WAI-ARIA Graphics Module

W3C Editor's Draft

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Assistive technologies need semantic information about the structures and expected behaviors of a document in order to convey appropriate information to persons with disabilities. This specification defines a WAI-ARIA 1.1 [WAI-ARIA-1.1] module of core roles specific to web graphics. These semantics allow an author to express the logical structure of the graphic to assistive technologies in order improve accessibility of graphics. Assistive technologies could then enable semantic navigation and adapt styling and interactive features, to provide an optimal experience for the audience. These features complement the graphics and document structure elements defined by HTML [HTML52] and SVG [SVG2].

This document is part of the WAI-ARIA suite described in the WAI-ARIA Overview.

Status of This Document

This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at https://www.w3.org/TR/.

This is an Editor's Draft of WAI-ARIA Graphics Module 1.0 by the SVG Accessibility Taskforce, a joint task force of the Accessible Rich Internet Applications Working Group and the SVG Working Group.

Feedback on any aspect of the specification is accepted. For this publication, the SVG Accessibility Task Force particularly seeks feedback on the following questions:

To comment, file an issue in the W3C graphics-aria GitHub repository. If this is not feasible, send email to public-aria@w3.org (comment archive). In-progress updates to the document may be viewed in the publicly visible editors' draft.

This document was published by the Accessible Rich Internet Applications Working Group as an Editor's Draft.

GitHub Issues are preferred for discussion of this specification. Alternatively, you can send comments to our mailing list. Please send them to public-aria@w3.org (archives).

Publication as an Editor's Draft does not imply endorsement by the W3C Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.

This document was produced by a group operating under the W3C Patent Policy. W3C maintains a public list of any patent disclosures made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains Essential Claim(s) must disclose the information in accordance with section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy.

This document is governed by the 1 March 2019 W3C Process Document.

1. Introduction

This section is non-normative.

WAI-ARIA is a technical specification that provides a framework to improve the accessibility and interoperability of web content and applications. It enables web browsers to map the accessibility semantics in web content to platform-specific accessibility APIs. This enables web content to be interoperable with platform assistive technologies, similar to native platform applications, without requiring authors to include platform dependencies.

This specification is a modular extension of WAI-ARIA [WAI-ARIA-1.1] designed to support graphics. The goals of this specification include:

This specification defines the core roles that would be used in all structured graphics or diagrams. It establishes the default roles that can be used to describe graphical markup elements such as shapes and canvases. In combination with WAI-ARIA attributes to provide alternative text and to indicate relationships between elements, this provides a framework for annotating many figures and diagrams. Future work will expand on this framework to enable more detailed annotation of data-rich graphics such as charts or maps.

For a more detailed explanation of WAI-ARIA please refer to the WAI-ARIA Introduction and how it applies to Rich Internet Application Accessibility.

1.1 Target Audience

This specification defines a module of WAI-ARIA for graphics, consisting of graphics-specific element roles. It impacts several audiences:

Each conformance requirement indicates the audience to which it applies.

1.2 User Agent Support

This module follows the general User Agent support principles defined in WAI-ARIA [WAI-ARIA-1.1]. The roles defined here do not require any change in behavior by user agents other than in the information exposed to the accessibility API. However, the semantics defined here provide the ability for user agents to enhance the general user interface presented to readers. For example, a user agent may provide alternative keyboard navigation suitable to a graphical environment, or may allow users to extract a copy of a graphic from a larger document.

1.3 Co-Evolution of WAI-ARIA and Host Languages

The WAI-ARIA Graphics module follows the model for co-evolution of WAI-ARIA and host languages defined in WAI-ARIA [WAI-ARIA-1.1]. It is intended to augment semantics in supporting languages like HTML [HTML52], SVG [SVG2] and EPUB, or to be used as an accessibility enhancement technology in other markup-based languages that do not explicitly include support for ARIA. WAI-ARIA roles clarify semantics to assistive technologies when authors create new types of objects, via style and script, or use markup languages which describe the visual appearance of a document rather than its meaning.

Although markup languages may provide some of these semantics natively, it is expected that there will be a persistent need for the semantics provided by the WAI-ARIA Graphics module. Some host languages exist to create semantics for features other than the user interface. For example, SVG expresses the semantics behind production of graphical objects, not of user interface components that those objects may represent. Host languages such as these might, by design, not provide native semantics that map to all of this specification's features. In these host languages, the WAI-ARIA Graphics module could be adopted as a long-term approach to add semantic information.

