Requirements for Japanese Text Layout
日本語組版処理の要件(日本語版)

This document describes requirements for general Japanese layout realized with technologies like CSS, SVG and XSL-FO. The document is mainly based on a standard for Japanese layout, JIS X 4051, however, it also addresses areas which are not covered by JIS X 4051. This version integrates errata and links to related materials.

この文書は,CSS,SVGおよびXSL-FOなどの技術で実現が求められる一般的な日本語組版の要件を記述したものです.この文書は,主としてJIS X 4051(日本語組版規則)に基づいていますが,一部,JIS X 4051に記載されていない事項にも言及しています.この版では,誤りの訂正や関連情報へのリンク追加などが行われています.

この節はこの文書の公開時点での状況を述べています.他の文書によりこの文書が更新されていることがあります.現在の W3C の文書と最新版の技術報告のリストは,https://www.w3.org/TR/ にあるW3C 技術報告一覧から入手できます.

This is a maintenance version of a document that describes requirements for general Japanese layout realized with technologies like CSS, SVG, XSL-FO and eBook standards. The document is mainly based on a standard for Japanese layout, JIS X 4051, however, it also addresses areas which are not covered by JIS X 4051. The second version of the document added a significant amount of additional information related to hanmen design, such as handling headings, placement of illustrations and tables, handling of notes and reference marks, etc. This version integrates errata and links to related materials.

この文書は,CSS,SVG,XSL-FOおよびeBookなどの技術で実現が求められる一般的な日本語組版の要件を記述した文書の訂正版です.この文書は,主としてJIS X 4051(日本語組版規則)に基づいていますが,一部,JIS X 4051に記載されていない事項にも言及しています.この第2版では版面デザインに関する説明を大幅に増やしました.例えば,見出しの扱い,図版や表の配置,注や合印などです.

This document was developed by participants in the Japanese Layout Task Force. It will be published by the Internationalization Working Group. Previous versions of the document were developed by participants in the previous Japanese Layout Task Force, with input from four W3C Working Groups, CSS, Internationalization Core, SVG and XSL.

この文書は JLReq 日本語組版タスクフォース の参加者により作成されており,国際化委員会において公開されます.以前のバージョンのこの文書は JLReq 日本語組版タスクフォース の参加者により,CSSInternationalization CoreSVGXSL の4つの W3C ワーキンググループからの情報を参考に作成されています.

The document was originally authored in Japanese, then translated to English under the guidance of the Japanese authors. In order to reach the largest international audience, the W3C works in English, so the English version of the document is the authoritative version. However, the Japanese version of this document is also available.

この文書は日本語で記述されたものを,日本語版作成者の監修のもとに英語に翻訳したものです.最大の国際的な利用者に届けるため,W3C は英語を標準としているため,この文書は英語版が公式となります.なお,日本語版も提供しています.

To make it easier to track comments, please raise separate issues or emails for each comment, and point to the section you are commenting on.

指摘を追跡しやすくするため,それぞれの指摘点について対象となるセクションを明記のうえ,個別の issue もしくはメールを送ってください.

この文書は国際化ワーキンググループによりワーキンググループノートとして公開されています.

この文書に関する議論には GitHub Issues の利用が望まれます.

ワーキンググループノートとしての公開は W3C 会員による支持を意味しません.この文書は草案であり,更新やほかの文書により置き換えられる可能性が常にあります.作業版以外としての参照は推奨されません.

この文書はW3C 特許ポリシーに従って運営されているグループにより作成されました.このグループはこの文書を W3C 勧告とすることを想定していません.

この文書は2019年3月1日版のW3C プロセス文書に従っています.

Introduction 序論

Purpose of This Document この文書の目的

Each cultural community has its own language, script and writing system. In that sense, the transfer of each writing system into cyberspace is a task with very high importance for information and communication technology.

すべての文化集団は,独自の言語,文字,書記システムを持つ.それゆえ,個々の書記システムをサイバースペースに移転することは,文化的資産の継承という意味で,情報通信技術にとって非常に重要な責務といえよう.

As one of the basic work items of this task force, this document describes issues of text composition in the Japanese writing system. The goal of the task force is not to propose actual solutions but describe important issues as basic information for actual implementations.

この責務を実現するための基礎的な作業として,この文書では,日本語という書記システムにおける組版上の問題点をまとめた.具体的な解決策を提示することではなく,要望事項の説明をすることにした.それは,実装レベルの問題を考える前提条件をまず明確にすることが重要であると考えたからである.

How This Document was Created この文書の作成方法

This document was created by the W3C Japanese Layout Task Force. The Task Force has discussed many issues and harmonized the requirements from user communities and solutions from technological experts. It includes the following participants:

この文書の作成は,W3C Japanese Layout Task Forceが行った.このタスクフォースは,次のようなメンバーで構成され,ユーザーコミュニティーからの要望と専門家による解決策を調和させるために様々な議論を行ってきた.

  1. Japanese text composition experts (The editors of "JIS X 4051 : Formatting rules for Japanese documents").

    日本語組版の専門家(“JIS X 4051:日本語文書の組版方法”のエディターたち)

  2. Internationalization and standardization experts in Japan (from Microsoft, Antenna House, JustSystems).

    日本における国際化,標準化活動の専門家(マイクロソフト,アンテナハウス,ジャストシステムの社員)

  3. Members of the W3C CSS, SVG, XSL and i18n Core, Working Groups.

    W3CCSSSVGXSL国際化コアの各ワーキンググループメンバー

This task force also constitutes an important innovation due to its bilingual work-flow. Discussion is mainly conducted in Japanese, because of the Japanese composition issues, but minutes and one mailing list were in English. To support development, the task force held face-to-face meetings with participating Working Groups.

また,このタスクフォースは,バイリンガルによるものとしても,画期的なものといえよう.ディスカッションは,日本語の組版を問題とすることから,主として日本語で行った.しかし,議事録とメーリングリストは英語のものを用意した.また,W3CのCSS,SVG,XSL,国際化コアなどのワーキンググループメンバーとの英語及び日本語によるフェイス・ツウ・フェイスの会議も開催した.

The document itself was also developed bilingually, and is published bilingually. We carefully avoided using jargon for technical terms. Even if there were English words corresponding to the Japanese, we carefully studied any potential differences in the nuances of meaning, and if there were differences between corresponding concepts, we provided the Japanese jargon in romaji (Latin transliteration) for future discussion. Moreover, we prepared as many figures as possible, with clear and understandable English, to help non-Japanese readers.

文書も日本語で準備し,これを英訳し,2つの文書を公開することにした.用語についても,特殊な用語は極力避けるように努めた.英語の用語との対応についても,用語の定義内容を検討し,概念に対応できない部分を持つ場合は,日本語の用語はローマ字で表現し,今後の課題として残した.さらに,日本語組版を見慣れていない読者のために,要望事項の説明をわかりやすい英語と図表で行うように努力した.

Basic Principles for Development of This Document この文書の執筆方針

Japanese composition exhibits several differences from Western composition. Major differences include:

日本語組版は,欧文組版と異なる事項がある.主に次の点で異なる.

  1. The use of not only horizontal writing mode but also vertical writing mode.

    日本語組版には,横組だけでなく,縦組がある.

  2. In principle, all character frames of ideographic (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) characters used in Japanese composition are designed in a square box, and these characters are composed without intervening spacing (i.e. set solid). In this document, notations such as ideographic (cl-19) and hiragana (cl-15) characters indicate character classes (see [[[#about_character_classes]]]).

    原則として,日本語組版で使用する漢字等(cl-19)平仮名(cl-15)片仮名(cl-16)の文字の外枠は,正方形にデザインされており,これを,隙間なく詰めて組んでいく.なお,“漢字等(cl-19)”,“平仮名(cl-15)”などと示すものは,文字クラス名である(文字クラスの詳細は[[[#about_character_classes]]]を参照).

This document mainly explains the characteristics of Japanese composition along the lines of the following policy.

この文書では,このことを前提にして,主に日本語組版の特徴を次の方針で解説する.

  1. It does not fully cover all issues of the Japanese composition system, but mainly discusses the differences from Western composition systems.

    日本語組版のあらゆる事項を対象とするのではなく,欧文組版と異なる事項を主に取り上げた.

  2. It focuses on the requirements for the Japanese visual presentation form of text composition. Technology-specific interpretations of the requirements and/or how to implement them are out of scope for this document.

    日本語組版の表現された結果又は表現されるべき結果だけを問題とする.あくまで日本語組版として要求される事項を取り上げ,具体的にどのように処理するかは別の次元の問題と考えるからである.

  3. It explicitly refers to JIS X 4051 "Formatting rules for Japanese documents" as much as possible. This document focuses on fundamental and important issues of Japanese layout as much as possible, and for more detail references the corresponding clause of JIS X 4051. The JIS X 4051 topics that are not described in this document, are only for exceptional, corner cases or to provide some specific line composition algorithms. On the other hand, some topics that are not described in JIS X 4051 are described in detail. Accordingly, this document is sufficient to implement Japanese layout processing for most parts of the Japanese market.

    日本語組版に関する日本工業規格(JIS)に“JIS X 4051(日本語文書の組版方法)”がある.これとの参照関係をできるだけ示すことを心掛けた.本文書では,記述をできる限り本質的で重要な事項に限定した.そのため,詳細な処理内容はJIS X 4051にゆずり,参照だけで示した箇所がある.JIS X 4051の記述のうち,本文書に記述がない部分は,特別な例外的な場合や,行組版についての具体的なアルゴリズム記述に限られる.なお,本文書では,JIS X 4051で規定されている内容だけではなく,それ以外で重要と思われる事項についても解説するようにした.したがって,本文書の内容を実装することで,日本の大部分の市場要求に応えることができる.

    In accordance with the stated policy, this document provides tutorial- or summary-like, supplementary explanations, related background, and additional descriptions for JIS X 4051 information. This document covers all the fundamental issues of Japanese text layout, but the reader will need to refer to JIS X 4051 for advanced discussion of exceptional topics.

    また,この文書とJIS X 4051との関係でいえば,JIS X 4051の要点の解説あるいは要約,補足説明,それに関わる周辺情報の追加,JIS X 4051で規定していない事項の解説ということになる.したがって,基本的な事項を理解するためであれば,この文書で十分であるが,細部にわたる例外的な内容を知るためにはJIS X 4051を参照する必要がある.

  4. It provides typical examples of actual use for key composition features, to enable better understanding of their usage.

    ある組版処理が,どのような局面で使用されるかをできるだけ示すように心掛けた.

  5. For non-Japanese readers, frequency of use is indicated for each requirement. These frequencies are not the outcome of any accurate research, but arise from the long experience of the authors. They are intuitive for ordinary Japanese text readers; however, for non-Japanese readers it may be difficult to imagine without explicit information. These frequencies are only rough information to prioritize the importance of issues.

    日本語組版に日常的に接していない読者のために,説明している事項の使用頻度について簡単に解説した.これは実際に調査した結果ではなく,執筆者の読書経験による判断である.これは日常的に日本語組版に接している読者にはある程度判断できることであるが,そうでない読者のために,ある程度の使用頻度情報を伝えるためである.したがって,組版処理事項の重要さをある程度判断できるようにすることを主な目的とするので,情報の正確性を意図しているものではない.

    For example: "warichu (inline cutting note) is not frequently used, but is useful to simply annotate persons, things, and so on, at the place where the text appears, especially in classic texts or translations.", or "ruby is frequently used in modern documents, including newspapers."

    例えば,“割注の使用頻度は多くないが,その該当用語が出てきた箇所に直接補足説明できることから,古典や翻訳書において人物・用語等の簡単な紹介に重要な役割を果たしている”のように説明し,これに対し,“ルビは,最近では新聞でも採用しており,多くの文書で利用されている”のように示すことにする.

  6. In consideration of non-Japanese readers of this document, figures are used for explanations wherever possible.

    日本語組版に接していない読者を考慮し,できるだけ図解して示すようにした.また,例示も多くするように心掛けた.

  7. Text layout rules and recommendations for readable design are different things, however these two issues are difficult to discuss independently. In this document, these two aspects are carefully separated. The aesthetic design recommendations are mainly described using notes.

    組版処理と読みやすい組版設計の関係は別問題である.しかし,両者は不可分の関係があり,解説でも両者を同時に説明する事項も出てくる.しかし,できるだけ両者を区別して記述することを心掛けた.具体的な方法としては,読みやすい組版設計の解説は,できるだけ注記で述べるようにした.

  8. The main target of this document is common books. The authors' experiences are mainly related to common books, and the quality required for common books is the highest in the market. There are many kinds of books in the market, and the requirements are quite diverse. The task force has a lot of accumulated experience in requirements and solutions for Japanese text composition. Nonetheless, many issues, which have been discussed over a long period of time, are applicable for other kinds of publication.

    この文書の解説では,組版処理の対象を主に書籍とする.執筆者の経験がその点に最も深いこともあるが,日本語組版処理において質の面から書籍の組版が重要と考えるからである.量が多いというだけでなく,質の面から見ると,書籍組版は多くの問題点を持っている.書籍組版は,その処理内容が多様であり,これらについて最も古くから多くの人々により問題点が考えられ,かつ指摘されてきた経緯がある.処理そのものについては,書籍の組版処理はむずかしく,また要求のレベルが高かったという点もある.また,書籍で考えられてきた事項の多くが,その他の文書でも応用できる点が多いといえよう.

    In terms of frequency of use, the importance of magazines, technical manuals, and Web documents rates alongside common books. However, there are several characteristics in these publications, which are different from common books. These issues should be treated more fully in future documents.

    しかし,使用頻度という点でいえば,雑誌,マニュアル,Web上の文書等の重要性は,書籍と変わらない.また,これらの文書の組版処理では,書籍とは異なる事項も含んでいる.これらにおける問題点は,次の課題としたい.

The Structure of This Document この文書の構成

This document consists of four parts:

この文書は,次の4つの部分で構成されている.

  1. [[[#introduction]]]

  2. [[[#basics_of_japanese_composition]]]

  3. [[[#line-composition]]]

  4. [[[#hanmen-design]]]

[[[#basics_of_japanese_composition]]] explains the characteristics of letters and symbols which are used in Japanese composition, their differences in vertical writing mode and horizontal writing mode, and the design and adaptation of the kihon-hanmen.

[[[#basics_of_japanese_composition]]]では,日本語組版で使用される文字の特徴,縦組横組の相違点,基本版面の設計方法及びその適用方法などについて解説する.

[[[#line-composition]]] explains line composition methods for ideographic (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15), katakana (cl-16) characters and punctuation marks, together with ruby (inter-line pronunciation information and annotation) and Japanese and Western mixed text composition, i.e. mixtures of Japanese characters and Western characters (cl-27).

[[[#line-composition]]]では,漢字等(cl-19)平仮名(cl-15)片仮名(cl-16)及び約物だけでなく文字に添えて行間に配置されるルビ処理及び欧文用文字(cl-27)を含む和欧文混植などの行の組版処理並びに行内での文字配置方法を解説する.

[[[#hanmen-design]]] describes construction methods and composition methods for headings, notes, illustrations and tables.

[[[#hanmen-design]]]では,見出し図版などの構成方法及び配置方法を解説する.

In principle, characters in Japanese composition are designed in a square box and positioned without extra spacing, i.e. solid setting. This is taken as a basic premise for the design of the kihon-hanmen, the basis of book layout. Furthermore, to understand Japanese layout, it is important to understand the design of the kihon-hanmen and how to position illustrations, characters, symbols etc. in relation to it. Hence, [[[#basics_of_japanese_composition]]] describes in detail the design of the kihon-hanmen and its dependencies. In particular, [[[#page_wise_arrangement_of_kihonhanmen_elements]]] provides prototypical patterns for the three guidelines listed after this paragraph: what recommendations need to be strictly taken into account, and what exceptions are possible. (The goal of these explanations is an understanding of Japanese composition. Since detailed explanations of the various elements of the kihon-hanmen are given in [[[#line-composition]]] and [[[#hanmen-design]]], some explanations are repeated.)

なお,日本語組版は,原則として全角モノスペースの文字・記号を字間を空けずに(ベタ組にして)配置する.このことを前提にして本の基本となる版面基本版面)を設計する.そのうえで実際のページでは,基本版面の設計に従い図版や文字・記号などを配置する.この基本版面の設計と,それに従いどのように図版や文字・記号などを配置するかを理解することは,日本語組版を理解する重要なポイントである.そこで,[[[#basics_of_japanese_composition]]]では,基本版面の設計とその適用方法について,詳細に解説した.特に,[[[#page_wise_arrangement_of_kihonhanmen_elements]]]では,次の3点について,基本版面で設計した事項のどこを厳守し,どのような例外が出るかについて,典型的な例を解説した.ここでの説明の目的は,日本語組版を理解してもらうためのものであり,各要素の詳細な解説は,[[[#line-composition]]]と[[[#hanmen-design]]]で行うので,説明が一部では重なる部分も出てくる.

  1. Keep to the basic size and column numbers of multi-column format that were decided upon in setting up the kihon-hanmen, with some exceptions.

    基本版面で決定した版面の全体のサイズ又は段組などその構造をできるだけ維持する.ただし,例外がある.

  2. Keep to the line positions that were decided upon in setting up the kihon-hanmen, with some exceptions.

    基本版面で決定した行の位置をできるだけ維持する.ただし,例外がある.

  3. Keep to the letter positions that were decided upon in setting up the kihon-hanmen, with some exceptions.

    基本版面で決定した文字位置をできるだけ維持する.ただし,例外がある.

Reference of Definition and Others 用語の参照その他

The definitions of technical terms are described in the [[[#terminology]]] appendix. Terms are linked to corresponding places in the Terminology appendix only at first appearance and in important places. If there is no appropriate English terminology for Japanese terminology, or the English terminology may possibly cause misunderstanding, the Japanese terminology is only transliterated to Hepburn style romaji notation (except that "m", not "n", is used before "b", "m" and "p").

この文書で使用している用語の定義は,[[[#terminology]]]に掲げる.用語の表記,参照等は,次のように行った.“用語集”に掲げる用語への参照は,節項目の初出の箇所以外は,特に関連が深い箇所に限って行った.なお,英語版の対応用語については,対応する英語の用語がない,あるいは意味の近い用語があっても,その用語の使用により誤解を生む恐れがある用語は,ヘボン式のローマ字表記とした(ただし,b,m,pの前では“m”としないで,“n”とした).

Also, the definitions of terminology in the Terminology appendix are basically the same as the definitions of JIS Z 8125 or JIS X 4051, with respect to common Japanese usage of terminology.

また,“用語集”に掲げる用語については,日本における標準的な定義を示すことを考慮し,JIS Z 8125 又は JIS X 4051 に定義されている用語で,かつ,この文書で使用する用語の意味と差異のないものは,そこに示されている定義を掲げた.

Each character class has its own character class number in parentheses. Members of each character class are listed in [[[#character_classes]]], except for CJK Ideographs. Each character in this document is named and referred to using the character names of ISO/IEC 10646 (UCS).

文字クラス名には,その後ろの括弧内に文字クラス番号を掲げた.それぞれの文字クラスに含まれる非漢字の一覧は,[[[#character_classes]]]に掲げた.個々の文字については,その後ろにISO/IEC 10646(UCS)の名称を掲げた.

The formal title of the frequently mentioned Japanese Industrial Standard JIS X 4051 is as follows:

この文書でよく参照しているJIS X 4051の名称は,以下である.

JIS X 4051 : 2004 Formatting rules for Japanese documents

JIS X 4051 : 2004 日本語文書の組版方法(Formatting rules for Japanese documents

JIS X 4051 is available from the Japan Standards Association (http://www.jsa.or.jp/), but a PDF version is not available from JSA. The PDF version is accessible from the Japanese Industrial Standards Committee site (http://www.jisc.go.jp/), however it is not possible to download it.

