.A. Draffan (University of Southampton)
  • Katie Haritos-Shea (Knowbility, Inc)
  • Andy Heath (Invited expert)
  • John Kirkwood (Invited expert)
  • Steve Lee (Invited expert)
  • Jan McSorley (Pearson plc)
  • Neil Milliken (Unify Software and Solutions)
  • Mary Jo Mueller (IBM Corporation)
  • Mike Pluke (Invited expert)
  • Ruoxi Ran (W3C/Beihang)
  • John Rochford (Invited expert)
  • Janina Sajka (Invited expert)
  • Lisa Seeman-Kestenbaum (Invited expert)
  • Mark Wilcock (Unify Software and Solutions)

A.2.2 Other Cognitive and Learning Disabilities Task Force contributors, commenters, and previously active participants

  • Jim Allan (Invited Expert)
  • Tim Boland (National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST))
  • Katherine Diebel (Invited Expert)
  • Anthony Doran (Invited Expert)
  • Michel Fitos (Invited Expert)
  • John Foliot (Invited Expert)
  • Barry Johnson (Deque Systems, Inc.)
  • Susann Keohane (IBM Corporation)
  • Dr Kinshuk (Invited Expert)
  • Andrew Kirkpatrick (Adobe Systems Inc.)
  • Katherine Mancuso (Invited Expert)
  • Liddy Nevile (Invited Expert)
  • Joshue O Connor (Invited Expert)
  • Joseph Karr O'Connor (Invited Expert)
  • Debra Ruh (Invited Expert)
  • Richard Schwerdtfeger (IBM Corporation)
  • Cynthia Shelly (Microsoft Corporation)
  • Suzanne Taylor (Pearson plc)
  • Elle Waters (Invited Expert)

A.2.3 Enabling funders

This publication has been funded in part with Federal funds from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Disability Independent Living and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR) under contract HHSP23301500054. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or official policies of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

B. References

B.1 Normative references

[coga-issue-papers]
Issue Papers for the The Cognitive and Learning Disabilities Accessibility Task Force (COGA). W3C. URL: https://w3c.github.io/coga/issue-papers/
[coga-user-research]
Cognitive Accessibility User Research. Lisa Seeman-Kestenbaum; Michael Cooper. W3C. 15 January 2015. W3C Working Draft. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/coga-user-research/
[EMMA]
EMMA: Extensible MultiModal Annotation markup language. Michael Johnston. W3C. 10 February 2009. W3C Recommendation. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/emma/
[ETSI]
The European Telecommunications Standards Institute. URL: http://www.etsi.org/
[ETSI-EG-202-325]
Human Factors (HF); User Profile Management. ETSI et al. EG 202 325. URL: http://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_eg/202300_202399/202325/01.01.01_60/eg_202325v010101p.pdf
[ETSI-ES-202-642]
Human Factors (HF); Personalization of eHealth systems by using eHealth user profiles (eHealth). ETSI et al. ES 202 642. URL: http://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_es/202600_202699/202642/01.01.01_60/es_202642v010101p.pdf
[ETSI-ES-202-746]
Human Factors (HF); Personalization and User Profile Management; User Profile Preferences and Information. ETSI et al. ES 202 746. URL: http://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_es/202700_202799/202746/01.01.01_60/es_202746v010101p.pdf
[ETSI-TS-102-747]
Human Factors (HF); Personalization and User Profile Management; Architectural Framework. ETSI et al. TS 102 747. URL: http://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_ts/102700_102799/102747/01.01.01_60/ts_102747v010101p.pdf
[GPII]
The Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure. URL: http://gpii.net/
[HTML5]
HTML5. Ian Hickson; Robin Berjon; Steve Faulkner; Travis Leithead; Erika Doyle Navara; Theresa O'Connor; Silvia Pfeiffer. W3C. 27 March 2018. W3C Recommendation. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/html5/
[personalization-semantics-1.0]
Personalization Semantics 1.0. W3C. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/personalization-semantics-1.0/
[wai-ARIA]
Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA) 1.1. James Craig; Michael Cooper; Shane McCarron et al. W3C. W3C Working Draft. URL: http://www.w3.org/TR/wai-aria-1.1/
[WCAG]
Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0. Wendy Chisholm; Gregg Vanderheiden; Ian Jacobs. W3C. 5 May 1999. W3C Recommendation. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/WAI-WEBCONTENT/

B.2 Informative references

[WCAG20]
Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0. Ben Caldwell; Michael Cooper; Loretta Guarino Reid; Gregg Vanderheiden et al. W3C. 11 December 2008. W3C Recommendation. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/