1.4 Authoring Practices

1.4.1 Authoring Tools

Many of the requirements in the definitions of the WAI-ARIA and Graphics WAI-ARIA roles, states and properties can be checked automatically during the development process, similar to other quality control processes used for validating code. To assist authors who are creating graphics, these tools can compare the semantic structure of Graphics WAI-ARIA roles from the DOM to that defined in this specification and notify the author of errors or simply create templates that enforce that structure.

1.4.2 Testing Practices and Tools

The accessibility of interactive content cannot be confirmed by static checks alone. Developers of interactive content should test for device-independent access to widgets and applications, and should verify accessibility API access to all content and changes during user interaction.

1.5 Assistive Technologies

Programmatic access to accessibility semantics is essential for assistive technologies. For more information, refer to the Assistive Technologies section in WAI-ARIA [WAI-ARIA-1.1].

For the graphics roles in particular, two categories of assistive technology are particularly relevant, but have different needs:

The role descriptions suggest which features of an element with that role are considered semantically important and should be conveyed to the reader whenever possible.

2. Conformance

The main content of this specification is normative and defines requirements that impact conformance claims. Introductory material, appendices, sections marked as "non-normative" and their subsections, diagrams, examples, and notes are informative (non-normative). Non-normative material provides advisory information to help interpret the guidelines but does not create requirements that impact a conformance claim.

Normative sections provide requirements that user agents must follow for an implementation to conform to this specification. The keywords MUST, MUST NOT, REQUIRED, SHALL, SHALL NOT, SHOULD, RECOMMENDED, MAY, and OPTIONAL in this document are to be interpreted as described in Keywords for use in RFCs to indicate requirement levels [RFC2119]. RFC-2119 keywords are formatted in uppercase and contained in an element with class="rfc2119". When the keywords shown above are used, but do not share this format, they do not convey formal information in the RFC 2119 sense, and are merely explanatory, i.e., informative. As much as possible, such usages are avoided in this specification.

Normative sections provide requirements that authors, user agents and assistive technologies MUST follow for an implementation to conform to this specification.

Non-normative (informative) sections provide information useful to understanding the specification. Such sections may contain examples of recommended practice, but it is not required to follow such recommendations in order to conform to this specification.

3. Important Terms

This section is non-normative.

While some terms are defined in place, the following definitions are used throughout this document.

Accessibility API

Operating systems and other platforms provide a set of interfaces that expose information about objects and events to assistive technologies. Assistive technologies use these interfaces to get information about and interact with those widgets. Examples of accessibility APIs are Microsoft Active Accessibility [MSAA], Microsoft User Interface Automation [UI-AUTOMATION], MSAA with UIA Express [UIA-EXPRESS], the Mac OS X Accessibility Protocol [AXAPI], the Linux/Unix Accessibility Toolkit [ATK] and Assistive Technology Service Provider Interface [AT-SPI], and IAccessible2 [IAccessible2].

Accessibility Subtree

An accessible object in the accessibility tree and its descendants in that tree. It does not include objects which have relationships other than parent-child in that tree. For example, it does not include objects linked via aria-flowto unless those objects are also descendants in the accessibility tree.

Accessibility Tree

Tree of accessible objects that represents the structure of the user interface (UI). Each node in the accessibility tree represents an element in the UI as exposed through the accessibility API; for example, a push button, a check box, or container.

Accessible Description

An accessible description provides additional information, related to an interface element, that complements the accessible name. The accessible description might or might not be visually perceivable.

Accessible Name

The accessible name is the name of a user interface element. Each platform accessibility API provides the accessible name property. The value of the accessible name may be derived from a visible (e.g., the visible text on a button) or invisible (e.g., the text alternative that describes an icon) property of the user interface element. See related accessible description.

A simple use for the accessible name property may be illustrated by an "OK" button. The text "OK" is the accessible name. When the button receives focus, assistive technologies may concatenate the platform's role description with the accessible name. For example, a screen reader may speak "push-button OK" or "OK button". The order of concatenation and specifics of the role description (e.g., "button", "push-button", "clickable button") are determined by platform accessibility APIs or assistive technologies.