JIS X 4051 は,日本規格協会(http://www.jsa.or.jp/)から入手できる(PDFデータの頒布はしていない).ただし,日本産業標準調査会(http://www.jisc.go.jp/)で,この規格を検索することにより,PDFの閲覧が可能である(閲覧のみに限られる).

Basics of Japanese Composition 日本語組版の基本

Characters and the Principles of Setting them for Japanese Composition 日本語組版に使用する文字と配置の原則

Characters Used for Japanese Composition 日本語組版に使用する文字

Japanese letters used for composing Japanese text mainly consist of ideographic (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) characters (see [[[#fig1_4]]]).

日本語組版に使用する和文文字では,主に漢字等(cl-19)平仮名(cl-15)及び片仮名(cl-16)を使用する([[[#fig1_4]]]).

Kanji, hiragana and katakana. 漢字等・平仮名・片仮名
Kanji, hiragana and katakana. 漢字等・平仮名・片仮名

In addition to ideographic (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) characters, various punctuation marks (see [[[#fig1_5]]]) as well as Western characters (cl-27), such as European numerals, Latin letters and/or Greek letters, may be used in Japanese text. In this document these characters are classified into character classes, for which explanations are given describing their behavior in type-setting.

日本語組版には,漢字等(cl-19)平仮名(cl-15)及び片仮名(cl-16)以外に,多くの約物類を使用する([[[#fig1_5]]]).その他に,アラビア数字,ラテン文字,ギリシャ文字などの欧文用文字(cl-27)を混用する場合がある.この文書では,日本語組版で使用する文字について組版上の振る舞いから文字クラスとして分類し,解説する.

Examples of punctuation marks. 日本語組版に使用する約物類の例
Examples of punctuation marks. 日本語組版に使用する約物類の例

Kanji, Hiragana and Katakana 漢字等,平仮名,片仮名

Ideographic (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) characters are the same size, and have square character frames of equal dimensions. Aligned with the vertical and horizontal center of the character frame, there is a smaller box called the letter face, which contains the actual symbol. Character size is measured by the size of the character frame (see [[[#fig1_6]]]). "Character advance" is a term used to describe the advance width of the character frame of a character. By definition, it is equal to the "width" of a character in horizontal writing mode, whereas it is the height of a character in vertical writing mode (see [[[#fig1_6]]]).

漢字等(cl-19)平仮名(cl-15)及び片仮名(cl-16)は,正方形の文字の外枠を持っており,その文字の外枠の天地左右中央に,文字の外枠よりやや小さくした字面を持っている(逆にいえば,字面の上下左右と文字の外枠との間には,字面により大きさは異なるが,若干の空白を持っている).文字サイズは,この文字の外枠のサイズで示す([[[#fig1_6]]]).なお,字幅は,文字を配列する方向(字詰め方向)の文字の外枠の大きさをいい,横組では文字の幅となるが,縦組では文字の高さとなる([[[#fig1_6]]]).漢字等(cl-19)平仮名(cl-15)及び片仮名(cl-16)の外枠は正方形なので,その字幅は全角となる.

The size of kanji and hiragana, and the character frames. 漢字と仮名のサイズの示し方
The size of kanji and hiragana, and the character frames. 漢字と仮名のサイズの示し方

In vertical writing mode, the letter face of small kana (cl-11) characters (ぁぃぅァィゥ etc.) is placed at the vertical center and to the right of the horizontal center of the character frame; in horizontal writing mode, it is placed at the horizontal center and below the vertical center (see [[[#fig1_7]]]). Also there are punctuation marks with letter faces that are not placed at the vertical and horizontal center of the character frame.

小書きの仮名(cl-11)(ぁぃぅァィゥなど)は,縦組では文字の外枠の天地中央で右寄り,横組では文字の外枠の左右中央で下寄りに字面を配置する([[[#fig1_7]]]).また,約物などでは,文字の外枠の天地左右中央に配置しない例がある.

Small kana and the position of their letter face in the character frame. 小書きの仮名と文字の外枠
Small kana and the position of their letter face in the character frame. 小書きの仮名と文字の外枠

Principles of Arrangement of Kanji and Kana Characters 漢字及び仮名の配置の原則

In principle, when composing a line with ideographic (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) characters no extra spacing appears between their character frame. This is called solid setting (see [[[#fig1_8]]]).

漢字等(cl-19)平仮名(cl-15)及び片仮名(cl-16)は,行に文字を配置していく際には,原則として,文字の外枠を密着させて配置するベタ組にする([[[#fig1_8]]]).

Example of solid setting in horizontal writing mode. ベタ組の例 (横組の場合)
Example of solid setting in horizontal writing mode. ベタ組の例(横組の場合)

In the letterpress printing era ideographic (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) characters were designed so that they were easy to read in solid setting, regardless of text direction. However, unlike the letterpress printing era, when several sizes of the original pattern of a letter were required to create matrices, in today's digital era the same original pattern is used for any size simply by enlargement or reduction. Because of this, it might be necessary to adjust the inter-character spacing when composing lines at large character sizes. When composing lines at small character sizes, hinting data is used to ensure that the width of the strokes that make up a character look correct.

活字組版の時代から漢字等(cl-19)平仮名(cl-15)及び片仮名(cl-16)の設計は,縦組でも横組でも読みやすく,かつ,ベタ組とした場合に読みやすいように設計されていた.ただし,活字組版では,文字サイズ別に何段階かに分けて原図母型の元になるもの)を作成していた.しかし,今日では,同一の原図から単純に拡大・縮小して使用するので,大きな文字サイズにした際には,字間の調整が必要になる場合も出てきた.(なお,小さい文字サイズにする場合,そのまま縮小すると,解像度によっては文字の線幅にバラツキが出る.そこで各文字ごとに線幅の補正情報(ヒントデータ)を持たせ,出力品質の維持がはかられている.)

Depending on the context, there are several setting methods used in addition to solid setting, as shown below.

次のようにベタ組にしない方法も,印刷物の内容によっては採用されている.

  1. Fixed inter-character spacing: Text set with a fixed size spacing between each character frame (see [[[#fig1_9]]]).

    アキ組:字間に一定の空き量を入れて文字を配置する方法([[[#fig1_9]]]).

    Examples of fixed inter-character spacing in horizontal writing mode. アキ組の例 (横組の場合)
    Examples of fixed inter-character spacing in horizontal writing mode. アキ組の例(横組の場合)

    Fixed inter-character spacing is used in books for the following cases: (Fixed inter-character spacing, including also even tsumegumi, is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 4.18.1 b.)

    書籍におけるアキ組は,次のような場合に利用されている.(アキ組については,均等詰めを含めてJIS X 4051の4.18.1のb)に規定されている.)

    1. To achieve a balance between running heads with few and with many characters. Fixed inter-character spacing is used for the running heads with few characters. Examples of fixed inter-character spacing for running heads are given in JIS X 4051, annex 5.

      字数の少ないと字数の多い柱とのバランスをとるために,字数の少ない柱をアキ組にする.柱のアキ組の例は,JIS X 4051の附属書5に掲げられている.

    2. To achieve a balance between headings with few and with many characters. Fixed inter-character spacing is used for the headings with few characters. Examples of fixed inter-character spacing for headings are given in JIS X 4051, annex 6.

      字数の少ない見出しと字数の多い見出しとのバランスをとるために,字数の少ない見出しをアキ組にする.見出しのアキ組の例は,JIS X 4051の附属書6に掲げられている.

    3. For captions of illustrations and tables, which only have a few characters. Fixed inter-character spacing is used to balance with the size of the illustration or table.

      図版キャプションの字数が少ない場合に,図版や表のサイズとバランスをとるためにアキ組にする.

    4. In some cases, fixed inter-character spacing is used for Chinese and Japanese poetry where one line has only a few characters.

      1行の字数が少ない漢詩や日本語の詩歌でアキ組にする場合がある.

  2. Even inter-character spacing: Text set with equal inter-character spacing between characters on a given line, so that each line is aligned to the same line head and line end (see [[[#fig1_10]]]).

    均等割り:字間を均等に空け,文字列の両端を行頭及び行末にそろえる方法([[[#fig1_10]]]).

    Example of even inter-character spacing setting in horizontal writing mode. 均等割りの例 (横組の場合)
    Example of even inter-character spacing setting in horizontal writing mode. 均等割りの例(横組の場合)

    Even inter-character spacing setting is used in books for unifying the length of table headings with Japanese text (see [[[#fig_ad1_4]]]). There are also examples (e.g. lists of names) in which parts of a person names receive inter-character spacing. (Even inter-character spacing, including processing of jidori, is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 4.18.1.)

    書籍における均等割りは,表の和文の項目見出しの長さをそろえる場合に利用されている([[[#fig_ad1_4]]]).また,名簿などで人名の部分で均等割りにする例がある.(均等割りについては,字取り処理を含めてJIS X 4051の4.18.1に規定されている.)

    Example of a table with inter-character spacing. 表の均等割りの例
    Example of a table with inter-character spacing. 表の均等割りの例
  3. Tsumegumi (kerning / tracking): Text is set with negative inter-character spacing by arranging characters so that a portion of two character frames overlap each other. This is divided further into two types, depending on the methods used for inter-character spacing reduction. One method involves reducing by the same amount of inter-character spacing (even tsumegumi or tracking, see [[[#fig1_11]]]) and the other involves determining the amount of spacing to reduce based on the distance between the two letter faces of adjacent characters (face tsumegumi or letter face kerning, see [[[#fig1_12]]]).

    詰め組:ベタ組より字間を詰めて,文字の外枠の一部が重なるように文字を配置する方法.この場合,重なる量を同一にする方法(均等詰め,[[[#fig1_11]]])と,仮名や約物等の字面に応じて,字面が重ならない程度まで詰めて文字を配置する方法(字面詰め,[[[#fig1_12]]])がある.

    Example of even tsumegumi in horizontal writing mode. (The 1st line is the same text with solid setting, for comparison.) 均等詰めの例 (横組の場合,上側はベタ組,下側が均等詰めの例)
    Example of even tsumegumi in horizontal writing mode. (The 1st line is the same text with solid setting, for comparison.) 均等詰めの例(横組の場合,上側はベタ組,下側が均等詰めの例)
    Example of face tsumegumi in horizontal writing mode. (The 1st line is the same text with solid setting, for comparison.) 字面詰めの例 (横組の場合,上側はベタ組,下側が字面詰めの例)
    Example of face tsumegumi in horizontal writing mode. (The 1st line is the same text with solid setting, for comparison.) 字面詰めの例(横組の場合,上側はベタ組,下側が字面詰めの例)

    In the main text of books, the most reader-friendly approach is to use solid setting. However, if the character size is larger, the distance between characters may become unbalanced, and tsumegumi will be applied. For example, there are books where tsumegumi is used with headings set in large character sizes. These methods are rarely used in books, since ease of reading is very important, but in magazines or advertisements there are many more examples of tsumegumi. Magazines tend to use type to differentiate themselves from others, and so devices like this are sometimes used for that purpose.

    詰め組は,書籍では大きな文字サイズの見出し等で採用されている例がある.字と字との間隔について,本文ではベタ組が最も読みやすい.しかし,そのまま拡大した場合には,大きな文字サイズになった場合,字と字との間隔の見え方について,ややバランスを欠く例もあり,採用されている.また,読みやすさを重視する書籍の本文で採用している例は少ないが,雑誌の本文や広告のコピー等では,詰め組を採用している例がある.誌面構成のデザインを重視,文字部分をまとまったものとして演出したいということであろう.

Page Formats for Japanese Documents 日本語文書の基本となる組体裁

Specification of Page Formats 組体裁の設計

The page format of a Japanese document is specified by:

日本語文書の組体裁は,以下の順序で設計する.

  • Firstly, preparing a template of the page format, which determines the basic appearance of pages of the document;

    まず,基本となる組体裁を設計する.

  • Then, specifying the details of actual page elements based on the templates.

    次に,それを基準として文書の実際のページ設計を行う.

Basic Templates of Page Formats 基本となる組体裁

Generally, books use only one template for page format, whereas magazines often use several templates.

基本となる組体裁は,書籍では1パターンであることが多いが,雑誌では一般に数パターンを作成する.

Although in books, as will be mentioned in c of [[[#kihonhanmen_and_examples_of_real_page_format]]], there tends to be one template for the page format, the basic pattern is typically adapted. For example, the table of contents may contain small modifications. Furthermore, there are many examples of indexes with a different page format than the basic page format, and vertically set books often have indexes in horizontal writing mode and sometimes multiple columns. This still holds true where the goal is to make the size of the hanmen for indexes close to the size of hanmen in the basic page format.

書籍では,1パターンといっても,[[[#kihonhanmen_and_examples_of_real_page_format]]]のcで解説するように,目次などは基本となる組体裁を元に設計をしなおす.また,索引は,基本となる組体裁とは異なる設計になる例が多く,縦組の書籍でも,索引は横組とし,段組とする例が多い.この場合でも,基本となる組体裁で設計した版面サイズと索引の版面サイズが近似するように設計する.

Magazines gather articles of different kinds. Often the page format will differ depending on the content of the article. For example, one part may have 9 point character size and 3 columns, and another part 8 point character size and 4 columns.

雑誌は,性格の異なる記事の集合である.そこで記事内容により,ある部分は9ポイントの3段組,ある部分は8ポイントの4段組と,記事内容により組体裁を変えている例が多い.

Elements of Page Formats 基本となる組体裁の主な設計要素

Example of a page format in vertical writing mode. 基本となる組体裁の設計要素 (縦組の例)
Example of a page format in vertical writing mode. 基本となる組体裁の設計要素(縦組の例)

The following are the basic elements of a page format. [[[#fig1_1]]] illustrates an example of a page format in vertical writing mode.

基本となる組体裁の主な設計要素としては,次がある(縦組の例を[[[#fig1_1]]]に示す).

  1. Trim size and binding side (vertically set Japanese documents are bound on the right-hand side, and horizontally set documents are bound on the left-hand side. See [[[#fig1_2]]].)

    仕上りサイズと綴じる側([[[#fig1_2]]],日本語文書では一般に縦組では右綴じ,横組では左綴じ

  2. Principal text direction (vertical writing mode or horizontal writing mode).

    基本となる組方向(縦組又は横組)

  3. Appearance of the kihon-hanmen and its position relative to the trim size.

    基本版面の体裁及びその仕上りサイズに対する位置

  4. Appearance of running heads and page numbers, and their positions relative to the trim size and kihon-hanmen.

    ノンブルの体裁

Binding-side (bound on the right-hand side and bound on the left-hand side). 綴じる側 (右綴じと左綴じ)
Binding-side (bound on the right-hand side and bound on the left-hand side). 綴じる側(右綴じと左綴じ)

Elements of Kihon-hanmen 基本版面の設計要素

The kihon-hanmen is the hanmen style designed as the basis of a book. The following are the basic elements of the kihon-hanmen (see [[[#fig1_3]]]).

本の基本として設計される版面体裁が基本版面である.基本版面の設計要素としては,次がある([[[#fig1_3]]]).

  1. Character size and typeface name

    使用する文字サイズ及びフォント名

  2. Text direction (vertical writing mode or horizontal writing mode)

    組方向(縦組又は横組)

  3. Number of columns and column gap when using multi-column format

    段組の場合は,段数及び段間

  4. Length of a line

    1行の行長

  5. Number of lines per page (number of lines per column when using multi-column format)

    1ページに配置する行数(段組の場合は1段に配置する行数)

  6. Line gap

    行間

Elements of kihon-hanmen. (Example in vertical writing mode.) 基本版面の設計要素 (縦組の例)
Elements of kihon-hanmen. (Example in vertical writing mode.) 基本版面の設計要素(縦組の例)

To understand the characteristics of Japanese composition, it is important to understand how the various elements of the kihon-hanmen are applied to a real page. The details will be explained in [[[#page_wise_arrangement_of_kihonhanmen_elements]]].

基本版面で設計した各要素が,実際のページでどのように適用されるかは日本語組版の特徴を理解するための重要なポイントである.そこで,その詳細は[[[#page_wise_arrangement_of_kihonhanmen_elements]]]で解説する.

The normative definition of kihon-hanmen is provided in JIS X 4051, sec. 7.5.

基本版面の指定等については,JIS X 4051の7.5に規定されている.

Format examples (including running heads and page numbers) and composition examples for kihon-hanmen in different trim sizes are available in JIS X 4051, annexes 3 and 4.

仕上りサイズ別の基本版面の設計例(柱及びノンブルの設計例も含く)及び組版例が,JIS X 4051の附属書3及び附属書4に掲げられているので参考になる.

Depending on the application, character sizes can be specified in multiple ways. For books, character size is mainly specified using points or Q/q. Points are used for letterpress printing. In JIS Z 8305 (size units of printing type), one point is determined to be 0.3514mm. This is the size that is usually used. However, some commonly used applications adopt one point as 1/72 inch, ca. 0.3528mm. Q was used for photo typesetting. One Q is 0.25mm. It is very difficult to unify the unit sizes for character size specifications, because actual users prefer the unit to which they are accustomed. In some companies, multiple types of unit are used together.

処理系にもよるが,文字サイズの指示には複数の単位が使用できる.書籍において,文字サイズの指示に使用されている単位としては,主にポイントと級(Q,q)がある.ポイントは,活字組版で使用されていた単位で,JIS Z 8305(活字の基準寸法)では,1ポイントは0.3514mmと規定しており,このサイズが現在でも使用されている.ただし,1ポイントを1/72インチ(約0.3528mm)とすることができる処理系も多く,このサイズを採用しているものもある.級は写真植字で使用されていた単位で,1Qは0.25mmである.文字サイズの指示では,慣れているものが使いやすいということもあり,どれか1つに整理するのは困難であり,同じ出版社内でも複数の単位が使用されている例がある.

Kihon-hanmen and Examples of Real Page Format 基本版面と実際のページの設計例

Below are several examples of how the basic page format is created, and how then various elements are placed on a real text page. (This and other aspects of how the various elements of the kihon-hanmen are arranged on each page are explained in [[[#page_wise_arrangement_of_kihonhanmen_elements]]].)

基本となる組体裁を設計し,それを基準に文書の実際のページにおける各要素の配置設計を行うが,その例をいくつか示しておく(なお,この点を含め,基本版面の設計要素が各ページでどのように適用されるかについては[[[#page_wise_arrangement_of_kihonhanmen_elements]]]で解説する).

  1. Realm and position of headings

    見出しを配置する領域と位置

    To set a heading, first establish a rectangular space based on a number of lines in the kihon-hanmen. For example, a '3 line space' means (3 * the size of the character frame used for the kihon-hanmen + 2 * the line gap in the kihon-hanmen). (Details of this processing are defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 8.3.3.d). The heading text is usually set in the centre of the rectangular space in the block direction, and indented from the line head. The size of the indent is usually specified as a number of characters in the kihon-hanmen. For example, a '4 character indent' means (4 * the size of the character frames used for establishing the kihon-hanmen). (See the example at [[[#fig_ad1_1]]].)

    見出しを配置する領域の行送り方向のサイズは,基本版面で設定した行の位置を元に,それの何行分を用いるかという方法で設計する(この処理方法については,JIS X 4051の8.3.3のd)に規定されている).見出しの字詰め方向字下げは,基本版面で設定した文字位置を基準に,その何字分を下げるかという方法で一般に設計する.[[[#fig_ad1_1]]]の例は,見出しを基本版面で設定した行の位置の3行分の中央に配置し,基本版面で設定した文字サイズの4字分下がった位置に配置している.

    Layout example of a heading based on the line positions established by the kihon-hanmen. 基本版面で設計した行の位置を基準とした見出しの設計例
    Layout example of a heading based on the line positions established by the kihon-hanmen. 基本版面で設計した行の位置を基準とした見出しの設計例

    Details of the different types of heading, creation of headings, methods for placing headings, etc. is explained in [[[#handling_of_headings]]].