Accessible object

A node in the accessibility tree of a platform accessibility API. Accessible objects expose various states, properties, and events for use by assistive technologies. In the context of markup languages (e.g., HTML and SVG) in general, and of WAI-ARIA in particular, markup elements and their attributes are represented as accessible objects.

Activation behavior

The action taken when an event, typically initiated by users through an input device, causes an element to fulfill a defined role. The role may be defined for that element by the host language, or by author-defined variables, or both. The role for any given element may be a generic action, or may be unique to that element. For example, the activation behavior of an HTML or SVG <a> element shall be to cause the user agent to traverse the link specified in the href attribute, with the further optional parameter of specifying the browsing context for the traversal (such as the current window or tab, a named window, or a new window); the activation behavior of an HTML <input> element with the type attribute value submit shall be to send the values of the form elements to an author-defined IRI by the author-defined HTTP method.

Assistive Technologies

Hardware and/or software that:

  • relies on services provided by a user agent to retrieve and render Web content
  • works with a user agent or web content itself through the use of APIs, and
  • provides services beyond those offered by the user agent to facilitate user interaction with web content by people with disabilities

This definition may differ from that used in other documents.

Examples of assistive technologies that are important in the context of this document include the following:

  • screen magnifiers, which are used to enlarge and improve the visual readability of rendered text and images;
  • screen readers, which are most-often used to convey information through synthesized speech or a refreshable Braille display;
  • text-to-speech software, which is used to convert text into synthetic speech;
  • speech recognition software, which is used to allow spoken control and dictation;
  • alternate input technologies (including head pointers, on-screen keyboards, single switches, and sip/puff devices), which are used to simulate the keyboard;
  • alternate pointing devices, which are used to simulate mouse pointing and clicking.

In this specification, attribute is used as it is in markup languages. Attributes are structural features added to elements to provide information about the states and properties of the object represented by the element.


A set of instance objects that share similar characteristics.


A deprecated role, state, or property is one which has been outdated by newer constructs or changed circumstances, and which may be removed in future versions of the WAI-ARIA specification. User agents are encouraged to continue to support items identified as deprecated for backward compatibility. For more information, see Deprecated Requirements in the Conformance section.

Desktop focus event

Event from/to the host operating system via the accessibility API, notifying of a change of input focus.

Sequence of 16-bit unsigned integers, typically interpreted as UTF-16 code units. This corresponds to the JavaScript primitive String type.

In this specification, element is used as it is in markup languages. Elements are the structural elements in markup language that contains the data profile for objects.


A programmatic message used to communicate discrete changes in the state of an object to other objects in a computational system. User input to a web page is commonly mediated through abstract events that describe the interaction and can provide notice of changes to the state of a document object. In some programming languages, events are more commonly known as notifications.


Translated to platform-specific accessibility APIs as defined in the Core Accessibility API Mappings.

Graphical Document

A document containing graphic representations with user-navigable parts. Charts, maps, diagrams, blueprints, and dashboards are examples of graphical documents. A graphical document is composed using any combination of symbols, images, text, and graphic primitives (shapes such as circles, points, lines, paths, rectangles, etc).


Indicates that the element is not visible, perceivable, or interactive to any user. An element is considered hidden if it or any one of its ancestor elements is not rendered or is explicitly hidden.


Content provided for information purposes and not required for conformance. Content required for conformance is referred to as normative.

Keyboard Accessible

Accessible to the user using a keyboard or assistive technologies that mimic keyboard input, such as a sip and puff tube. References in this document relate to WCAG 2.1 Guideline 2.1: Make all functionality available from a keyboard [WCAG21].


A type of region on a page to which the user may want quick access. Content in such a region is different from that of other regions on the page and relevant to a specific user purpose, such as navigating, searching, perusing the primary content, etc.

Live Region

Live regions are perceivable regions of a web page that are typically updated as a result of an external event when user focus may be elsewhere. These regions are not always updated as a result of a user interaction. Examples of live regions include a chat log, stock ticker, or a sport scoring section that updates periodically to reflect game statistics. Since these asynchronous areas are expected to update outside the user's area of focus, assistive technologies such as screen readers have either been unaware of their existence or unable to process them for the user. WAI-ARIA has provided a collection of properties that allow the author to identify these live regions and process them: aria-live, aria-relevant, aria-atomic, and aria-busy.