    見出しの種類や構成,その配置方法等についての詳細は,[[[#handling_of_headings]]]で解説する.

  2. Size of illustrations

    図版のサイズ

    In horizontal writing mode with two columns, for example, the width of illustrations should, if at all possible, be either the width of one kihon-hanmen column or the width of the kihon-hanmen (see [[[#fig_ad1_2]]]). The illustrations are usually set at the head or the foot of the page (see [[[#fig_ad1_2]]]).

    横組の段組,例えば2段組に図版を配置する場合,図版の左右サイズは,できるだけ基本版面で設計した1段の左右サイズ又は基本版面の左右サイズを基準に設計し,そのいずれかのサイズで配置できるときは,そのように決める([[[#fig_ad1_2]]]).また,その位置は,多くは版面の又はにそろえて配置する([[[#fig_ad1_2]]]).

    Example of illustrations in two columns, horizontal writing mode. 横組の2段組における図版の設計例
    Example of illustrations in two columns, horizontal writing mode. 横組の2段組における図版の設計例

    Also, in vertical writing mode, for example with three columns, the height of illustrations should, if at all possible, be either the height of one kihon-hanmen column or the height of the kihon-hanmen (see [[[#fig_ad1_19]]]). The illustrations are usually set at the right side or left side of the kihon-hanmen (see [[[#fig_ad1_19]]]).

    縦組でも,段組にする場合は,例えば,3段組の図版の天地サイズは,できるだけ基本版面で設計した1段若しくは2段の天地サイズ,又は基本版面の天地サイズを基準に設計し,そのいずれかのサイズで配置できるときは,そのように決める([[[#fig_ad1_19]]]).また,その位置は,多くは版面の天又は地にそろえて配置する([[[#fig_ad1_19]]]).

    Example of illustrations in three columns, vertical writing mode. 縦組の3段組における図版の設計例
    Example of illustrations in three columns, vertical writing mode. 縦組の3段組における図版の設計例

    Details of illustration positioning is explained in [[[#hanmen-design-sec3]]].

    で解説する.

  3. Hanmen size for the table of contents

    目次の版面サイズ

    The hanmen size for the table of contents of books is based on the size of the kihon-hanmen. There are many examples of tables of contents in vertical writing mode where the left-to-right size is identical to that of the kihon-hanmen, but the top-to-bottom size is a little bit smaller (see [[[#fig_ad1_3]]]).

    書籍の目次の版面サイズは,基本版面のサイズを基準に設計する.例えば,縦組の目次では,左右の行送り方向のサイズは基本版面のサイズと同じにし,天地の字詰め方向のサイズは,やや小さくする例が多い([[[#fig_ad1_3]]]).

    Example of the design of the table of contents (TOC) in vertical writing mode. 縦組の目次版面の設計例
    Example of the design of the table of contents (TOC) in vertical writing mode. 縦組の目次版面の設計例

    There are cases when a different hanmen than the kihon-hanmen is used for positioning of running heads and page numbers. This will be discussed in [[[#principles_of_arrangement_of_running_heads_and_page_numbers]]] (see [[[#fig_ad1_17]]]).

    基本版面と異なる版面にした場合の柱及びノンブルの位置については,[[[#principles_of_arrangement_of_running_heads_and_page_numbers]]]で解説する([[[#fig_ad1_17]]]).

Vertical Writing Mode and Horizontal Writing Mode 組方向(縦組と横組)

Directional Factors in Japanese Composition 日本語組版における組方向

Japanese composition has two text directions. One is vertical direction (vertical writing mode), the other is horizontal direction (horizontal writing mode).

日本語組版における組方向は,縦組(縦書き)と横組(横書き)がある.

Vertical writing mode and horizontal writing mode. (The arrows show the reading direction.) 縦組と横組 (矢印は文字を読んでいく順序を示す)
Vertical writing mode and horizontal writing mode. (The arrows show the reading direction.) 縦組と横組(矢印は文字を読んでいく順序を示す)
Example of horizontal writing mode in parts of vertically set books. 縦組の本における横組の混用例
Example of horizontal writing mode in parts of vertically set books. 縦組の本における横組の混用例

Major Differences between Vertical Writing Mode and Horizontal Writing Mode 縦組と横組の主な相違点

The following are major differences between vertical writing mode and horizontal writing mode.

縦組横組の主な相違点としては,次がある.

  1. Arrangement of characters, lines, columns and pages; direction of page progression.

    文字,行,及びページ配置,並びに綴じの方向は,次のようになる.

    1. Vertical writing mode. See [[[#fig1_15]]] for an example of vertical writing mode with two columns per page.

      縦組の場合(2段組の例である[[[#fig1_15]]])

      Direction of arrangement of characters in vertical writing mode. 縦組における文字などの配置方向
      Direction of arrangement of characters in vertical writing mode. 縦組における文字などの配置方向
      1. Characters are arranged from top to bottom, lines are arranged from right to left.

        文字は上から下に,行は右から左に配置する.

      2. Columns are arranged from top to bottom. A book starts with the left (recto) side and progresses from right to left (see [[[#fig1_16]]]).

        は上から下に,ページは表面から開始,右から左に配置する(左方向から右方向に本は開いていく,[[[#fig1_16]]]).

        Progression of pages for a vertically set books. 縦組における本の開いていく方向
        Progression of pages for a vertically set books. 縦組における本の開いていく方向
    2. Horizontal composition. See [[[#fig1_17]]] for an example of horizontal text layout with two-columns per page.

      横組の場合(2段組の例である[[[#fig1_17]]])

      Direction of arrangement of characters in horizontal writing mode. 横組における文字などの配置方向
      Direction of arrangement of characters in horizontal writing mode. 横組における文字などの配置方向
      1. Characters are arranged from left to right, and lines are arranged from top to bottom.

        文字は左から右に,行は上から下に配置する.

      2. Columns are arranged from left to right. A book starts with the right (recto) side and progresses from left to right (see [[[#fig1_18]]]).

        は左から右に,ページは表面から開始,左から右に配置する(右方向から左方向に本は開いていく,[[[#fig1_18]]]).

        Progression of pages for a horizontally set book. 横組における本の開いていく方向
        Progression of pages for a horizontally set book. 横組における本の開いていく方向
  2. Orientation of Latin alphanumeric characters in a line.

    文中に挿入される英数字の向きは,次のようになる.

    1. There are three ways to arrange Latin alphanumerics in vertical writing mode:

      縦組の場合は,次の3つの配置方法がある.

      1. One by one with the same normal orientation as that of Japanese characters. This is usually applied to one-letter alphanumerics or capitalized abbreviations (see [[[#fig1_19]]]).

        和文文字と同じように正常な向きで,1字1字配置する.主に1文字の英数字,大文字の頭字語([[[#fig1_19]]])など.

        Arrangement of alphanumerics in vertical writing mode - normal orientation. 縦組における英数字の配置例1
        Arrangement of alphanumerics in vertical writing mode - normal orientation. 縦組における英数字の配置例1
      2. Rotated 90 degrees clockwise. This is usually applied to English words or sentences (see [[[#fig1_20]]]).

        文字を時計回りに90度回転し,配置する.主に英字の単語,文など([[[#fig1_20]]]).

        Arrangement of alphanumerics in vertical writing mode - rotated 90 degrees clockwise. 縦組における英数字の配置例2
        Arrangement of alphanumerics in vertical writing mode - rotated 90 degrees clockwise. 縦組における英数字の配置例2
      3. Set horizontally without changing orientation (called tate-chu-yoko, which means horizontal-in-vertical composition) (see [[[#fig1_21]]]). This is usually applied to two-digit numbers (see JIS X 4051, sec. 4.8 for the definition).

        正常な向きのまま,横組にする(縦中横,[[[#fig1_21]]]).主に2桁の数字の場合などで利用されている(縦中横の処理は,JIS X 4051の4.8に規定されている).

        Arrangement of alphanumerics in vertical writing mode - tate-chu-yoko. 縦組における英数字の配置例3 (縦中横)
        Arrangement of alphanumerics in vertical writing mode - tate-chu-yoko. 縦組における英数字の配置例3(縦中横)
    2. In horizontal writing mode there is only one way of arranging alphanumerics, i.e. normal orientation.

      横組の場合は,正常な向きで配置する.

  3. Arrangement of tables and/or illustrations rotated 90 degrees clockwise or counter-clockwise for reasons of size. (This processing is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 7.3.).

    表,図版などを,サイズの関係から時計回り又は反時計回りに90度回転して配置する場合,次のようにする(この処理は,JIS X 4051の7.3に規定されている).

    1. In vertical writing mode, align the top of tables/illustrations to the right of the page (see [[[#fig1_22]]]).

      縦組の場合は,表,図版などの上側を右側にする([[[#fig1_22]]]).

      Example of arrangement of a table rotated 90 degrees clockwise in vertical writing mode. 縦組において表を時計回りに90度回転して配置した例
      Example of arrangement of a table rotated 90 degrees clockwise in vertical writing mode. 縦組において表を時計回りに90度回転して配置した例
    2. In horizontal writing mode, align the top of tables/illustrations to the left of the page (see [[[#fig1_23]]]).

      横組の場合は,表,図版などの上側を左側にする([[[#fig1_23]]]).

      Example of arrangement of a table rotated 90 degrees counterclockwise in horizontal writing mode. 横組において表を反時計回りに90度回転して配置した例
      Example of arrangement of a table rotated 90 degrees counterclockwise in horizontal writing mode. 横組において表を反時計回りに90度回転して配置した例
  4. Arrangement of an incomplete number of lines on a multi-column format page due to new recto, page break or other reasons. (The processing of new recto and page break is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 8.1.1.).

    改丁改ページなどの直前ページにおいて,段組の行がページの途中で終わる場合は,次のようにする(改丁・改ページの処理は,JIS X 4051の8.1.1に規定されている).

    1. In vertical writing mode, just finish the line where it ends ("nariyuki"). The number of lines in each column is not uniform (see [[[#fig1_24]]]).

      縦組の場合は,“なりゆき”とし,各段の左右行数は不ぞろいになる([[[#fig1_24]]]).

      How to process incomplete number of lines on a multi-column format page (vertically set book). 縦組の段組における改丁・改ページの直前ページの処理例
      How to process incomplete number of lines on a multi-column format page (vertically set book). 縦組の段組における改丁・改ページの直前ページの処理例
    2. In horizontal writing mode, re-arrange columns so that each column has the same number of lines. In case the number of lines is not divisible by the number of columns, add the smallest number to make it divisible and re-arrange columns using the quotient as the number of lines so that only the last column shall have the incomplete number of lines (see [[[#fig1_25]]]).

      横組の場合は,各段の行数を平均にする.ただし,行数が段数で割り切れない場合,その不足する行数は,最終段の末尾を空けるようにする([[[#fig1_25]]]).

      How to process incomplete number of lines on a multi-column format page (horizontally set book). 横組の段組における改丁・改ページの直前ページの処理例
      How to process incomplete number of lines on a multi-column format page (horizontally set book). 横組の段組における改丁・改ページの直前ページの処理例

Specifying the Kihon-hanmen 基本版面の設計

Procedure for Defining the Kihon-hanmen 基本版面の設計手順

In Japanese composition, first the size of the kihon-hanmen is defined, using the square character frames of characters in solid setting. Taking this as a base, the position of the kihon-hanmen with regards to the trim size is then specified. The following are procedures for determining the size and position of the kihon-hanmen (see [[[#fig1_26_1]]]).

日本語組版では,正方形の文字の外枠ベタ組にすることから,まず基本版面のサイズを設計し,そのうえで,仕上りサイズに対する基本版面の位置を決めている.そこで,基本版面は,次の手順で設定する([[[#fig1_26_1]]]).

  1. Specifying the dimensions of the kihon-hanmen.

    基本版面のサイズを決める

    1. For a document with a single column per page, specify the character size, the line length (the number of characters per line), the number of lines per page, and the line gap.

      1段組の場合は,文字サイズ,1行の行長字詰め数),1ページの行数及び行間を決める.

    2. For a document with multiple columns per page, specify the character size, the line length (the number of characters per line), the number of lines per column, the line-gap, and the number of columns and the column gap.

      多段組の場合は,文字サイズ,1行の行長(字詰め数),1段の行数,行間,段数及び段間を決める.

      Procedures to determine the size and position of the kihon-hanmen, step 1. 基本版面の設定手順の1
      Procedures to determine the size and position of the kihon-hanmen, step 1. 基本版面の設定手順の1
  2. Determining the position of the kihon-hanmen relative to the trim size.

    仕上りサイズに対する基本版面の配置位置を決める

    There are various alternative methods for specifying the position of the kihon-hanmen relative to the trim size:

    基本版面の配置位置の指定方法には,次がある.

    1. Position vertically by centering the kihon-hanmen. Position horizontally by centering the kihon-hanmen.

      天地位置:中央,左右位置:中央

    2. Position vertically by specifying the spacing size at the head (for horizontal writing mode) or the spacing at the foot (for vertical writing mode). Position horizontally by centering the kihon-hanmen.

      天地位置:の空き量(横組の場合)又はの空き量(縦組の場合)を指定,左右位置:中央

    3. Position vertically by centering the kihon-hanmen. Position horizontally by specifying the spacing size of the gutter.

      天地位置:中央,左右位置:のどの空き量を指定

    4. Position vertically by specifying the spacing at the head (for horizontal writing mode) or the spacing at the foot (for vertical writing mode). Position horizontally by specifying the spacing size of the gutter.

      天地位置:天の空き量(横組の場合)又は地の空き量(縦組の場合)を指定,左右位置:のどの空き量を指定

    Procedures to determine the size and position of the kihon-hanmen, step 2. 基本版面の設定手順の2
    Procedures to determine the size and position of the kihon-hanmen, step 2. 基本版面の設定手順の2

Considerations in Designing the Kihon-hanmen 基本版面の設計の注意点

The following are considerations to take into account when designing the kihon-hanmen. (This topic is not about processing, but rather an explanation of design preferences. The definition of kihon-hanmen is given in JIS X 4051, sec. 7.4.1.)

基本版面は,次のような事項を考慮し設計する(以下の説明は処理内容というよりは,どのように設計するかという問題についての解説である.なお,基本版面の指定については,JIS X 4051の7.4.1に規定がある).

  1. Trim size and margins. It would be best if the shape of the kihon-hanmen could be made similar to that of the trim size.

    仕上りサイズ及び余白を考慮して決定する.一般には,仕上りサイズと基本版面のサイズがほぼ相似形になるように決める.

  2. Character size. Generally 9 point (about 3.2mm) type is common. Except for specialized publications such as dictionaries, the minimum size of type is 8 point (about 2.8mm).

    大人を読者対象とした本の場合の文字サイズは,一般に9ポイント(≒3.2mm)が多い.辞書など特別な本を除き,最低でも8ポイント(≒2.8mm)である.

  3. Line length should be multiples of the character size (see [[[#fig1_27]]]).

    1行の行長は,文字サイズの整数倍に設定する([[[#fig1_27]]]).

    Line length should be multiples of the character size. 1行の行長は文字サイズの整数倍
    Line length should be multiples of the character size. 1行の行長は文字サイズの整数倍
  4. Use the same amount of line gap throughout the book, except for special cases. The size of the kihon-hanmen in the block direction is specified using the number of lines and the size of the line-gap.

    行と行の間の空き量(行間)は,特別な場合を除き,一定の値を確保する.また,各行の行の位置は,できるだけそろえるようにする.そこで,一般に基本版面の行送り方向のサイズは,行数と行間で設定する.

    Inserting ruby or other items between lines. 行間にルビなどを配置した例
    Inserting ruby or other items between lines. 行間にルビなどを配置した例
    Example of inter-line processing with warichu between lines. 割注が入った場合の行間の処理例
    Example of inter-line processing with warichu between lines. 割注が入った場合の行間の処理例
    Specifying kihon-hanmen with line feed. 基本版面を行送りで指定する方法
    Specifying kihon-hanmen with line feed. 基本版面を行送りで指定する方法

The size of the kihon-hanmen in this case can be calculated by following method:

以上のように設定した基本版面のサイズは,次のように計算できる.

  • Vertical writing mode with one column

    縦組の1段の場合

    Width of kihon-hanmen = character size × number of lines per page + line gap × (number of lines per page − 1)

    左右サイズ=使用する文字サイズ×1ページの行数+行間×(1ページの行数-1)

    298 point = 9 point × 18 lines + 8 point × (18 lines − 1)

    298ポイント=9ポイント×18行+8ポイント×(18行-1)

    Height of kihon-hanmen = character size × number of characters per line

    天地サイズ=使用する文字サイズ×1行の行長

    468 point = 9 point × 52 characters

    468ポイント=9ポイント×52字

  • Vertical writing mode with multi columns

    縦組の多段の場合

    Width of kihon-hanmen = character size × number of lines per column + line gap × (number of lines per column − 1)

    左右サイズ=使用する文字サイズ×1段の行数+行間×(1段の行数-1)

    309 point = 9 point × 21 lines + 6 point × (21 lines − 1)

    309ポイント=9ポイント×21行+6ポイント×(21行-1)

    Height of kihon-hanmen = character size × number of characters per line × number of columns + column gap × (number of columns − 1)

    天地サイズ=使用する文字サイズ×1行の行長×段数+段間×(段数-1)

    468 point = 9 point × 25 characters × 2 columns + 18 point × (2 columns − 1)

    468ポイント=9ポイント×25字×2段+18ポイント×(2段-1)

  • Horizontal writing mode with one column

    横組の1段の場合

    Width of kihon-hanmen = character size × number of characters per line

    左右サイズ=使用する文字サイズ×1行の行長

    315 point = 9 point × 35 characters

    315ポイント=9ポイント×35字

    Height of kihon-hanmen = character size × number of lines per page + line gap × (number of lines per page − 1)

    天地サイズ=使用する文字サイズ×1ページの行数+行間×(1ページの行数-1)

    468 point = 9 point × 28 lines + 8 point × (28 lines − 1)

    468ポイント=9ポイント×28行+8ポイント×(28行-1)

  • Horizontal writing mode with multi columns

    横組の多段の場合

    Width of kihon-hanmen = character size × number of characters per line × number of columns + column gap × (number of columns − 1)

    左右サイズ=使用する文字サイズ×1行の行長×段数+段間×(段数-1)

    320 point = 8 point × 19 characters × 2 columns + 16 point × (2 columns − 1)

    320ポイント=8ポイント×19字×2段+16ポイント×(2段-1)

    Height of kihon-hanmen = character size × number of lines per column + line gap × (number of lines per column − 1)

    天地サイズ=使用する文字サイズ×1段の行数+行間×(1段の行数-1)

    476 point = 8 point × 40 lines + 4 point × (40 lines − 1)

    476ポイント=8ポイント×40行+4ポイント×(40行-1)

Page wise Arrangement of Kihon-hanmen Elements 基本版面の設計要素の各ページに対する適用

Examples of Items Jutting Out of the Kihon-hanmen 基本版面からはみ出す例

The various elements of a page should remain inside the boundaries of the kihon-hanmen. However, there are exceptions such as the following:

それぞれのページに配置する各要素は,基本版面で設定した版面の内側に配置する.しかし,次のような例外がある.

  1. Ruby or emphasis marks (bousen, emphasis dots, etc.) at the before edge of the hanmen, are placed outside the hanmen (see [[[#fig_ad1_6]]]). The same applies in cases where ruby, underline, etc. appear beyond the after edge of the hanmen. Like the handling of exceptions mentioned below, the purpose here is to preserve the line positions established for the kihon-hanmen. This technique can also be used for reference marks associated with lines of text.

    版面又は段の先頭に配置する行の右側(縦組)又は上側(横組)にルビ傍線圏点などを付ける場合は,版面の領域の外側に接して配置する([[[#fig_ad1_6]]]).版面の末尾に配置する行の左側(縦組)又は下側(横組)にルビ,下線などを付ける場合は,版面の領域の外側に接して配置する.次項を含め,このことは基本版面で設定した行の位置を確保するためである.本文中にと参照するための合印を行間に配置する方法があるが,この場合も同様に扱う.

    Example of ruby annotation placed outside of the kihon-hanmen. 版面の外側に配置したルビの例
    Example of ruby annotation placed outside of the kihon-hanmen. 版面の外側に配置したルビの例
  2. When there are inline elements whose dimensions extend beyond the before edge and the after edge of a line of characters as determined by the kihon-hanmen, and when those elements appear in the first or last line of the hanmen, the parts that jut out beyond the regular line of characters also jut out of the hanmen area. For example, this is the case when the width of a sequence of characters which are set to tate-chu-yoko is wider than the characters set for the kihon-hanmen. In addition, warichu (inline cutting note) or subscript and superscript (ornament characters) are handled in the same way. (The processing rules for this item and the previous item are defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 12.1.1.)

    版面の先頭又は末尾に配置する行に基本版面で設定した行送り方向の行の幅(基本版面で設定した文字サイズ)よりはみ出して配置する要素がある場合は,基本版面で設定した行送り方向の行の幅よりはみ出して配置する部分を,版面の領域の外側にはみ出して配置する(前項とこの項の処理は,JIS X 4051の12.1.1に規定されている).例えば,縦中横の設定を行った文字列の横幅が基本版面で設定した文字サイズより大きくなる場合などである.この他に,割注上付き下付き添え字なども同様な扱いとする.

  3. Line adjustment by hanging punctuation is only necessary for full stops (cl-06) and commas (cl-07) when they would otherwise need to be wrapped to the line head. The character is placed so that it touches the hanmen at the line end (see [[[#fig_ad1_7]]]). (Hanging punctuation is not defined in JIS X 4051, but there is an explanation in sec. 8.1, c.)

    ぶら下げ組とよばれる処理をした場合は,行頭禁則の処理を必要とする句点類(cl-06)及び読点類(cl-07)に限り,行末の版面の領域の外側に接して配置する([[[#fig_ad1_7]]]).なお,ぶら下げ組についてはJIS X 4051に規定されていないが,同規格の解説8.1)c)に説明がある.

    Example of IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA and IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP placed below the kihon-hanmen. ぶら下げ組により版面の外側に配置した句点と読点の例
    Example of IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA and IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP placed below the kihon-hanmen. ぶら下げ組により版面の外側に配置した句点と読点の例
  4. Illustrations and tables are normally placed inside the area defined by the kihon-hanmen. However, there may also be cases in which a particular illustration or table juts outside the kihon-hanmen.

    図版を各ページに配置する場合,一般に基本版面で設定した範囲内に配置する.しかし,配置する図版や表によっては,基本版面で設定した範囲をはみ出して配置する場合もある.

    1. Cases in which it is necessary to make the illustration or table larger than the kihon-hanmen, because reducing its size would make it unreadable.

      配置する図版や表を基本版面に収めると文字が読みにくくなるため,サイズを基本版面より大きくせざるを得ない場合.

    2. For the sake of visual effect, the illustration may bleed into the complete paper area. This is not often used in books, but is often used in magazines (see [[[#fig_ad1_8]]]).

      視覚的効果を出すために基本版面で設定した範囲をはみ出して配置する.特に紙面いっぱいに配置する“裁切り”とよばれる方法は,書籍では多くないが,雑誌などではよく行われている([[[#fig_ad1_8]]]).

      Example of bleeds. 裁切りの例
      Example of bleeds. 裁切りの例
  5. Magazines may place the captions of illustrations outside the column area or in the column gap. (Some people regard this as bad style.)

    その他,図版のキャプションを段の領域の外側,段間に配置する方法も雑誌などでは行われている(この配置方法は体裁がよくないという意見もある).

Line Positioning based on the Kihon-hanmen Design 基本版面で設定した行位置の適用

In principle, pagewise positioning of lines relies on the line positions established for the kihon-hanmen. This holds for lines with ruby or emphasis dots as shown in [[[#fig_ad1_5]]]. Even when lines contain characters that are smaller than the character size used for the kihon-hanmen (as shown in [[[#fig_ad1_9]]]), the line positions used for the kihon-hanmen continue to be used as the basic guide lines. This is so that following lines with normal-sized characters still naturally fall into the line positions established for the kihon-hanmen.

各ページにおける行の配置位置は,基本版面で設定した行の位置に従うのが原則である.前掲した図([[[#fig_ad1_5]]])のようにルビや圏点が付いた場合だけでなく,例えば,次の[[[#fig_ad1_9]]]に示したように,行中の一部として基本版面で設定した文字サイズより小さな文字が入る場合でも,基本版面で設定した行の位置を基準に配置し,それに後続する行も基本版面で設定した行の位置にくるようにする.

Positioning of lines with a smaller size of text. 行中に小さい文字が入った場合の行の位置
Positioning of lines with a smaller size of text. 行中に小さい文字が入った場合の行の位置

The following are exceptions when handling line position:

ただし,行の配置位置については,次のような例外がある.

  1. When inserting more than one illustration or table item in horizontal writing mode, assuming that there is no text to the left or right of the items, the items may either slip off the grid established for the kihon-hanmen (see [[[#fig_ad1_10]]]), or stick to the grid (see [[[#fig_ad1_11]]]). The former approach is used, whenever possible, to achieve an equal amount of space before and after illustrations or tables. (This method is often used in books.) (This processing method is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 10.3.2., d.)

    横組で,図版や表の左右にテキストを配置しない方法とした場合,1ページに2つ以上のや表が挿入されたときは,基本版面で設定した行の位置からずれることがある([[[#fig_ad1_10]]]).ただし,基本版面で設定した行の位置に配置する方法もある([[[#fig_ad1_11]]]).前者の方法は,図版や表の前後の空き量をできるだけ均一にするという考え方による(この方法を採用している書籍が多い).この処理方法については,JIS X 4051の10.3.2のd)に規定がある.

    Positioning of lines with multiple illustrations - 1. 図版等を複数配置した場合の行の配置例1
    Positioning of lines with multiple illustrations - 1.
    Positioning of lines with multiple illustrations - 2. 図版等を複数配置した場合の行の配置例2
    Positioning of lines with multiple illustrations - 2.
  2. The size of characters in endnotes inserted between paragraphs or those in footnotes at the bottom of the page (in horizontal writing mode) is smaller than the character size established for the kihon-hanmen. As a result, the character size and line gap are also smaller, and so the line positions are no longer identical to those established for the kihon-hanmen. As an example, [[[#fig_ad1_12]]] shows the position of an endnote between paragraphs in vertical writing mode. (The processing of endnotes is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 9.3, and the processing of footnotes in sec. 9.4.)

    段落間に挿入される後注及び横組でページの下端に挿入される脚注は,基本版面で設定した文字サイズよりは小さくする.これに伴い行間も狭くするので,基本版面で設定した行の位置とはそろわない.例えば,縦組において,段落の間に入る後注の配置位置の例を[[[#fig_ad1_12]]]に示す.なお,後注の組版処理については,JIS X 4051の9.3,脚注は9.4に規定されている.

    Positioning of an endnote in vertical writing mode. 縦組の後注の配置例
    Positioning of an endnote in vertical writing mode. 縦組の後注の配置例
  3. As mentioned above, the position of a heading may not be identical to the lines established for the kihon-hanmen. Nevertheless, in the block direction, headings base their alignment on the line positions established for the kihon-hanmen (see [[[#fig_ad1_1]]]).

    見出しは,前述したように必ずしも基本版面で設定した行の位置とはそろわないことがある.しかし,その行送り方向に占める領域は,基本版面で設定した行を基準に設計する([[[#fig_ad1_1]]]).

Character Positioning based on Kihon-hanmen Design 基本版面で設定した文字位置の適用

In principle, the characters in each line follow the solid setting positions of characters established for the kihon-hanmen. However, as already shown in some of the previous figures, there are examples where this is not the case. Such cases are rather common, and here we will show some prototypical examples (details will be given in [[[#line-composition]]]).

各行に配置する文字の位置は,基本版面で設定したベタ組とした文字の配置位置に従うのが原則である.しかし,前掲したいくつかの図でも基本版面で設定した文字の位置に従っていない例がある.こうした事例は多いが,以下では,典型的な例をいくつか示す(詳細は[[[#line-composition]]]で解説する).

  1. When 9pt is the character size used to establish the kihon-hanmen, characters smaller than 9pt may be inserted in part of a line (see [[[#fig_ad1_9]]]). In such cases, the parts set at 9pt and any parts set at a smaller, say, 8pt size both use solid setting, with character frames at the respective sizes for each part.

    行中の一部として基本版面で設定した9ポより小さな文字が挿入される[[[#fig_ad1_9]]]の場合である.この場合は,原則として,基本版面で設定した9ポの部分は9ポの文字の外枠に従いベタ組にするとともに,小さくした8ポの部分は,小さくした8ポの文字の外枠に従いベタ組にする.

  2. In cases where proportional Latin letters are rotated 90 degrees clockwise (see [[[#fig1_20]]]), the proportional letters are placed according to their proportional widths. Hence, they do not fit to the character positions established for the kihon-hanmen (see [[[#fig_ad1_13]]]). Japanese letters following the Latin letters consequently slip away from the default positions as well.

    行中にプロポーショナルの欧字を[[[#fig1_20]]]のように,文字を時計回りに90度回転して配置する場合は,プロポーショナルの欧字は,その字幅に応じて配置するので,基本版面で設定した文字位置とはそろわなくなる([[[#fig_ad1_13]]]).欧字の後ろに連続する和文の配置位置もずれてくる.

    Positioning of a mixture of Western and Japanese letters in a line. 行中に欧字を配置した例
    Positioning of a mixture of Western and Japanese letters in a line. 行中に欧字を配置した例
  3. There are several methods for positioning opening brackets (cl-01) at the beginning of a line (details are explained in [[[#positioning_of_opening_brackets_at_line_head]]]). In cases where the indentation of the first line of a paragraph is a one em space, or if the tentsuki position is used for the bracket (that is, there is no space at the line head), the character following the bracket will be in a position which does not fit to the character positions established for the kihon-hanmen, due to the bracket being first reduced in width by half an em by default (see [[[#fig_ad1_14]]]). However, the adaptations made during the alignment of line ends will ensure that the character at the end of a line is at a position that fits with the kihon-hanmen.

    改行した行の先頭(改行行頭)や段落の2行目以下の行頭(折返し行頭)に配置する始め括弧類(cl-01)の配置方法は,いくつかある(詳細は[[[#positioning_of_opening_brackets_at_line_head]]]で解説する).改行行頭の字下げを全角アキとする場合,又は折返し行頭に空き量をとらない配置法である天付きとする場合は,[[[#fig_ad1_14]]]のように2字目以下の文字は,基本版面で設定した文字位置とはそろわなくなる.しかし,行長をそろえる調整処理を行っているので,行末の文字は,基本版面で設定した文字位置にそろっている.

    Example of positioning of characters off the kihon-hanmen position due to opening brackets at the line head. 行頭の始め括弧類の配置方法により文字位置がずれた例
    Example of positioning of characters off the kihon-hanmen position due to opening brackets at the line head. 行頭の始め括弧類の配置方法により文字位置がずれた例
  4. [[[#line-composition]]] explains that full stops (cl-06), commas (cl-07), opening brackets (cl-01) and closing brackets (cl-02) are half-width. If these punctuation marks and brackets are adjacent to ideographic (cl-19), katakana (cl-16) or hiragana (cl-15) characters, in principle there should be half em spacing before or after the punctuation mark or brackets, so that these occupy in effect a full-width size. However, if they are adjacent to other punctuation marks or brackets, the half em spacing is not added. This is done to improve the visual appearance. In such cases, the character positions are different than the positions established when defining the kihon-hanmen (see [[[#fig_ad1_15]]]).

    [[[#line-composition]]]で解説するように句点類(cl-06)読点類(cl-07)始め括弧類(cl-01)及び終わり括弧類(cl-02)の字幅は半角であるが,これらの約物漢字等(cl-19)片仮名(cl-16)又は平仮名(cl-15)連続する場合は,原則として,それぞれの約物の前又は後ろに二分アキをとることで,結果として全角というサイズにする.しかし,句点類(cl-06)読点類(cl-07)始め括弧類(cl-01)及び/又は終わり括弧類(cl-02)が連続する場合は,二分アキをとらない箇所があり,このケースでは基本版面で設定した文字位置にそろわないことになる([[[#fig_ad1_15]]]).これは,見た目の体裁をよくするためである.

    Example of lines with consecutive punctuation marks. 句点類と始め括弧類が連続,及び終わり括弧類が連続する例
    Example of lines with consecutive punctuation marks. 句点類と始め括弧類が連続,及び終わり括弧類が連続する例
  5. [[[#line-composition]]] explains the principle that closing brackets (cl-02), full stops (cl-06) and commas (cl-07) should not be placed at the line head. If by simple sequential placement these characters would appear at the line head or at the line end, some kind of adjustment becomes necessary. A similar adjustment is required for characters that should not be placed at the end of a line, such as opening brackets (cl-01). As a result of such adjustment, it may happen that other characters are placed at positions which are different from those established for the kihon-hanmen.

    [[[#line-composition]]]で解説するように終わり括弧類(cl-02)句点類(cl-06)及び読点類(cl-07)を行頭に配置してはならないという規則(行頭禁則という),並びに始め括弧類(cl-01)を行末に配置してはならないという規則(行末禁則)がある.これらが行頭又は行末にくる場合は,なんらかの調整が必要になる.その調整処理のために基本版面で設定した文字位置にそろわない場合が出てくる.

    Example of line adjustment to avoid those characters which shall not start and end a line. 行頭禁則又は行末禁則を避ける調整をした例
    Example of line adjustment to avoid those characters which shall not start and end a line. 行頭禁則又は行末禁則を避ける調整をした例

Running Heads and Page Numbers 柱とノンブル

Positioning of Running Heads and Page Numbers 柱及びノンブルの位置

Typical positions of running heads and page numbers for vertically set books with double running heads (see [[[#ways_of_arranging_running_heads_and_page_numbers]]]) are as shown in [[[#fig1_28]]].

縦組の書籍における両柱方式([[[#ways_of_arranging_running_heads_and_page_numbers]]])による及びノンブルの代表的配置位置例を[[[#fig1_28]]]に示す.

Typical positioning of running heads and page numbers for vertically set books with double running heads. 縦組の書籍における両柱方式による柱及びノンブルの代表的な配置位置例
Typical positioning of running heads and page numbers for vertically set books with double running heads. 縦組の書籍における両柱方式による柱及びノンブルの代表的な配置位置例

Typical positions of running heads and page numbers for horizontally set books with double running heads (see [[[#ways_of_arranging_running_heads_and_page_numbers]]]) are as shown in [[[#fig1_29]]].

横組の書籍における両柱方式([[[#ways_of_arranging_running_heads_and_page_numbers]]])による柱及びノンブルの代表的な配置位置例を[[[#fig1_29]]]に示す.

Typical positioning of running heads and page numbers for horizontally set books with double running heads. 横組の書籍における両柱方式による柱及びノンブルの代表的な配置位置例
Typical positioning of running heads and page numbers for horizontally set books with double running heads. 横組の書籍における両柱方式による柱及びノンブルの代表的な配置位置例

In principle, positions of running heads and page numbers should be specified relative to the kihon-hanmen, not with absolute coordinates in the trim size. (Positioning of running heads is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 7.6.4. Positioning of page numbers is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 7.5.4.)

柱及びノンブルの位置は,一般に仕上りサイズに対する絶対的な位置関係ではなく,基本版面との相対的な位置関係で設定する(柱の配置については,JIS X 4051の7.6.4に,ノンブルの配置については,JIS X 4051の7.5.4に規定がある).

Positioning a horizontal running head above the top left corner (to head and fore-edge) of the kihon-hanmen in a typical vertically set book (see [[[#fig1_30]]]).

縦組の書籍で小口寄りに柱を横組にして配置した場合の例([[[#fig1_30]]])

  • 9 points above the kihon-hanmen (vertical space)

    基本版面との上下方向の空き量は9ポイント(9ポアキ)

  • 9 points from the left edge of the kihon-hanmen (horizontal space)

    基本版面との左右方向の空き量(入りともいう)は9ポイント(9ポアキ)

Positioning of a running head (vertical writing mode). 柱の配置指定例 (縦組)
Positioning of a running head (vertical writing mode). 柱の配置指定例(縦組)

The following recommendations should be taken into account when positioning running heads and page numbers with reference to the kihon-hanmen.

柱及びノンブルの基本版面との位置関係では,次のような点に注意する.

  1. When positioning horizontal running heads and page numbers with reference to the kihon-hanmen in vertically set books, the amount of vertical space between the edge of the kihon-hanmen and the running head is a one em space as established for the kihon-hanmen. If the kihon-hanmen of the book is horizontally set, take more vertical space than the character size in the kihon-hanmen.

    縦組の書籍においてノンブル又は柱を横組にして配置する場合は,基本版面との上下方向の最低の空き量を,基本版面の文字サイズ全角アキとする.横組の書籍の場合は,同じ組方向となるので,基本版面の文字サイズよりやや大きくする.

  2. Regardless of the direction of text in the kihon-hanmen of a book, horizontal running heads and page numbers on the left page should be aligned either at the left edge of the kihon-hanmen or one em space to the right of the left edge. On the right page, the tail of the running heads or page numbers should be aligned either at the right edge of the kihon-hanmen or one full-width space to left of the right edge.

    縦組の書籍又は横組の書籍において,ノンブル又は柱を横組にして配置する場合は,左ページでは,基本版面の左端の延長線にノンブル又は柱の先頭をそろえて配置するか,基本版面の左端の延長線から基本版面の文字サイズの全角アキだけ右に寄せた位置に配置する.右ページでは,基本版面の右端の延長線にノンブル又は柱の末尾をそろえて配置するか,基本版面の右端の延長線から基本版面の文字サイズの全角アキだけ左に寄せた位置にノンブル又は柱の末尾をそろえて配置する.

  3. Regardless of the writing direction of the text in a book, when arranging running heads and page numbers together on the same horizontal line (such as positioning the running head immediately adjacent to the page number at the left side on left pages), the space between the running head and the page number should either be double or one and a half times the character size (embox size) of the running head. On left-hand pages, the page number should be set on the left side, and the running head should be set on the right side. On right-hand pages, the page number should be set on the right side and the running head should be set on the left side. The exact positions of the page numbers are given in the instructions above (see b).

    縦組の書籍又は横組の書籍において,同一位置にノンブル及び柱を横組にして並べて配置する(例えば,左ページで左寄せして,ノンブルに続けて柱を配置する)場合は,ノンブルと柱との空き量を柱に使用する文字サイズの2倍アキ又は1.5倍アキとする.また,柱とノンブルの位置は,左ページではノンブルを左側に,柱を右側に配置し,右ページではノンブルを右側に,柱を左側に配置する.この場合のノンブルの左右位置は,上記bに従う.

  4. When positioning running heads and page numbers vertically to the fore-edge of the kihon-hanmen in a vertically set book (see spread (e) in [[[#fig1_28]]], for example), the minimum horizontal distance from the kihon-hanmen should be the same as that of the line gap of the kihon-hanmen. The top of the running head should be positioned approximately four kihon-hanmen characters below the head, and the bottom of the page numbers should be positioned approximately five kihon-hanmen characters above the foot.

    縦組の書籍において,ノンブル及び柱を小口側に縦組にして配置する場合([[[#fig1_28]]]の(e))は,基本版面との左右方向の最低の空き量を,基本版面の行間とする.天から基本版面の文字サイズで4倍くらい下げた位置に柱の先頭をそろえて配置し,から基本版面の文字サイズで5倍くらい上げた位置にノンブルの末尾をそろえて配置する.