Primary Content Element

An implementing host language's primary content element, such as the body element in HTML.

Managed State

Accessibility API state that is controlled by the user agent, such as focus and selection. These are contrasted with "unmanaged states" that are typically controlled by the author. Nevertheless, authors can override some managed states, such as aria-posinset and aria-setsize. Many managed states have corresponding CSS pseudo-classes, such as :focus, and pseudo-elements, such as ::selection, that are also updated by the user agent.

Nemeth Braille

The Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics is a braille code for encoding mathematical and scientific notation. See Nemeth Braille on Wikipedia.


Basic type of object in the DOM tree or accessibility tree. DOM nodes are further specified as Element or Text nodes, among other types. The nodes of an accessibility tree are accessible objects.


Required for conformance. By contrast, content identified as informative or "non-normative" is not required for conformance.


In the context of user interfaces, an item in the perceptual user experience, represented in markup languages by one or more elements, and rendered by user agents.

In the context of programming, the instantiation of one or more classes and interfaces which define the general characteristics of similar objects. An object in an accessibility API may represent one or more DOM objects. Accessibility APIs have defined interfaces that are distinct from DOM interfaces.

A description of the characteristics of classes and how they relate to each other.


Usable by users in ways they can control. References in this document relate to WCAG 2.1 Principle 2: Content must be operable [WCAG21]. See Keyboard Accessible.

Owned Element

An 'owned element' is any DOM descendant of the element, any element specified as a child via aria-owns, or any DOM descendant of the owned child.

Owning Element

An 'owning element' is any DOM ancestor of the element, or any element with an aria-owns attribute which references the ID of the element.


Presentable to users in ways they can sense. References in this document relate to WCAG 2.1 Principle 1: Content must be perceivable [WCAG21].


Attributes that are essential to the nature of a given object, or that represent a data value associated with the object. A change of a property may significantly impact the meaning or presentation of an object. Certain properties (for example, aria-multiline) are less likely to change than states, but note that the frequency of change difference is not a rule. A few properties, such as aria-activedescendant, aria-valuenow, and aria-valuetext are expected to change often. See clarification of states versus properties.


A connection between two distinct things. Relationships may be of various types to indicate which object labels another, controls another, etc.


Main indicator of type. This semantic association allows tools to present and support interaction with the object in a manner that is consistent with user expectations about other objects of that type.

Root WAI-ARIA node

The primary element containing non-metadata content. In many languages, this is the document element but in HTML, it is the <body>.


The meaning of something as understood by a human, defined in a way that computers can process a representation of an object, such as elements and attributes, and reliably represent the object in a way that various humans will achieve a mutually consistent understanding of the object.


A state is a dynamic property expressing characteristics of an object that may change in response to user action or automated processes. States do not affect the essential nature of the object, but represent data associated with the object or user interaction possibilities. See clarification of states versus properties.


Any document created from a <frame>, <iframe> or similar mechanism. A sub-document may contain a document, an application or any widget such as a calendar pulled in from another server. In the accessibility tree there are two accessible objects for this situation—one represents the <frame>/<iframe> element in the parent document, which parents a single accessible object child representing the spawned document contents.

Target Element

An element specified in a WAI-ARIA relation. For example, in <div aria-controls=”elem1”>, where “elem1” is the ID for the target element.


A hierarchical definition of how the characteristics of various classes relate to each other, in which classes inherit the properties of superclasses in the hierarchy. A taxonomy can comprise part of the formal definition of an ontology.

Text node

Type of DOM node that represents the textual content of an attribute or an element. A Text node has no child nodes.

Tooltip attribute

Any host language attribute that would result in a user agent generating a tooltip such as in response to a mouse hover in desktop user agents.


Presentable to users in ways they can construct an appropriate meaning. References in this document relate to WCAG 2.1 Principle 3: Information and the operation of user interface must be understandable [WCAG21].

Unicode Braille Patterns

In Unicode, braille is represented in a block called Braille Patterns (U+2800..U+28FF). The block contains all 256 possible patterns of an 8-dot braille cell; this includes the complete 6-dot cell range which is represented by U+2800..U+283F. In all braille systems, the braille pattern dots-0 (U+2800) is used to represent a space or the lack of content; it is also called a blank Braille pattern. See Braille Patterns on Wikipedia.