Principles of Arrangement of Running Heads and Page Numbers 柱及びノンブルの配置の原則

Positioning of all running heads and page numbers in the same book should be consistent.

柱及びノンブルは,1冊の本の中では,同じ位置に配置する.

Positioning of running heads and page numbers on TOC pages for which the hanmen is smaller in size than the kihon-hanmen. 基本版面より小さくなった目次の版面と柱及びノンブルとの位置関係
Positioning of running heads and page numbers on TOC pages for which the hanmen is smaller in size than the kihon-hanmen. 基本版面より小さくなった目次の版面と柱及びノンブルとの位置関係
Positioning of running heads and page numbers on index pages for which hanmen is smaller in size than the kihon-hanmen. 基本版面より小さくなった索引の版面と柱との位置関係
Positioning of running heads and page numbers on index pages for which hanmen is smaller in size than the kihon-hanmen. 基本版面より小さくなった索引の版面と柱との位置関係

Because the start of a page will be on the recto side, the right-hand page of a spread in a vertically set book is always an even page and the left-hand page is always an odd page (see [[[#fig1_32]]]). Likewise, the left-hand page of a spread in a horizontally set book is always an even page and the right-hand page is always an odd page (see [[[#fig1_33]]]).

ノンブルは,紙葉の表面を“1”として開始するので,縦組の書籍の見開きにおいては,右ページは偶数ページ,左ページは奇数ページとなり([[[#fig1_32]]]),横組の書籍の見開きにおいては,左ページは偶数ページ,右ページは奇数ページとなる([[[#fig1_33]]]).

Page numbers on a spread in a vertically set book. 縦組の書籍における見開きのノンブル
Page numbers on a spread in a vertically set book. 縦組の書籍における見開きのノンブル
Page numbers on a spread in a horizontally set book. 横組の書籍における見開きのノンブル
Page numbers on a spread in a horizontally set book. 横組の書籍における見開きのノンブル

Ways of Arranging Running Heads and Page Numbers 柱及びノンブルの配置方式

There are two ways to arrange running heads. One is the single running head method and the other is the double running head method. (Arrangement of running heads is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 7.6.2. Page Numbers are defined in sec. 7.5.2.).

柱には,両柱方式([[[#fig1_34]]])と片柱方式([[[#fig1_35]]])とがある(柱の掲げ方についてはJIS X 4051の7.6.2に,ノンブルの掲げ方については7.5.2に規定がある).

  • Double running head method: Place running heads on both even pages and odd pages (see [[[#fig1_34]]]).

    両柱方式:柱を偶数ページ及び奇数ページの両方に配置する方式([[[#fig1_34]]]).

  • Single running head method: Place running heads only on odd pages (see [[[#fig1_35]]]).

    片柱方式:柱を奇数ページのみに配置する方式([[[#fig1_35]]]).

Double running head method. 両柱方式の例
Double running head method. 両柱方式の例
Single running head method. 片柱方式の例
Single running head method. 片柱方式の例
  1. In the double running head method, a higher-level title, such as that of the chapter or book, is used for the running heads on the even pages, and a lower-level title, such as that for a section, on the odd pages. Where there are no differing levels of titles, such as on the page containing the table of contents, the same running head is used on both even and odd pages.

    両柱方式では,偶数ページに章などのアウトラインレベルの高い見出し又は書名を掲げ,奇数ページには,偶数ページに掲げた書名又は見出しよりアウトラインレベルの低い節などの見出しを掲げる.ただし,目次などアウトラインレベルの異なる見出しのない部分では,偶数ページと奇数ページに同じを掲げる.

  2. In the single running head method, one of heading levels is used.

    片柱方式では,いずれかのレベルの見出しを掲げる.

  3. In principle, the contents of running heads will be the same as those of headings with the following differences:

    柱は,原則として見出しと同じ内容を掲げるが,次のような例外がある.

    1. Numbers and words in Latin alphanumeric characters in vertically set headings in vertically set books should be changed to horizontal notation for horizontally set running heads (see [[[#major_differences_between_vertical_writing_mode_and_horizontal_writing_mode]]]).

      縦組の書籍において見出しを横組のにして掲げる場合,数字表記などを横組の表記法に変更する([[[#major_differences_between_vertical_writing_mode_and_horizontal_writing_mode]]]).

    2. If headings are too long, they should be made shorter by paraphrasing them in fewer characters. Running heads with too many characters will not look good.

      見出しの字数が多い場合,文章を修正し,字数を少なくする.あまり字数の多い柱を掲げるのは体裁がよくないからである.

    3. For certain publications, such as a collection of monographs, the names of authors may be added in parentheses at the end of the running head.

      論文集などでは,著者名を見出しの後ろに括弧類などでくくって示す.

  4. In principle, the text direction of running heads and page numbers should be the same as that of the kihon-hanmen. For vertically set books, however, it is more common to set running heads and page numbers horizontally.

    柱及びノンブル組方向は,原則として基本版面の組方向と同じにするが,縦組の書籍における柱・ノンブルの組方向は,横組とする場合が多い.

  5. In principle, for the single running head method running heads are printed on all odd pages, and for the double running head method on all even and odd pages. However, for the sake of appearance, running heads may be omitted as follows:

    は,原則として片柱方式の場合はすべての奇数ページ,両柱方式の場合は全ページに掲げるが,次のようなページでは表示しない.これは体裁の問題からである.

    1. Pages on which running heads should be hidden:

      柱を表示しないページ

      1. Naka-tobira and han-tobira.

        中扉及び半扉

      2. Pages where a running head overlaps with other elements such as illustrations.

        柱の配置領域が,図版などと重なったページ

      3. Blank pages.

        白ページ

    2. Pages on which running heads may be hidden:

      柱を表示しなくてもよいページ

      1. Pages where a figure or a table is positioned adjacent to the running head.

        柱の配置領域に隣接して図版,表などが配置されているページ

      2. Pages with a heading right after a new recto or new page.

        改丁改ページ等で始まる見出しが掲げられているページ

  6. In principle, page numbers are printed on all pages. However, for the sake of appearance, they may be omitted as follows:

    ノンブルは,原則として全ページに掲げるが,次のようなページでは表示しない.これは体裁の問題からである.

    1. Pages on which page numbers should be hidden:

      ノンブルを表示しないページ

      1. Pages on which a illustration or a table is positioned adjacent to the page number.

        ノンブルの配置領域が,図版などと重なったページ

      2. Blank pages.

        白ページ

    2. Pages on which page numbers may be hidden:

      ノンブルを表示しなくてもよいページ

      1. Divisional title and simplified divisional title pages.

        中扉及び半扉

      2. Pages in horizontally set books with a page number placed in the margin at the top of the page, and with a heading at the beginning of a new recto or new page. (In this case, it is also possible to move the page numbers to the center of the margin at the foot of the page.)

        横書きの書籍においてノンブルを横組にして天側の余白に配置した場合で,改丁・改ページなどで見出しが始まるページ(この場合,ノンブルを地の中央に移動して表示する方法もある)

  7. There are two types of page numbering. "Continuous pagination" means that page numbers continue throughout the whole book. "Independent pagination" means that page numbers start from "1" separately at beginning of the front matter and back matter. There is also, for example in manuals, the method of starting each chapter from page number "1". (In such cases, it is common that the name of the chapter is added as a prefix before the page number.)

    ノンブルは,1冊の本を通して数字を連続させる方法(通しノンブルという)と,前付後付部分を別に1から数字を開始してノンブルを付ける方法(別ノンブルという)とがある.また,マニュアル等では,章別に1から数字を開始する方法もある(この場合は,1から開始した数字の前に章名を示す接頭辞を付けることが多い).

Line Composition 行の組版処理

Line Composition Rules for Punctuation Marks 約物などの組版処理

Differences in Vertical and Horizontal Composition in Use of Punctuation Marks 縦組と横組で異なる約物など

There are some punctuation marks that are used uniquely in either vertical writing mode or horizontal writing mode. In this document, characters and symbols are treated as members of a character class, classified by their behavior for composition. Each class name is followed by class id, such as opening brackets (cl-01). Details are explained in [[[#about_character_classes]]]. The following are some typical examples:

縦組横組で異なる約物などを使用する例がある.主な例を次に示す.(なお,以下の文書では,約物を含む文字・記号について,その組版上の振る舞いで分類し,文字クラスとしてグループに分けて扱う.用語の後ろの括弧内に“(cl-01)”などと示すものは,その文字クラスの番号である.文字クラスの詳細は[[[#about_character_classes]]]で解説する.)

  1. Full stops (cl-06) and commas (cl-07)

    句点類(cl-06)読点類(cl-07)

    1. In vertical writing mode, IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP "。" and IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA "、" are used for full stops (cl-06) and commas (cl-07).

      縦組では,句点類(cl-06)には,句点[。] (IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP)を,読点類(cl-07)には読点[、] (IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA)を使用する.

    2. In horizontal writing mode, there are three conventions in choice of symbols for full stops (cl-06) and commas (cl-07):

      横組で使用する句点類(cl-06)読点類(cl-07)の組合せには,次の3つの方式がある.

      1. Using COMMA "," and FULL STOP "." (see [[[#fig2_1]]]).

        コンマ[,] (COMMA)とピリオド[.] (FULL STOP)を使用する([[[#fig2_1]]]).

        Example text using COMMA and FULL STOP. コンマとピリオドを使用した例
        Example text using COMMA and FULL STOP. コンマとピリオドを使用した例
      2. Using COMMA "," and IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP "。" (see [[[#fig2_2]]]).

        コンマ[,] (COMMA)と句点[。] (IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP)を使用する([[[#fig2_2]]]).

        Example text using COMMA and IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP. コンマと句点を使用した例
        Example text using COMMA and IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP. コンマと句点を使用した例
      3. Using IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA "、" and IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP "。" (see [[[#fig2_3]]]).

        読点[、] (IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA)と句点[。] (IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP)を使用する([[[#fig2_3]]]).

        Example text using IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA and IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP. 読点と句点を使用した例
        Example text using IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA and IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP. 読点と句点を使用した例
  2. LEFT CORNER BRACKET "「", RIGHT CORNER BRACKET "」", LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK "“" and RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK "”"

    かぎ括弧(始めかぎ括弧[「] (LEFT CORNER BRACKET)及び終わりかぎ括弧[」] (RIGHT CORNER BRACKET))とクォーテーションマーク(左ダブルクォーテーションマーク[“] (LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK)及び右ダブルクォーテーションマーク[”] (RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK)並びに左シングルクォーテーションマーク[‘] (LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK)及び右シングルクォーテーションマーク[’] (RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK)

    1. In vertical writing mode, LEFT CORNER BRACKET "「" and RIGHT CORNER BRACKET "」" are used for quotations (see [[[#fig2_4]]]).

      縦組では,始めかぎ括弧[「] (LEFT CORNER BRACKET)及び終わりかぎ括弧[」] (RIGHT CORNER BRACKET)を用いる([[[#fig2_4]]]).

      Examples of quoted text using LEFT CORNER BRACKET and RIGHT CORNER BRACKET. 始めかぎ括弧及び終わりかぎ括弧を使用した例
      Examples of quoted text using LEFT CORNER BRACKET and RIGHT CORNER BRACKET. 始めかぎ括弧及び終わりかぎ括弧を使用した例
    2. In horizontal writing mode, pairs of LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK "“" and RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK "”" or pairs of LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK "‘" and RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK "’" may be used in place of LEFT CORNER BRACKET "「" and RIGHT CORNER BRACKET "」" (see [[[#fig2_5]]]).

      横組では,始めかぎ括弧[「] (LEFT CORNER BRACKET)及び終わりかぎ括弧[」] (RIGHT CORNER BRACKET)に替えて左ダブルクォーテーションマーク[“] (LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK)及び右ダブルクォーテーションマーク[”] (RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK),又は左シングルクォーテーションマーク[‘] (LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK)及び右シングルクォーテーションマーク[’] (RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK)を用いる方法がある([[[#fig2_5]]]).

      Examples of quoted text using LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK and RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK. 左ダブルクォーテーションマーク及び右ダブルクォーテーションマークを使用した例
      Examples of quoted text using LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK and RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK. 左ダブルクォーテーションマーク及び右ダブルクォーテーションマークを使用した例
      Examples of quoted text using REVERSED DOUBLE PRIME QUOTATION MARK and LOW DOUBLE PRIME QUOTATION MARK. 始めダブルミニュート及び終わりダブルミニュートを使用した例
      Examples of quoted text using REVERSED DOUBLE PRIME QUOTATION MARK and LOW DOUBLE PRIME QUOTATION MARK. 始めダブルミニュート及び終わりダブルミニュートを使用した例
  3. LEFT SQUARE BRACKET "[", RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET "]", LEFT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET "〔" and RIGHT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET "〕"

    ブラケット(始め大括弧[[] (LEFT SQUARE BRACKET)及び終わり大括弧[]] (RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET))と,きっこう(始めきっこう括弧[〔] (LEFT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET)及び終わりきっこう括弧[〕] (RIGHT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET))

    LEFT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET "〔" and RIGHT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET "〕" are vertical variants of LEFT SQUARE BRACKET "[" and RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET "]", which are used in horizontal writing mode. Square brackets should be used in horizontal writing mode except for special cases.

    ブラケット([ ])を縦組用に変形したものが,きっこう(〔 〕)である.したがって,特別な場合を除き,横組ではブラケットを使用する.

KATAKANA-HIRAGANA PROLONGED SOUND MARK for vertical and horizontal writing modes. 横組用の長音記号と縦組用の長音記号
KATAKANA-HIRAGANA PROLONGED SOUND MARK for vertical and horizontal writing modes. 横組用の長音記号と縦組用の長音記号

Positioning of Punctuation Marks (Commas, Periods and Brackets) 句読点や,括弧類などの基本的な配置方法

The positioning of punctuation marks (commas, periods and brackets) in a line proceeds as follows.

約物などを行に配置する場合の基本的な配置は,次のようにする.

The character advance of commas (cl-07), full stops (cl-06), opening brackets (cl-01), closing brackets (cl-02) and middle dots (cl-05) is half-width (half em). But when those punctuation marks are placed side-by-side with ideographic (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15), or katakana (cl-16) characters, in principle, a given amount of spacing will be inserted before or after the symbols, which makes them appear as if they were intrinsically full-width (one em) (see [[[#fig2_8_1]]]). Spacing is inserted before and after middle dots (cl-05). This principle makes the symbols consistent with ideographic (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) characters in character width, and at the same time the spacing for punctuation helps to make the organization of text clearer. The spacing added before or after punctuation marks is subject, in principle, to line adjustment and may eventually be removed, except for that added after full stops (cl-06). (Details of line adjustment are discussed in [[[#line_adjustment]]]).

読点類(cl-07)句点類(cl-06)始め括弧類(cl-01)終わり括弧類(cl-02)及び中点類(cl-05)字幅は,半角であるが,これらの約物が漢字等(cl-19)平仮名(cl-15)又は片仮名(cl-16)と連続する場合は,原則として,それぞれの約物の前又は後ろ(中点類(cl-05)は,その前及び後ろ)に一定の空き量をとることで,結果として全角というサイズになる([[[#fig2_8_1]]]).漢字等(cl-19)平仮名(cl-15),及び片仮名(cl-16)の全角というサイズとそろえるとともに,これらの約物の前及び/又は後ろに空き量をとることにより,文章の区切りを示すためである.行中での句点類(cl-06)の後ろの空き量を除いて,原則とした空き量は,行の調整処理における詰める場合の対象とし,結果的に0となることもある(行の調整処理については[[[#line_adjustment]]]を参照).

Character widths of commas, periods, and the spacing appended before and/or after the symbols.
Character widths of commas, periods, and the spacing appended before and/or after the symbols. 句読点などの字幅と前後の空き量
句読点などの字幅と前後の空き量
Character widths of commas, periods, and the spacing appended before and/or after the symbols. 句読点などの字幅と前後の空き量
  1. After commas (cl-07), half em spacing is added, in principle.

    読点類(cl-07)では,原則として後ろを二分アキにする.

  2. After full stops (cl-06), in the middle of a line, half em spacing is added. At the end of a line, half em spacing is added, in principle.

    句点類(cl-06)では,行中では後ろを二分アキにし,行末では後ろを原則として二分アキにする.

  3. Before opening brackets (cl-01), half em spacing is added, in principle.

    始め括弧類(cl-01)では,原則として前を二分アキにする.

  4. After closing brackets (cl-02), half em spacing is added, in principle.

    終わり括弧類(cl-02)では,原則として後ろを二分アキにする.

  5. Before and after middle dots (cl-05), quarter em spacing is added, in principle.

    中点類(cl-05)では,原則として前及び後ろを四分アキにする.

Positioning of parentheses and brackets. (The left-hand side shows an example of setting them solid.) 始め小括弧及び終わり小括弧並びに始め山括弧及び終わり山括弧の配置例 (左がベタ組とした例)
Positioning of parentheses and brackets. (The left-hand side shows an example of setting them solid.) 始め小括弧及び終わり小括弧並びに始め山括弧及び終わり山括弧の配置例(左がベタ組とした例)

Exceptional Positioning of Ideographic Comma and Katakana Middle Dot 読点及び中点の例外的な配置方法

The spacing usually added after IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA "、" and the spacing before and after KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT "・" are omitted, in principle, for cosmetic reasons in the following cases.

次のような場合においては,読点[、] (IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA)の後ろ及び中点[・] (KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT)の前後の空き量をとらないことを原則とする.これは体裁上からの処理である.

  1. In vertical writing mode, ideographic numerals and IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA "、" used as a decimal separator are set solid (as in the right line in [[[#fig2_11]]]).

    縦組において漢数字の位取りを示す読点[、] (IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA)の後ろはベタ組にする([[[#fig2_11]]]の右側).

    Example of  exceptional positioning of the IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA. 読点の例外的な配置例
    Example of exceptional positioning of the IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA. 読点の例外的な配置例
    Example of the positioning of IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA with ideographic digits to represent an approximate number. 漢数字で概略の数を示す読点の配置例
    Example of the positioning of IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA with ideographic digits to represent an approximate number. 漢数字で概略の数を示す読点の配置例
  2. In vertical writing mode, ideographic digits and KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT "・" representing a decimal point are set solid (as in the right line in [[[#fig2_12]]]).

    縦組において漢数字の小数点を示す中点[・] (KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT)の前後はベタ組にする([[[#fig2_12]]]の右側).

    Example of the exceptional positioning of KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT. 中点の例外の配置例
    Example of the exceptional positioning of KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT. 中点の例外の配置例

Positioning of Consecutive Opening Brackets, Closing Brackets, Commas, Full Stops and Middle Dots 始め括弧類,終わり括弧類,読点類,句点類及び​中点類が​連続する​場合の​配置方法

In cases where multiple punctuation marks, such as opening brackets (cl-01), closing brackets (cl-02), commas (cl-07), full stops (cl-06) and middle dots (cl-05), come one after the other, the following spacing adjustments are made for aesthetic reasons (see [[[#fig2_13]]]). Note also that the half em and quarter em spacing added before or after punctuation marks, including the half em spacing after full stops (cl-06) appearing in the middle of a line, are subject, in principle, to line adjustment and may eventually be removed, except for those added after full stops (cl-06). (See [[[#line_adjustment]]] for more about line adjustment.) For more information about the positioning of closing brackets (cl-02), full stops (cl-06), commas (cl-07) and middle dots (cl-05) at line end, see [[[#positioning_of_closing_brackets_full_stops_commas_and_middle_dots_at_line_end]]].

始め括弧類(cl-01)終わり括弧類(cl-02)読点類(cl-07)句点類(cl-06)及び中点類(cl-05)が連続する場合は,次のようにする([[[#fig2_13]]]).これは体裁上からの処理である.なお,行中における句点類(cl-06)の後ろの二分アキを除いて,行末における句点類(cl-06)の後ろの二分アキを含めて原則として二分アキ又は四分アキとする箇所は,行の調整処理の詰める場合の対象にしてよい(行の調整処理については,[[[#line_adjustment]]]を参照).なお,行末に配置する終わり括弧類(cl-02)句点類(cl-06)読点類(cl-07)及び中点類(cl-05)の配置方法については[[[#positioning_of_closing_brackets_full_stops_commas_and_middle_dots_at_line_end]]]を参照.

  1. When closing brackets (cl-02) come immediately after commas (cl-07) or full stops (cl-06), remove the default half em spacing between them and, in principle, add half em spacing after the closing brackets (see [[[#fig2_13]]] ①).

    読点類(cl-07)又は句点類(cl-06)の後ろに終わり括弧類(cl-02)が連続する場合は,読点類(cl-07)又は句点類(cl-06)と終わり括弧類の字間はベタ組とし,終わり括弧類の後ろを原則として二分アキとする([[[#fig2_13]]]の①).

  2. When commas (cl-07) come immediately after closing brackets (cl-02), remove the default half em spacing between them and, in principle, add half em spacing after the comma. When full stops (cl-06) come immediately after closing brackets (cl-02), remove the default half em spacing between them and, in middle of a line, add half em spacing after the full stop; at the end of a line, in principle, add half em spacing after the full stop (see [[[#fig2_13]]] ②).

    終わり括弧類(cl-02)の後ろに読点類(cl-07)が連続する場合は,終わり括弧類(cl-02)読点類(cl-07)字間ベタ組とし,読点類(cl-07)の後ろを原則として二分アキとする.また,終わり括弧類(cl-02)の後ろに句点類(cl-06)が連続する場合は,終わり括弧類(cl-02)句点類(cl-06)の字間はベタ組とし,行中では句点類(cl-06)の後ろを二分アキとし,行末では句点類(cl-06)の後ろを原則として二分アキとする([[[#fig2_13]]]の②).

  3. When opening brackets (cl-01) come immediately after commas (cl-07), in principle, add half em spacing between them (see [[[#fig2_13]]] ③). When opening brackets (cl-01) come immediately after full stops (cl-06) in the middle of a line, add half em spacing between them. Note that when full stops (cl-06) come in the bottom of lines, in principle, add half em spacing after full stops (cl-06).

    読点類(cl-07)の後ろに始め括弧類(cl-01)が連続する場合は,読点類と始め括弧類の字間は,原則として二分アキとする([[[#fig2_13]]]の③).また,行中で句点類(cl-06)の後ろに始め括弧類(cl-01)が連続する場合は,句点類と始め括弧類の字間は,二分アキとする.ただし,句点類(cl-06)が行末に位置した場合は,句点類(cl-06)の後ろを原則として二分アキにする.

  4. When opening brackets (cl-01) come immediately after closing brackets (cl-02), in principle, add a half em space between them (see [[[#fig2_13]]] ④).

    終わり括弧類(cl-02)の後ろに始め括弧類(cl-01)が連続する場合は,終わり括弧類と始め括弧類の字間は,原則として二分アキとする([[[#fig2_13]]]の④).

  5. When opening brackets (cl-01) come immediately after other opening brackets (cl-01), set them solid and, in principle, add half em spacing before the first one (see [[[#fig2_13]]] ⑤).

    始め括弧類(cl-01)の後ろに始め括弧類(cl-01)が連続する場合は,その字間はベタ組とし,前にくる始め括弧類の前を原則として二分アキとする([[[#fig2_13]]]の⑤).

  6. When closing brackets (cl-02) come immediately after other closing brackets (cl-02), set them solid and, in principle, add half em spacing after the last closing bracket (see [[[#fig2_13]]] ⑥).

    終わり括弧類(cl-02)の後ろに終わり括弧類(cl-02)が連続する場合は,その字間はベタ組とし,後ろにくる終わり括弧類の後ろを原則として二分アキとする([[[#fig2_13]]]の⑥).

  7. When middle dots (cl-05) come immediately after closing brackets (cl-02), in principle, add quarter em spacing before the following middle dot (see [[[#fig2_13]]] ⑦).

    終わり括弧類(cl-02)の後ろに中点類(cl-05)が連続する場合は,後ろの中点類の前及び後ろを原則として四分アキとする([[[#fig2_13]]]の⑦).

  8. When opening brackets (cl-01) come immediately after middle dots (cl-05), in principle, add quarter em spacing after the preceding middle dot (see [[[#fig2_13]]] ⑦).

    中点類(cl-05)の後ろに始め括弧類(cl-01)が連続する場合は,前の中点類の後ろを原則として四分アキとする([[[#fig2_13]]]の⑦).

Examples of line adjustment with multiple opening brackets, closing brackets, commas, full stops or middle dots. 始め括弧類,終わり括弧類,読点類,句点類及び中点類が連続する場合の配置例
Examples of line adjustment with multiple opening brackets, closing brackets, commas, full stops or middle dots. 始め括弧類,終わり括弧類,読点類,句点類及び中点類が連続する場合の配置例

The line adjustment rules shown above have been established because the default half em spacing before or after consecutive punctuation marks, or quarter em spacing before and after them, makes the line look sparse and doesn't make the line appear well-proportioned (see [[[#fig2_14]]]).

それぞれの後ろ又は前を二分アキ,又は前後を四分アキにし,全角の幅にすると空き量が目立ち,体裁がよくないからである([[[#fig2_14]]]).

Examples of bad line composition with unadjusted spacing between multiple opening brackets, closing brackets, commas, full stops or middle dots. 始め括弧類,終わり括弧類,読点類,句点類及び中点類が連続する場合の不適切な配置例
Examples of bad line composition with unadjusted spacing between multiple opening brackets, closing brackets, commas, full stops or middle dots. 始め括弧類,終わり括弧類,読点類,句点類及び中点類が連続する場合の不適切な配置例

Positioning of Opening Brackets at Line Head 行頭の​始め括弧類の​配置方法

When starting a new line with opening brackets (cl-01) there are some patterns as shown in [[[#fig2_15]]]. Note that the amount of line indent after the line feed (the first line indent of a new paragraph) is assumed to be a one em space across all the patterns.

行頭に配置する始め括弧類(cl-01)の配置方法には,[[[#fig2_15]]]のような方式がある.なお,改行の行頭(段落における第1行目の行頭)の字下げを全角アキとする場合である.

  1. The first line indent after the line feed is set full-width (one em) and the next line after the first line break starts with no space (so-called tentsuki) (see [[[#fig2_15]]] ①).

    改行行頭の字下げは全角アキ,折返し行頭は行頭に空き量をとらない配置法である天付きとする([[[#fig2_15]]]の①).

  2. The first line indent after the line feed is set one and a half em and the next line indent after the first line break is set to a half em (see [[[#fig2_15]]] ②).

    改行行頭の字下げは全角半(全角の1.5倍)アキ,折返し行頭の字下げは二分アキとする([[[#fig2_15]]]の②).

  3. The first line indent after the line feed is set at a half em and the next line after the first line break is set tentsuki (see [[[#fig2_15]]] ③).

    改行行頭の字下げは二分アキ,折返し行頭は天付きとする([[[#fig2_15]]]の③).

Examples of positioning of opening brackets at line head. 行頭に配置する始め括弧類の配置例
Examples of positioning of opening brackets at line head. 行頭に配置する始め括弧類の配置例

Positioning of Dividing Punctuation Marks (Question Mark and Exclamation Mark) and Hyphens 区切り約物及びハイフン類の配置方法

The dividing punctuation marks (cl-04) (QUESTION MARK "?" and EXCLAMATION MARK "!") should be full-width, and they are typeset as follows.

区切り約物(cl-04)(疑問符[?] (QUESTION MARK)と感嘆符[!] (EXCLAMATION MARK))の字幅は,全角とし,次のように配置する.

  1. Basically, add no spacing before dividing punctuation marks (cl-04) at the end of a sentence and add one em spacing after them (see [[[#fig2_17]]]). However when a closing bracket (cl-02) follows right after the dividing punctuation mark, add no spacing after the dividing punctuation mark and add half em spacing after the closing bracket (see [[[#fig2_17]]]).

    文末にくる区切り約物(cl-04)の前はベタ組とし,区切り約物(cl-04)の後ろは全角アキとする([[[#fig2_17]]]).ただし,区切り約物の後ろに終わり括弧類(cl-02)がくる場合は,この字間はベタ組とし,終わり括弧類の後ろを二分アキにする([[[#fig2_17]]]).

    Positioning of dividing punctuation marks (Examples in vertical writing mode). 区切り約物の配置例 (縦組の場合)
    Positioning of dividing punctuation marks (Examples in vertical writing mode). 区切り約物の配置例(縦組の場合)
    Examples of positioning of dividing punctuation marks in the middle of a sentence (in vertical writing mode). 文中の区切り約物の配置例 (縦組の場合)
    Examples of positioning of dividing punctuation marks in the middle of a sentence (in vertical writing mode). 文中の区切り約物の配置例(縦組の場合)
  2. When dividing punctuation marks (cl-04) at the end of a sentence reach the end of a line, apply the following rules (see [[[#fig2_20]]]).

    文末に付く区切り約物(cl-04)が行末にくる場合は,次のようにする([[[#fig2_20]]]).

    Examples of positioning of dividing punctuation marks at the end of a line (in vertical writing mode). 行末の区切り約物の配置例 (縦組の場合)
    Examples of positioning of dividing punctuation marks at the end of a line (in vertical writing mode). 行末の区切り約物の配置例(縦組の場合)
    1. If the line length is 13 character widths and a dividing punctuation mark (cl-04) occurs in the 12th character position, one em spacing should be appended after it.

      行長がそこに使用されている文字サイズの13倍とする.この場合,12倍の位置にきたときは区切り約物(cl-04)の後ろを全角アキとする.

    2. If the line length is 13 character widths and a dividing punctuation mark (cl-04) occurs in the 13th character position, no spacing should be appended after it. In addition, do not carry over the one em space usually appended after the dividing punctuation marks to the line head of the next line; the line in this case should be set tentsuki.

      行長がそこに使用されている文字サイズの13倍とする.この場合,13倍の位置にくるときは区切り約物(cl-04)の後ろをベタ組とする.さらに,次の行頭の下がりは全角アキとしないで,天付きとする.

The character width of hyphens (cl-03) varies according to the type of hyphen. HYPHEN "‐" should be quarter em width (i.e. one quarter of an em width), EN DASH "–" and KATAKANA-HIRAGANA DOUBLE HYPHEN "゠" should be half-width (a half em width), WAVE DASH "〜" should be full-width. Basically there should be no spacing before and after hyphens (cl-03). However, half em spacing should be appended, in principle, when opening brackets (cl-01) follow right after a hyphen (cl-03) and quarter em spacing when middle dots (cl-05) follow a hyphen (cl-03).

ハイフン類(cl-03)のハイフン[‐] (HYPHEN)字幅四分角,二分ダッシュ[–] (EN DASH)及び二重ハイフン[゠] (KATAKANA-HIRAGANA DOUBLE HYPHEN)の字幅は半角,波ダッシュ[〜] (WAVE DASH)の字幅は全角とし,ハイフン類(cl-03)の前後はベタ組とする.ただし,ハイフン類(cl-03)の後ろに始め括弧類(cl-01)がくる場合はそれらの字間を原則として二分アキハイフン類(cl-03)の後ろに中点類(cl-05)がくる場合はそれらの字間を原則として四分アキとする.

Characters Not Starting a Line 行頭禁則

In principle, no line should begin with closing brackets (cl-02), hyphens (cl-03), dividing punctuation marks (cl-04), middle dots (cl-05), full stops (cl-06), commas (cl-07), iteration marks (cl-09), a prolonged sound mark (cl-10), small kana (cl-11) or warichu closing brackets (cl-29) (line-start prohibition rule). Otherwise the line would have an odd appearance.

終わり括弧類(cl-02)ハイフン類(cl-03)区切り約物(cl-04)中点類(cl-05)句点類(cl-06)読点類(cl-07)繰返し記号(cl-09)長音記号(cl-10)小書きの仮名(cl-11)及び割注終わり括弧類(cl-29)を行頭に配置してはならない(行頭禁則).これは体裁がよくないからである.

Characters Not Ending a Line 行末禁則

No line should end with opening brackets (cl-01) or warichu opening brackets (cl-28) (line-end prohibition rules). Otherwise the line would have an odd appearance.

始め括弧類(cl-01)及び割注始め括弧類(cl-28)を行末に配置してはならない(行末禁則).これは体裁がよくないからである.

Positioning of Closing Brackets, Full Stops, Commas and Middle Dots at Line End 行末に配置する終わり括弧類,句点類,読点類及び​中点類の​配置方法

In principle, closing brackets (cl-02), commas (cl-07) or full stops (cl-06) at the line end have half em spacing after them (see [[[#fig2_21]]]). This half em spacing can be removed for line adjustment (for more about line adjustment, see [[[#line_adjustment]]]). However, the possibilities are only half em spacing or solid. Other spacing, such as quarter em spacing should not be used. In principle, the middle dot (cl-05) character at the line end also has quarter em spacing before and after, and is handled like a full-width character (see [[[#fig2_21]]]). This quarter em spacing can also be removed for line adjustment, namely middle dots (cl-05) can be set solid before and after (about line adjustment, see [[[#line_adjustment]]]). However, in this case also, the only possibilities are quarter em spacing or solid setting. Other intermediate-sized spacing should not be used.

行末に配置する終わり括弧類(cl-02)読点類(cl-07)及び句点類(cl-06)は,その後ろを原則として二分アキとする([[[#fig2_21]]]).この,原則として二分アキとする箇所は,行の調整処理の詰める場合の対象にして,ベタ組としてもよい(行の調整処理については,[[[#line_adjustment]]]を参照).ただし,空き量を二分アキにするか又はベタ組にするかのどちらかで,その中間の値(例えば四分アキなど)としてはならない.また,行末に配置する中点類(cl-05)は,その前及び後ろを原則として四分アキとし,全角の扱いとする([[[#fig2_21]]]).この原則として四分アキとする箇所も,行の調整処理の詰める場合の対象にして,中点類(cl-05)の前及び後ろを一緒にベタ組としてもよい(行の調整処理については[[[#line_adjustment]]]を参照).ただし,空き量を四分アキとするかベタ組にするかのどちらかで,その中間の値としてはならない.

Example of handling closing brackets, full stops, commas and middle dots at the line end like full-width characters. 行末に配置する終わり括弧類,句点類,読点類及び中点類を全角扱いとする配置例
Example of handling closing brackets, full stops, commas and middle dots at the line end like full-width characters. 行末に配置する終わり括弧類,句点類,読点類及び中点類を全角扱いとする配置例
Example of handling closing brackets, full stops, commas and middle dots at the line end in JIS X 4051. 行末に配置する終わり括弧類,句点類,読点類及び中点類の配置例 (JIS X 4051)
Example of handling closing brackets, full stops, commas and middle dots at the line end in JIS X 4051. 行末に配置する終わり括弧類,句点類,読点類及び中点類の配置例(JIS X 4051)
Examples of closing brackets, commas and full stops at the end of a line with either half em spacing after or set solid. 行末に配置する終わり括弧類,読点類及び句点類の後ろを二分アキ又はベタ組とした配置例
Examples of closing brackets, commas and full stops at the end of a line with either half em spacing after or set solid. 行末に配置する終わり括弧類,読点類及び句点類の後ろを二分アキ又はベタ組とした配置例
Example of always applying solid setting after closing brackets, full stops, and commas at the line end. 行末に配置する終わり括弧類,句点類及び読点類の後ろをすべてベタ組とした配置例
Example of always applying solid setting after closing brackets, full stops, and commas at the line end. 行末に配置する終わり括弧類,句点類及び読点類の後ろをすべてベタ組とした配置例

Unbreakable Character Sequences 分割禁止

If the following characters and symbols appear in sequence there will be no line break between them. The reason is that these characters and symbols are to be handled as one unit.

次のような文字・記号が連続する場合は,その字間で2行に分割しない(分割禁止).これは,それらの文字・記号を一体として扱いたいためである.

  1. Between a sequence of EM DASH "—" characters (to be more specific, for a double dash, see [[[#fig2_24]]]). Note that some systems implement HORIZONTAL BAR "―" with very similar behavior to EM DASH "—".

    連続する全角ダッシュ[—] (EM DASH)と全角ダッシュ[—] (EM DASH)との間(具体的には2倍ダッシュ[――])([[[#fig2_24]]]).なお,処理系によっては,[―] (HORIZONTAL BAR)にも,同様の振る舞いを実装しているものもある.

    Sequence of EM DASH characters is unbreakable. 全角ダッシュと全角ダッシュとの間は分割禁止
    Sequence of EM DASH characters is unbreakable. 全角ダッシュと全角ダッシュとの間は分割禁止
  2. Between sequences of HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS "…" or TWO DOT LEADER "‥" (to be more specific, double HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS "……" or double TWO DOT LEADER "‥‥").

    連続する三点リーダ[…] (HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS)又は二点リーダ[‥] (TWO DOT LEADER)の字間(具体的には2倍三点リーダ[……]又は2倍二点リーダ[‥‥]).

    Unbreakable sequence of HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS. 三点リーダと三点リーダとの間は分割禁止
    Unbreakable sequence of HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS. 三点リーダと三点リーダとの間は分割禁止
  3. Between European numerals (see [[[#fig2_26]]], [[[#fig2_27]]], and [[[#fig2_28]]].). European numerals indicate decimal place via the position of a numeral.

    連続するアラビア数字の字間([[[#fig2_26]]],[[[#fig2_27]]],[[[#fig2_28]]]).アラビア数字は,位置で桁を示すことによる.

  4. Between prefixed abbreviations (cl-12) (YEN SIGN "¥"DOLLAR SIGN "$"CENT SIGN "¢" etc.) and the following arabic or ideographic numeral (see [[[#fig2_26]]]). The reason is that such character sequences are to be handled as one unit.

    前置省略記号(cl-12)(円記号[¥] (YEN SIGN),ドル記号[$] (DOLLAR SIGN)など)とその後ろにくるアラビア数字・漢数字との間([[[#fig2_26]]]).それらの文字列を一体として扱いたいためである.

    Unbreakable sequences between prefixed abbreviations and the following European numeral. 前置省略記号とアラビア数字の間は分割禁止
    Unbreakable sequences between prefixed abbreviations and the following European numeral. 前置省略記号とアラビア数字の間は分割禁止
  5. Between postfixed abbreviations (cl-13) (PERCENT SIGN "%", PER MILLE SIGN "‰" etc.) and the preceding European numeral or ideographic numeral (see [[[#fig2_27]]]). The reason is that such character sequences are to be handled as one unit.

    後置省略記号(cl-13)(パーセント[%] (PERCENT SIGN),パーミル[‰] (PER MILLE SIGN)など)とその前にくるアラビア数字漢数字との間([[[#fig2_27]]]).それらの文字列を一体として扱いたいためである.

    Unbreakable sequences between postfixed abbreviations and the preceding European numeral. アラビア数字と後置省略記号の間は分割禁止
    Unbreakable sequences between postfixed abbreviations and the preceding European numeral. アラビア数字と後置省略記号の間は分割禁止
  6. Inter-letter spacing among Western characters (cl-27) in a word (or, sequence of letters, which it is not possible to hyphenate), or unit indicators (km, kg, mm etc.) in Latin letters (see [[[#fig2_28]]]).

    欧文用文字(cl-27)の単語のハイフネーション可能な箇所以外の字間及び単位記号(km, kg, mmなど)の字間([[[#fig2_28]]]).