User Agent

Any software that retrieves, renders and facilitates end user interaction with Web content. This definition may differ from that used in other documents.


A reference to a target element in the same document that has a matching ID


Discrete user interface object with which the user can interact. Widgets range from simple objects that have one value or operation (e.g., check boxes and menu items), to complex objects that contain many managed sub-objects (e.g., trees and grids).

4. Graphics Roles

This section defines additions to the WAI-ARIA role taxonomy and describes the characteristics and properties of all roles. See ARIA Roles for descriptions of the fields provided by this module.

Authors are given the ability to influence what is presented to assistive technologies and to influence navigation through the use of roles and properties. This includes the ability to mark elements as having no semantic importance. With graphics, there are many cases where presenting and navigating every element will make the graphic harder to understand and use.

Authors may mark elements for exclusion from the semantic representation of the document (the accessibility tree) by assigning the role none or presentation. The element with this role should be treated transparently by assistive technologies, as if its children or text content were directly contained by its parent element. In addition, certain roles, such as img or graphics-symbol, when assigned to a parent element, will cause all child DOM structure to be omitted from the accessibility tree. This is indicated by the "Children Presentational" value in the role characteristics table. Finally, the native semantics of the graphics language may also default to ignoring DOM structure that does not have semantic data attached; for SVG, this is defined in the SVG Accessibility API Mappings specification [SVG-AAM-1.0].

In all cases, to be considered presentational, an element must not be interactive and must not be assigned any accessible properties or alternative text. A role of none or presentation will be ignored for interactive elements or those with WAI-ARIA states and properties.

4.1 Definition of Roles

Below is an alphabetical list of the WAI-ARIA roles defined in this specification. They would normally be used in combination with other roles defined in WAI-ARIA to annotate graphics within documents and rich internet applications [WAI-ARIA-1.1].

Placeholder for compact list of roles


A type of document in which the visual appearance or layout of content conveys meaning.

Similar to other document types, the graphics-document role applies to the root element of a region of the page containing related information, where the user's primary interaction mode is expected to be browsing the document rather than controlling an application. The element with this role may be the root element of the document file, or of a nested structure within it.

The graphics-document may be distinguished from similar roles as follows:

  • Relative to other documents, a graphics-document is distinguished by the semantic importance of its visual (usually two-dimensional) representation. User agents and assistive technologies SHOULD take this into consideration when supporting navigation of the graphic. Accessibility technologies that re-format or re-style a document SHOULD NOT alter the layout of a graphics-document except in ways that are consistent with the semantic roles and relationships of its content.

  • Relative to an img, a graphics-document is distinguished by the structured nature of its content. Its child elements may have semantic meaning, and may include links or other interactive widgets.

  • Relative to a graphics-object, a graphics-document is self-contained. Its meaning persists when separated from surrounding content. The element with the graphics-document role defines the scope and context for interpretation of the child content.

In general, authors SHOULD use the graphics-document role for structured graphics such as charts, maps, diagrams, technical drawing, blue prints and instructional graphics. However, if a single large graphic has discrete regions that may be safely re-arranged without sacrificing meaning, each of those regions SHOULD be a distinct graphics-document. An alternative role (such as figure) may be used to group them together. One graphics-document may also be nested inside another, for example a bar chart that is embedded in a map or a matrix of chart panels should have a role of graphics-document. The nested document provides encapsulation; navigation between components of the inner and outer graphics should be explicit.


To support user agents and assistive technologies based on the ARIA 1.0 specification, authors may wish to include the document role as a fallback value, in the form role="graphics-document document".

Future specifications may define more specific roles for particular types of graphical documents with special semantic structures. Those more specific roles would be subclasses of graphics-document.

Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: document
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: True
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational: False
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  

A section of a graphics-document that represents a distinct object or sub-component with semantic meaning. A graphical object may itself have nested sub-components.

Container elements that represent a collection of disconnected objects should be given the group or list roles, instead. Grouping elements that do not have semantic meaning and do not alter the semantic context provided by an ancestor (for example, a div or SVG g that is only used for styling or layout) SHOULD NOT be given a role. The lack of role may be explicitly indicated with the role none or presentation.

Unlike a graphics-document, a graphics-object need not be self-contained, and it does not establish a new context for navigation. However, user agents and assistive technologies SHOULD provide a way for users, particularly non-visual users, to navigate the nested structure of objects in a hierarchical manner, similar to nested lists.


To support user agents and assistive technologies based on the ARIA 1.0 specification, authors may wish to include the group role as a fallback value, in the form role="graphics-object group".

Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: group
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From:
  • author
  • contents
Accessible Name Required: False
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational: False
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  

A graphical object used to convey a simple meaning or category, where the meaning is more important than the particular visual appearance. It may be a component of a larger structured graphic such as a chart or map. The symbol itself is an atomic object; children are presentational.

When used as part of a structured symbolic language, the aria-roledescription property (introduced in ARIA 1.1 [WAI-ARIA-1.1]) can be used to name the symbol type separately from the name and description for the particular instance of the symbol.


To support user agents and assistive technologies based on the ARIA 1.0 specification, authors may wish to include the img role as a fallback value, in the form role="graphics-symbol img", if that is not already the default semantic role for the element.

Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: img
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: True
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational: True
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  

4.2 Other Roles for Graphics

The following core ARIA roles, defined in ARIA 1.1 [WAI-ARIA-1.1], are also relevant for annotating graphics:

The following examples demonstrate appropriate use of img, figure, and graphics-document in a document.

5. States and Properties

WAI-ARIA provides a collection of accessibility state and properties which are used to support platform accessibility APIs on various operating system platforms. Assistive technologies may access this information through an exposed user agent DOM or through a mapping to the platform accessibility API. When combined with roles, the user agent can supply the assistive technologies with user interface information to convey to the user at any time. Changes in states or properties will result in a notification to assistive technologies, which could alert the user that a change has occurred.

A. Change Log

The full commit history to WAI-ARIA Graphics Module 1.0 is available.

A.1 Substantive changes since the last public working draft

A.2 Other substantive changes since the First Public Working Draft

B. Acknowledgments

This section is non-normative.

The following people contributed to the development of this document.

B.1 Participants active in the SVG accessibility task force at the time of publication

B.2 Participants active in the ARIA WG at the time of publication

B.3 Enabling funders

This publication has been funded in part with U.S. Federal funds from the Department of Education, National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR), initially under contract number ED-OSE-10-C-0067 and currently under contract number HHSP23301500054C. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Education, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

C. References

C.1 Normative references

Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels. S. Bradner. IETF. March 1997. Best Current Practice. URL: https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/rfc2119
SVG Accessibility API Mappings. Amelia Bellamy-Royds; Ian Pouncey. W3C. 10 May 2018. W3C Working Draft. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/svg-aam-1.0/
Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA) 1.1. Joanmarie Diggs; Shane McCarron; Michael Cooper; Richard Schwerdtfeger; James Craig. W3C. 14 December 2017. W3C Recommendation. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/wai-aria-1.1/

C.2 Informative references

Assistive Technology Service Provider Interface. The GNOME Project. URL: https://developer.gnome.org/libatspi/stable/
ATK - Accessibility Toolkit. The GNOME Project. URL: https://developer.gnome.org/atk/stable/
The NSAccessibility Protocol for macOS. Apple, Inc. URL: https://developer.apple.com/documentation/appkit/nsaccessibility
HTML 5.2. Steve Faulkner; Arron Eicholz; Travis Leithead; Alex Danilo; Sangwhan Moon. W3C. 28 January 2021. W3C Recommendation. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/html52/
IAccessible2. Linux Foundation. URL: https://www.linuxfoundation.org/collaborate/workgroups/accessibility/iaccessible2
Microsoft Active Accessibility (MSAA). Microsoft Corporation. URL: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/win32/winauto/microsoft-active-accessibility
Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 2. Amelia Bellamy-Royds; Bogdan Brinza; Chris Lilley; Dirk Schulze; David Storey; Eric Willigers. W3C. 4 October 2018. W3C Candidate Recommendation. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/SVG2/
UI Automation. Microsoft Corporation. URL: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/win32/winauto/ui-automation-specification
The IAccessibleEx Interface. Microsoft Corporation. URL: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/win32/winauto/iaccessibleex
Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1. Andrew Kirkpatrick; Joshue O Connor; Alastair Campbell; Michael Cooper. W3C. 5 June 2018. W3C Recommendation. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG21/