    It is not possible to break a line between letters in unit symbols using Latin letters. 欧字の単位記号(単位記号中の文字)の字間は分割禁止
    It is not possible to break a line between letters in unit symbols using Latin letters. 欧字の単位記号(単位記号中の文字)の字間は分割禁止
  7. Inter-letter spacing among ruby characters, when composed as mono-ruby. Note that it is possible to break a line between base characters with mono-ruby (see [[[#fig2_29]]]).

    モノルビで配置したルビ文字列の字間([[[#fig2_29]]]).一体として扱うためである.なお,モノルビが付いた親文字とモノルビが付いた親文字との字間は,分割可能である.

  8. Inter-letter spacing among ruby characters or base characters, composed as group-ruby (see [[[#fig2_29]]]).

    グループルビで配置した親文字列及びルビ文字列の字間([[[#fig2_29]]]).一体として扱うためである.

    Example of unbreakable sequences of ruby. ルビ文字列の分割禁止の例
    Example of unbreakable sequences of ruby. ルビ文字列の分割禁止の例
    Example of a line break for jukugo-ruby. 熟語ルビを分割した例
    Example of a line break for jukugo-ruby. 熟語ルビを分割した例
  9. Between a subscript or superscript and an adjacent base character (preceding or following) (see [[[#fig2_31]]]), or between base characters with ornament characters, or between ornament characters themselves. The reason is that these character sequences are to be handled as one object.

    親文字とその前又は後ろに付く添え字との字間.添え字が付く親文字の文字列,及び添え字の文字列の字間([[[#fig2_31]]]).それらの文字列を一体として扱いたいためである.

    Unbreakable sequences between a character and its related subscripts. 添え字及び親文字の字間は分割禁止
    Unbreakable sequences between a character and its related subscripts. 添え字及び親文字の字間は分割禁止
  10. In order to create a correspondence between notes and the related main text, reference marks (aijirushi) are often added. Line breaks are not allowed before the reference mark or between letters of the reference mark itself (see [[[#fig2_32]]]). The application of the no-line-break rule here is a matter of style.

    と本文との対応を付けるために合印が付くことが多い.この合印の前及び合印の文字列の字間([[[#fig2_32]]]).これは体裁上の問題による.

    Unbreakable sequences before an aijirushi (reference marks, European numerals or ideographic numerals). 注の合印の前では分割禁止
    Unbreakable sequences before an aijirushi (reference marks, European numerals or ideographic numerals). 注の合印の前では分割禁止
  11. After warichu opening brackets (cl-28), which open warichu, or before warichu closing brackets (cl-29), which close warichu.

    割注行を囲む割注始め括弧類(cl-28)の後ろ,割注行を囲む割注終わり括弧類(cl-29)の前.

  12. A unit of furiwake. A unit of furiwake is handled as one object.

    同一の振分け.同一の振分けは,一体として扱う.

Character Sequences which Do Not Allow Increase of Spacing as Part of Line Adjustment Processing 行の調整処理で​字間を​空ける処理に​使用しない箇所

For line adjustment processing, spacing must not be increased between the following characters. (This is called the inseparable characters rule.) The reason is that these characters or symbols should appear as one unit (for more about line adjustment, see [[[#line_adjustment]]]).

行の調整処理の際に,字間を空けて処理する場合,次の字間には空き量を入れることは避ける(分離禁止ともいう).これは,それらの文字・記号を一体として扱いたいためである(行の調整処理については,[[[#line_adjustment]]]を参照).

  1. There must be no added spacing between any characters described in [[[#unbreakable_character_sequences]]].

    [[[#unbreakable_character_sequences]]]で掲げた字間は,すべて行の調整処理で字間を空ける箇所としては避ける.

  2. In addition to the cases mentioned above, the inseparable character rule has to be applied to the following cases.

    上記以外では,次も行の調整処理で字間を空ける箇所としては避ける.

    1. Before or after opening brackets (cl-01) or closing brackets (cl-02).

      始め括弧類(cl-01)及び終わり括弧類(cl-02)の前及び後ろ.

    2. Before or after full stops (cl-06) or commas (cl-07).

      句点類(cl-06)及び読点類(cl-07)の前及び後ろ.

    3. Before or after middle dots (cl-05).

      中点類(cl-05)の前及び後ろ.

    4. Before or after dividing punctuation marks (cl-04).

      区切り約物(cl-04)の前及び後ろ.

    5. Before or after hyphens (cl-03).

      ハイフン類(cl-03)の前及び後ろ.

    6. Before or after one em, etc. space between Japanese characters.

      全角アキなどの和字間隔の前及び後ろ.

    7. Among base characters with jukugo-ruby.

      熟語ルビが付いた親文字列の字間

Examples of Line Adjustment 行の調整処理例

Methods of line adjustment processing are discussed in [[[#line_adjustment]]]. However, since layout processing of punctuation marks is one reason for the need for line adjustment processing, we will here introduce two main examples of cases where line adjustment processing is necessary, and show adjustment examples (see [[[#fig2_33]]]).

行の調整処理の処理方法については,[[[#line_adjustment]]]で解説するが,行の調整処理が必要になる要因の1つに約物の組版処理が関係することから,ここでは行の調整処理が必要となる主な2つの例とその調整例について解説する([[[#fig2_33]]]).

  1. The principal approach in Japanese composition is that with the exception of the last line of a paragraph, the length of all lines is the same, so all lines are aligned. As explained before, the line length is set to be n-times the character size established for the kihon-hanmen. Hence, as long as only full-width characters are used, all lines have the same length (see ① at [[[#fig2_33]]]).

    日本語組版では,1行の行長に満たない段落の最終行を除き,行長をそろえるのが原則である.行長は,前述したように文字サイズの整数倍に設定するので,全角の文字を並べていく限りでは,行長はそろうことになる([[[#fig2_33]]]の①).

  2. In [[[#fig2_33]]] at ②, there is an IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA "、" followed by a LEFT CORNER BRACKET "「", and the total space taken by the two characters is one and a half em. That means that the line overshoots or runs short of the edge of the kihon-hanmen by a half em. To restore a uniform line length, line adjustment is applied as shown at ③ in [[[#fig2_33]]]. The half em space overshoot or shortage is recovered by reducing inter-character spacing to a quarter em before the LEFT CORNER BRACKET "「" and after the RIGHT CORNER BRACKET "」".

    [[[#fig2_33]]]の②では,読点[、] (IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA)と始めかぎ括弧[「] (LEFT CORNER BRACKET)が連続し,この2つの約物全体の字幅及び空き量の合計は1.5倍となり,行長で二分の過不足が発生する.そこで,[[[#fig2_33]]]の③のように始めかぎ括弧[「] (LEFT CORNER BRACKET)の前の二分アキ及び終わりかぎ括弧[」] (RIGHT CORNER BRACKET)の後ろの二分アキを四分アキに詰める処理(追込み処理という)が可能なので,ここで二分の過不足の調整を行い,行長をそろえる.

  3. At ④ in [[[#fig2_33]]], the 15th character is an opening bracket (cl-01). This should not appear at the line end. Ideally, a full width spacing reduction would be applied, and the character "前" on the second line would be moved onto the first line in the 15th position. In that way, the problem could be avoided. However, in this example a full-width spacing reduction is not possible, so line adjustment processing is applied as shown at ⑤ in [[[#fig2_33]]]. The opening bracket (cl-01) is moved to the second line, and line adjustment by inter-character spacing expansion is applied. That means that spacing is added in the first line at places where it is allowed.

    [[[#fig2_33]]]の④では,15字目に始め括弧類(cl-01)がくるので,この配置を回避する調整が必要になる.その行で全角の分を詰める処理が可能であれば,その処理を行い,2行目の“前”の文字を1行目の15字目に配置し,問題を回避できる.しかし,この例では全角の分を詰める処理が不可能なので,[[[#fig2_33]]]の⑤のように始め括弧類を2行目に移動し,1行目の字間を空ける調整が可能な箇所で空ける処理(追出し処理という)を行い,1行目の行長をそろえる処理を行う.

    Examples of line adjustment. 行の調整を行った例
    Examples of line adjustment. 行の調整を行った例

Japanese and Western Mixed Text Composition (including Horizontal-in-Vertical Text Composition) 和欧文混植処理(縦中横処理を含む)

Composition of Japanese and Western Mixed Texts 和文と欧文との混植

There are a lot of examples of Japanese text in which Western and/or Greek letters are mixed among Japanese letters. Examples are as follows:

和文の中にラテン文字やギリシャ文字などの欧字・欧文を混植和欧文混植)する例は多い.次のような例がある.

  1. Using one Latin letter as a symbol for something, like "A" and "B".

    AとBといったように欧字1字を記号として使用する.

  2. Using a Western word in a Japanese context, like "editor".

    editorのように欧字の単語をそのまま使用する.

  3. Using acronyms of things and organization names, like "DTP" and "GDP".

    GDPやDTPなどの組織名や事項に関する頭字語として使用する.

  4. Writing Western book titles and authors in lists of referred books with original spelling.

    欧文の文献表示などで著者名や書名などを原本通り表記する.

Latin letters are also used in itemized lists and numbering of headings, as well as symbols for units, symbols for chemical elements, and mathematical symbols. As can be judged from these examples, mixtures of Latin letters among Japanese letters are in daily use in Japanese composition.

箇条書き見出しの頭に付く番号,さらに,単位記号・元素記号・数学記号等でも欧字は使用されており,日本語組版にとっては,和欧文混植は,ごく一般的な事例になっている.

Mixed Text Composition in Horizontal Writing Mode 横組の和欧文混植に用いる文字

In horizontal writing mode the basic approach is to use proportional Western fonts ([[[#fig2_2_1]]]). For European numerals, both half-width fonts and proportional fonts are used. Note that Western word space (cl-26) is a one third em space, in principle, except at line head, line head of warichu, line end and line end of warichu. Western word space (cl-26) at line head, line head of warichu, line end and line end of warichu, is set solid.

横組では,原則としてプロポーショナル欧字を用いる([[[#fig2_2_1]]]).また,アラビア数字は,半角のアラビア数字又はプロポーショナルなアラビア数字を用いる.なお,欧文間隔(cl-26)は,三分アキを原則とする.ただし,行頭,割注行頭,行末及び割注行末の欧文間隔(cl-26)は,空き量を0とする.

Example of proportional Western fonts used in Japanese in horizontal writing mode. 横組にプロポーショナルな欧字を用いた例
Example of proportional Western fonts used in Japanese in horizontal writing mode. 横組にプロポーショナルな欧字を用いた例
Example of Western full-width fonts used in Japanese in horizontal writing mode. (In horizontal writing mode, Western full-width fonts are usually not recommended.) 全角のモノスペースの欧字を用いた例 (横組ではこのような文字は使用しない)
Example of Western full-width fonts used in Japanese in horizontal writing mode. (In horizontal writing mode, Western full-width fonts are usually not recommended.) 全角のモノスペースの欧字を用いた例(横組ではこのような文字は使用しない)
Example of Japanese and Western mixed text with the same font Ryumin R-KL for both Japanese characters and proportional Western characters. リュウミンR-KLのプロポーショナルな欧字・アラビア数字を用いた例
Example of Japanese and Western mixed text with the same font Ryumin R-KL for both Japanese characters and proportional Western characters. リュウミンR-KLのプロポーショナルな欧字・アラビア数字を用いた例
Example of Japanese and Western mixed text with two distinct fonts - Ryumin R-KL for Japanese characters and Times New Roman
     for Western characters. リュウミンR-KLと欧字・アラビア数字にTimes New Romanを用いた例
Example of Japanese and Western mixed text with two distinct fonts - Ryumin R-KL for Japanese characters and Times New Roman for Western characters. リュウミンR-KLと欧字・アラビア数字にTimes New Romanを用いた例

Mixed Text Composition in Vertical Writing Mode 縦組の和欧文混植に用いる文字

As explained in [[[#major_differences_between_vertical_writing_mode_and_horizontal_writing_mode]]], there are three different styles for setting Latin letters and European numerals in vertical writing mode:

縦組では,[[[#major_differences_between_vertical_writing_mode_and_horizontal_writing_mode]]]で解説したように,欧字及びアラビア数字を配置する方法としては,次の3つの方法がある.

  1. Setting Latin letters and/or European numerals one by one in inline direction with Japanese characters (see [[[#fig_2_2_50]]]). Single Latin letters or Arabic numerals are set with this style. In this case, a full width monospace font is usually used. Currently, proportional Western style fonts are also sometimes used with this style.

    和文文字と同じように正常な向きで,1字1字配置する([[[#fig_2_2_50]]]).文中に配置する欧字又はアラビア数字が1字の場合は,この方法で配置する.この場合,欧字及びアラビア数字は,一般に全角のモノスペースの文字を用いる.プロポーショナルな文字を用い,全角のスペースに正常な向きにして配置する方法もある.

    Example of Latin letters in normal orientation. 正常な向きで配置した欧字の例
    Example of Latin letters in normal orientation. 正常な向きで配置した欧字の例
  2. Setting Latin letters and/or European numerals rotated 90 degrees clockwise in vertical text mode ([[[#fig2_2_6]]]). This style is usually adopted when Latin letters compose a word or sentence. Proportional fonts are specified for characters in this style, as in horizontal writing mode (or half-width fonts for European numerals).

    文字を時計回りに90度回転し,配置する([[[#fig2_2_6]]]).文中に配置する欧字が一般の単語又は文の場合は,この方法で配置する.この場合,横組と同様にプロポーショナルな文字(又はアラビア数字は半角の文字)を用いる.

    Example of Latin letters rotated 90 degrees clockwise. 文字を時計回りに90度回転し配置した欧字の例
    Example of Latin letters rotated 90 degrees clockwise. 文字を時計回りに90度回転し配置した欧字の例
  3. Setting Latin letters and/or European numerals in tate-chu-yoko (horizontal-in-vertical setting, see [[[#fig2_2_7]]]). Tate-chu-yoko layout is usually adopted when dealing with a two-digit number in European numerals, or a combination of two or three Latin letters, the length of which is equal to the default size of the line in paragraph direction or longer than that just to an acceptable extent. (A combination of two or three Latin letters may be rotated 90 degrees clockwise rather than set in tate-chu-yoko layout.) Proportional glyphs (or half-width glyphs for European numerals) are used for characters in tate-chu-yoko layout.

    縦中横(正常な向きのまま,横組にする)にして配置する([[[#fig2_2_7]]]).2桁のアラビア数字,行の幅とほぼ同じ程度かやや行の幅よりはみ出す程度の記号として用いる2文字程度の欧字の文字列では,一般に縦中横にする(後者の2文字程度の欧字の文字列は,文字を時計回りに90度回転し,配置する方法もある).この場合,プロポーショナルな文字(又はアラビア数字は半角の文字)を用いる.

    Example of European numerals in tate-chu-yoko (horizontal-in-vertical setting). 縦中横にしたアラビア数字の例
    Example of European numerals in tate-chu-yoko (horizontal-in-vertical setting). 縦中横にしたアラビア数字の例
    Example of acronyms set one by one in normal orientation. 正常な向きで配置した頭字語の例
    Example of acronyms set one by one in normal orientation. 正常な向きで配置した頭字語の例
    Example of acronyms rotated 90 degrees clockwise. 文字を時計回りに90度回転し配置した頭字語の例
    Example of acronyms rotated 90 degrees clockwise. 文字を時計回りに90度回転し配置した頭字語の例

Method for Setting Full-width Latin Letters and European Numerals 全角のモノスペースの欧字及び​全角の​モノスペースの​アラビア数字の​配置方法

When full-width and fixed-width Western characters or European numerals are set in vertical writing mode as "quasi" Japanese characters, inter-character spacing between these characters and hiragana (cl-15), katakana (cl-16) or ideographic characters (cl-19) are set solid, similar to ordinary ideographic characters (cl-19) (see [[[#fig2_2_8]]]). Also, in principle, when full-width and fixed-width Western characters or European numerals are set after full stops (cl-06), commas (cl-07) or closing brackets (cl-02), or before opening brackets (cl-01), insert half em spacing after commas (cl-07) or closing brackets (cl-02), or before opening brackets (cl-01). In addition, in these cases, insert half em spacing after full stops (cl-06). When full-width and fixed-width Western characters or European numerals are set before a full stop (cl-06), comma (cl-07) or closing bracket (cl-02), or after an opening bracket (cl-01), the inter-character spacing before the full stop, comma or closing bracket, or after the opening bracket is set solid.

縦組で全角のモノスペースの欧字及び全角のモノスペースのアラビア数字を正常な向きで1字1字配置する場合は,一般の漢字と同様に前後に配置する平仮名(cl-15)片仮名(cl-16)又は漢字等(cl-19)との字間をベタ組にして配置する([[[#fig2_2_8]]]).また,句点類(cl-06)読点類(cl-07)若しくは終わり括弧類(cl-02)の後ろ,又は始め括弧類(cl-01)の前に全角のモノスペースの欧字又は全角のモノスペースのアラビア数字がくる場合は,読点類(cl-07)若しくは終わり括弧類(cl-02)の後ろ,又は始め括弧類(cl-01)の前は,原則として二分アキとし,句点類(cl-06)の後ろは二分アキとする.句点類(cl-06)読点類(cl-07),若しくは終わり括弧類(cl-02)の前,又は始め括弧類(cl-01)の後ろに全角のモノスペースの欧字又は全角のモノスペースのアラビア数字がくる場合は,句点類(cl-06)読点類(cl-07)若しくは終わり括弧類(cl-02)の前,又は始め括弧類(cl-01)の後ろをベタ組とする.

Setting example of full-width Latin letters and European numerals. 全角のモノスペースの欧字及び全角のモノスペースのアラビア数字の配置例
Setting example of full-width Latin letters and European numerals. 全角のモノスペースの欧字及び全角のモノスペースのアラビア数字の配置例
Example of setting KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT as a decimal symbol among full-width, fixed-space European numerals. 全角のモノスペースのアラビア数字の途中に小数点として入る中点の配置例
Example of setting KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT as a decimal symbol among full-width, fixed-space European numerals. 全角のモノスペースのアラビア数字の途中に小数点として入る中点の配置例

Handling of Tate-chu-yoko (Horizontal-in-Vertical Settings) 縦中横の処理

To set strings as tate-chu-yoko (horizontal-in-vertical setting), first set from left to right using solid setting, then align the whole string to the center of the vertical line ([[[#fig2_2_9]]]). When hiragana (cl-15), katakana (cl-16) or ideographic characters (cl-19) are set before/after tate-chu-yoko, the inter-character spacing is set solid. In principle, when tate-chu-yoko is set after a comma (cl-07) or closing bracket (cl-02), or before an opening bracket (cl-01), half em spacing is added. In addition, when tate-chu-yoko is set after a full stop (cl-06) in the middle of a line, half em spacing is added. When a full stop (cl-06) is set at the end of a line, half em spacing is inserted after it, in principle. When tate-chu-yoko is set before full stops, commas or closing brackets, or after opening brackets, the inter-character spacing is set solid.

縦中横に配置する文字列は,横方向(左から右方向)にベタ組で配置し,その文字列全体を行の中央に配置する([[[#fig2_2_9]]]).なお,縦中横の前後に配置する平仮名(cl-15)片仮名(cl-16)又は漢字等(cl-19)との字間は,ベタ組にする.縦中横の文字列が読点類(cl-07)若しくは終わり括弧類(cl-02)の後ろ,又は始め括弧類(cl-01)の前にくる場合は,それらとの字間を原則として二分アキとする.行中で縦中横の文字列が句点類(cl-06)の後ろにくる場合は,その字間を二分アキとする.ただし,句点類(cl-06)が行末に位置した場合は,句点類(cl-06)の後ろを原則として二分アキにする.句点類(cl-06)読点類(cl-07)若しくは終わり括弧類(cl-02)の前,又は始め括弧類(cl-01)の後ろに縦中横の文字列がくる場合は,その字間はベタ組とする.

Example of setting tate-chu-yoko (horizontal-in-vertical text setting). 縦中横の配置例
Example of setting tate-chu-yoko (horizontal-in-vertical text setting). 縦中横の配置例

Handling of Western Text in Japanese Text using Proportional Western Fonts プロポーショナルな​欧字を用いた​和欧文混植処理

Composition rules for Western characters, Western text and European numerals, set rotated 90 degrees clockwise in vertical writing mode, and horizontal writing mode, are as follows:

縦組で文字を時計回りに90度回転して配置する欧字・欧文・アラビア数字又は横組で混植する欧字・欧文・アラビア数字の配置方法は,次のようにする.

  1. A sequence of Western characters in a Western word should not be broken across a line-break, except where hyphenation is allowed.

    欧文の単語の文字列は,ハイフネーション可能な箇所以外で2行に分割してはならない.

  2. When line adjustment is done with line adjustment by inter-character spacing reduction, Western word space (cl-26) is used as first priority. Also, when line adjustment is done with line adjustment by inter-character spacing expansion, Western word spaces are used as first priority.

    追込み処理で字間を詰める場合,その処理対象として欧文間隔(cl-26)を優先的に使用し,追出し処理で字間を空ける場合も,その処理対象として欧文間隔を優先的に使用する.

  3. When line adjustment by inter-character spacing expansion is used, inter-character spacing within Western words and European numerals is not used for expansion.

    追出し処理の際には,欧文及びアラビア数字の字間は,字間を空ける調整箇所としない.

  4. Inter-character spacing, between hiragana (cl-15), katakana (cl-16) or ideographic characters (cl-19) and Western characters or European numerals, is quarter em spacing (see [[[#fig2_2_10]]]). The issue as to whether the quarter em spacing can be used for line end adjustment or not is discussed in [[[#reduction_and_addition_of_intercharacter_space]]] and [[[#procedures_for_intercharacter_space_expansion]]].

    欧字・アラビア数字の前後に配置される平仮名(cl-15)片仮名(cl-16)又は漢字等(cl-19)との字間は,四分アキとする([[[#fig2_2_10]]]).(この四分アキを行の調整処理に使用する場合の詳細については[[[#reduction_and_addition_of_intercharacter_space]]]及び[[[#procedures_for_intercharacter_space_expansion]]]を参照.)

    Example of a quarter em inter-character spacing between hiragana, katakana and ideographic characters, and Latin characters. 平仮名,片仮名又は漢字等と欧字・アラビア数字の字間を四分アキとした例
    Example of a quarter em inter-character spacing between hiragana, katakana and ideographic characters, and Latin characters. 平仮名,片仮名又は漢字等と欧字・アラビア数字の字間を四分アキとした例

    In the following cases, a quarter em spacing is not added (see [[[#fig2_2_12]]]).

    ただし,次の箇所では,四分アキとしない([[[#fig2_2_12]]]).

    1. At the start of a line, there is no spacing before Latin characters or European numerals. At the end of the line, there is no spacing after Latin characters or European numerals.

      行頭においては,欧字・アラビア数字の前は空けない.行末においては,欧字・アラビア数字の後ろは空けない.

    2. In the case where Latin characters and European numerals follow a comma (cl-07) or closing bracket (cl-02), or are followed by opening brackets (cl-01), in principle, half em spacing is added. In the case where Latin characters and European numerals follow a full stop (cl-06) in the middle of a line, half em spacing is added. When the full stop (cl-06) is set at the end of a line, in principle, half em spacing is added after the full stop (cl-06).

      読点類(cl-07)若しくは終わり括弧類(cl-02)の後ろ,又は始め括弧類(cl-01)の前を原則として二分アキとする.また,行中の句点類(cl-06)の後ろは二分アキとし,句点類(cl-06)が行末に位置した場合は,句点類(cl-06)の後ろを原則として二分アキにする.

    3. In the case where Latin characters and European numerals are set before a full stop (cl-06), comma (cl-07) or closing bracket (cl-02), or after an opening bracket (cl-01), the inter-character spacing is set solid.

      句点類(cl-06)読点類(cl-07)若しくは終わり括弧類(cl-02)の前,又は始め括弧類(cl-01)の後ろに欧字・アラビア数字がくる場合は,その字間はベタ組とする.

Example of no inter-character spacing before and after Latin characters and European numerals. 欧字・アラビア数字の前後を四分アキとしない箇所
Example of no inter-character spacing before and after Latin characters and European numerals. 欧字・アラビア数字の前後を四分アキとしない箇所
Example of solid setting between, katakana and ideographic characters and Latin characters and European numerals. (This method is
     not recommended). 平仮名,片仮名又は漢字等と欧字・アラビア数字との字間をベタ組とした例 (このような配置法にはしない)
Example of solid setting between, katakana and ideographic characters and Latin characters and European numerals. (This method is not recommended). 平仮名,片仮名又は漢字等と欧字・アラビア数字との字間をベタ組とした例(このような配置法にはしない)

Ruby and Emphasis Dots ルビと圏点処理

Usage of Ruby ルビの使用

Ruby is a small-sized, supplementary text attached to a character or a group of characters in the main text. A run of ruby text, usually attached to the right of the characters in vertical writing mode or immediately above them in horizontal writing mode, indicates the reading or the meaning of those characters (see [[[#fig2_3_1]]]). The characters in the main text that are annotated by ruby are called "base characters". Mainly Hiragana (cl-15) characters are often used for ruby to indicate how to read ideographic characters (cl-19); this is known as ruby annotation or as "furigana".

ルビとは,文字のそば(縦組では一般に右側,横組では一般に上側)に付けて文字の読み方,意味などを示す小さな文字のことである([[[#fig2_3_1]]]).ルビを付ける場合,その対象となる文字のことを親文字という.ルビとしては,漢字等(cl-19)の読みを示す平仮名(cl-15)などを付けることが多く,“振り仮名”ともよばれている.

Ruby and base characters. ルビと親文字
Ruby and base characters. ルビと親文字

There are three methods to treat ruby as follows:

ルビの組版処理の方法としては,次の3つがある.

  1. Mono-ruby : ruby characters are set in connection with each base character (see [[[#positioning_of_monoruby_with_respect_to_base_characters]]]).

    モノルビ:親文字の1字ごとに対応してルビを付けて配置する([[[#positioning_of_monoruby_with_respect_to_base_characters]]]).

  2. Jukugo-ruby : ruby characters are set not only in connection with each base character but also treated as a group as kanji compound word (see [[[#positioning_of_jukugoruby_with_respect_to_base_characters]]] and [[[#positioning_of_jukugoruby]]]).

    熟語ルビ:個々の親文字の読みとともに熟語としてのまとまりを重視して配置する([[[#positioning_of_jukugoruby_with_respect_to_base_characters]]]及び[[[#positioning_of_jukugoruby]]]).

  3. Group-ruby : The connection between ruby characters and base characters is treated as group-to-group (see [[[#positioning_of_groupruby_with_respect_to_base_characters]]]).

    グループルビ:複数の親文字で構成される語全体に掛かるように配置する(処理方法は[[[#positioning_of_groupruby_with_respect_to_base_characters]]]).

Because of different purposes and different functionalities, there are several complicated methods for ruby as follows:

このような複数の処理方法が必要になるのは,以下で説明するようにルビを付ける目的,ルビの役割の違いがあることによる.

  1. PURPOSE: Ruby annotation with kana (usually hiragana (cl-15)) to provide readings of ideographic characters (cl-19). There are two types of ruby for this purpose depending on the type of base character:

    漢字等(cl-19)の読み方を示す主に平仮名(cl-15)のルビを付ける.これには,次の2つがある.

    1. Add one or more hiragana (cl-15) ruby characters to indicate the reading (Japanese onyomi or kunyomi) for each base ideographic character (cl-19) (see [[[#fig2_3_2]]]). This method, attaching one or several hiragana or katakana characters for each base ideographic character, is called mono-ruby.

      1文字の親文字(漢字等(cl-19))の音読み又は訓読みの読み方を示す1文字の平仮名(cl-15)又は複数の平仮名(cl-15)のルビを付ける([[[#fig2_3_2]]]).このように親文字列の1文字ごとに対応させたルビの処理方法をモノルビという.

      Example of ruby annotation  per ideographic character. 漢字等の1字の読みを示すルビの例
      Example of ruby annotation per ideographic character. 漢字等の1字の読みを示すルビの例
    2. In the Japanese writing system, kanji compound words (jukugo) occasionally appear, usually constructed with a couple of ideographic characters (cl-19). There are two different methods of attaching ruby characters to base ideographic characters (cl-19) for these compound words.

      日本語表記では,複数の漢字等(cl-19)で構成された熟語をよく使う.この熟語を構成する個々の漢字等(cl-19)について,音読み又は訓読みの読み方を示す平仮名(cl-15)のルビを付ける(このようなルビの使用例は多い).このような熟語に付けるルビについて,親文字とルビ文字との対応には,2つの方法がある.

      1. Mono-ruby. Ruby characters are attached to each base ideographic character (cl-19), similarly to the previous section (see [[[#fig2_3_3]]]).

        前項と同様に,個々の漢字等(cl-19)(親文字)の1文字ごとにそのルビを対応させる方法.つまり,モノルビとしてルビを処理する方法である([[[#fig2_3_3]]]).

        Example of mono-ruby method. Ruby characters are attached to each base ideographic character in a compound word. 熟語に付くルビをモノルビで処理した例
        Example of mono-ruby method. Ruby characters are attached to each base ideographic character in a compound word. 熟語に付くルビをモノルビで処理した例
      2. Jukugo-ruby. Pronunciation is indicated for each ideographic character (cl-19), but the positioning takes into account the fact that together they make up a compound word (see [[[#fig2_3_4]]]). The intention when using jukugo-ruby is to handle the ideographic character (cl-19) phrase as one object.

        個々の漢字等(cl-19)の読み方を示すと同時に,熟語単位での配置も考慮して配置する方法([[[#fig2_3_4]]]).この方法は熟語ルビとよばれている.熟語ルビは,熟語を構成する漢字等(cl-19)の1文字1文字の読み方を示すとともに,熟語としてのまとまりを持っているので,ルビもまとまりとして読める必要がある.熟語ルビは,熟語としてのまとまりを重視した配置方法といえる.

        Example of jukugo-ruby method. Ruby characters are attached to groups of ideographic characters in compound words. 熟語に付くルビを熟語ルビで処理した例
        Example of jukugo-ruby method. Ruby characters are attached to groups of ideographic characters in compound words. 熟語に付くルビを熟語ルビで処理した例
        Examples of ruby attachment for a compound phrase. 複合語に付けるルビの例
        Examples of ruby attachment for a compound phrase. 複合語に付けるルビの例
        Examples of ruby for jukuji readings. 熟字訓のルビの例
        Examples of ruby for jukuji readings. 熟字訓のルビの例
  2. PURPOSE: Ruby annotation that annotates a ideographic character (cl-19) or hiragana (cl-15) word with katakana (cl-16) to provide its meaning, together with its reading. In terms of ruby layout, attaching ruby text to a single character in ideographic character (cl-19) is essentially the same as attaching the reading to a ideographic character (cl-19) (e.g. attaching ruby text "バザール", 'Bazaar', in hiragana (cl-15) or katakana (cl-16) to a ideographic character (cl-19) "市" is just like attaching the reading "いち" to that character). When attaching katakana (cl-16) ruby text to a run of base text consisting of two or more characters in ideographic character (cl-19) and/or hiragana (cl-15), the ruby text needs to be positioned as if it corresponds to the annotated text itself, no matter how the ruby characters are distributed across each base character. The most typical example of this is attaching ruby text to a kanji compound word to indicate a corresponding loan word in katakana (see [[[#fig2_3_6_2]]]). The use of ruby text of this kind is on the increase in proportion to the growing need for translations and loan words. This type of ruby, namely ruby characters that are attached to two or more base characters as one object (note that ruby characters are not limited to katakana (cl-16). [[[#fig2_3_6]]] and [[[#fig2_3_7]]]), is called group-ruby. Group-ruby and its base characters are unbreakable, because of their behavior as one object (it is possible to break a line in the middle of the base characters where jukugo-ruby is in use).

    漢字等(cl-19)平仮名(cl-15)などの言葉(語)に,ルビとして別な言葉を片仮名(cl-16)で示す(読み方を示すのではなく,意味を示すルビを付けるということでもある).漢字等(cl-19)の1字の言葉に別の言葉を対応させる場合(例えば,“市”に“バザール”というルビを付ける)は,漢字等(cl-19)の1字の読み方を示した場合(例えば,“市”に“いち”というルビを付ける)と同じように考えればよいが,2文字以上の漢字等(cl-19)平仮名(cl-15)などの親文字列に片仮名(cl-16)のルビを付ける場合は,個々の親文字とルビとの対応は問題とならず,親文字列全体に対してルビ文字列を対応させる必要がある.このケースで最も多い例は,親文字である漢字等(cl-19)の熟語に対し,それとほぼ同じ意味の外来語である片仮名(cl-16)で構成された言葉をルビとして示す場合である([[[#fig2_3_6_2]]]).翻訳が増大し,また片仮名語が増えていることから,このようなルビの使用例は多くなっている.このように2文字以上の親文字列全体にまとめて付けるルビ(ルビ文字列は片仮名(cl-16)に限らない.[[[#fig2_3_6]]]及び[[[#fig2_3_7]]])は,グループルビとよばれている.グループルビは,一体として扱い,2行に分割できない(熟語ルビは,親文字列の漢字等(cl-19)の字間で2行に分割できる).

    Examples of ruby for compound ideographic character words to indicate corresponding words in katakana. 漢字等の熟語に片仮名を付けたルビの例
    Examples of ruby for compound ideographic character words to indicate corresponding words in katakana. 漢字等の熟語に片仮名を付けたルビの例
  3. PURPOSE: Ruby annotation, usually with katakana (cl-16) characters, to indicate the reading or the meaning of a Western word used in base text (see [[[#fig2_3_7]]]). There are opposite cases where a synonymous Western word in Latin characters is attached as a ruby annotation to a Japanese word in ideographic character (cl-19) or hiragana (cl-15) and so on (see [[[#fig2_3_7]]]). These cases are less used than a and b, however they are quite common in study guides, translated books and travel guides.

    親文字である欧文の単語の読み方又は意味を示す言葉(一般に片仮名(cl-16))をルビとして付ける([[[#fig2_3_7]]]).逆に親文字である漢字等(cl-19)平仮名(cl-15)などの言葉に,それと同じ意味を示す欧文の単語をルビとして付ける([[[#fig2_3_7]]]).この例は,aやbに比べると使用例は少ないが,学習参考書,翻訳書,旅行案内などではよく利用されている.

    Examples of Latin characters used either in  base text or ruby text for Western words. 親文字又はルビが欧文の単語の例
    Examples of Latin characters used either in base text or ruby text for Western words. 親文字又はルビが欧文の単語の例
  4. PURPOSE: Ruby annotation using ideographic character (cl-19) for a base text word in hiragana (cl-15). This is called furikanji, and is very rarely found.

    親文字である平仮名(cl-15)などにルビとして漢字等(cl-19)を付ける(振り漢字という).この使用例は非常に少ない.

Hereafter, mainly the usage of (a) and (b) will be explained.

以下では,主にa,bのルビの組版処理について解説する.

Choice of Base Characters to be Annotated by Ruby ルビの付け方

There are several methods of choosing how to attach ruby annotations to which base characters.

ルビをどのような言葉に,どのように付けるかは各種の方法がある.

  1. 'General-ruby' is the method of attaching ruby annotations to all base characters in ideographic character (cl-19).

    出てくる漢字等(cl-19)のすべてにルビを付ける方式を総ルビという.

  2. 'Para-ruby' is the method of attaching ruby annotations to only those base characters in ideographic character (cl-19) for which readings are difficult.

    出てくる漢字等(cl-19)のすべてではなく,読み方がむずかしい一部の漢字等(cl-19)のみに付ける方式をパラルビという.

Note that ruby should be attached to all ideographic characters (cl-19) in a compound word, to reflect the unitary nature of the text. To attach ruby to only some of the ideographic characters (cl-19) in a compound word is not recommended (see [[[#fig2_3_8]]]).

なお,熟語は,まとまりとして読むものなので,熟語にルビを付ける場合,熟語を構成する一部のむずかしい漢字等(cl-19)にのみルビを付けるのではなく,熟語を構成するすべての漢字等(cl-19)の読み方を示すのが望ましい([[[#fig2_3_8]]]).

Examples of ruby on kanji characters in a compound word. (Left side, recommended. Right side, not recommended.) 熟語に付けるルビの例 (左側:望ましい例.右側:望ましくない例)
Examples of ruby on kanji characters in a compound word. (Left side, recommended. Right side, not recommended.) 熟語に付けるルビの例(左側:望ましい例.右側:望ましくない例)

Choice of Size for Ruby Characters ルビの文字サイズ

The character size of ruby characters is, in principle, the half size of the base characters (see [[[#fig2_3_9]]]).

ルビの文字サイズは,原則として親文字の文字サイズの1/2とする([[[#fig2_3_9]]]).

Examples of ruby with half the size of the base characters. ルビの文字サイズを1/2とした例
Examples of ruby with half the size of the base characters. ルビの文字サイズを1/2とした例

The 'one-third-ruby' characters are used on rare occasions to attach three ruby characters to one full-width ideographic character (cl-19). One-third-ruby for vertical layout has the dimension of the half of the base character in width and the one third in height. Those for horizontal writing mode have the dimension of half of the base characters in height and one third in width (see [[[#fig2_3_10]]]).

全角字幅漢字等(cl-19)にルビ文字を3字付ける場合に使用している三分ルビとよばれるルビもある(使用例は少ない).縦組用の三分ルビは,ルビ文字の左右の幅は親文字の1/2とするが,ルビ文字の天地サイズを親文字の1/3とする.横組用の三分ルビは,ルビ文字の天地サイズは親文字の1/2とするが,ルビ文字の左右の幅は親文字の1/3とする([[[#fig2_3_10]]]).

Examples of one third ruby. 三分ルビの例
Examples of one third ruby. 三分ルビの例

When ruby is attached to twelve point or larger base characters (usually used for headings), the size of the ruby character is generally smaller than half the size of the base characters, considering the proportion of the sizes of base characters and ruby. When all is said and done, these cases are very rare.

また,12ポイント以上の大きな文字サイズの見出しなどにルビを付ける場合(用例は少ない),親文字とルビとのバランスを考慮し,ルビ文字のサイズは一般に親文字の文字サイズの1/2より小さくしている.

Examples of ruby at a size smaller than half the size of the base characters. 親文字の文字サイズの1/2より小さくしたルビの例
Examples of ruby at a size smaller than half the size of the base characters. 親文字の文字サイズの1/2より小さくしたルビの例

Choice of Sides for Ruby with Respect to Base Characters 親文字のどちら側にルビを付けるか

In principle, ruby is attached to the right of base characters in vertical writing mode, and above in horizontal writing mode.

縦組の場合,ルビは親文字の右側,横組の場合,ルビは親文字の上側に付けるのが原則である.

In some special cases, ruby can be seen to the left of base characters in vertical writing mode, and below in horizontal writing mode, but this is very rare.

特別な場合は,縦組でルビは親文字の左側,横組ではルビは親文字の下側に付ける例があるが,そのように付ける例は非常に少ない.

There are cases where two kinds of ruby are attached, one to either side of the base characters, one for readings and the other for meanings (see [[[#fig2_3_12]]]). This is also very rare.

また,漢字等(cl-19)の読みを示すルビと意味を示すルビといったように両側に付ける例([[[#fig2_3_12]]])もあるが,このように付ける例も非常に少ない.

An example of ruby attached to both sides of the base characters. 親文字の両側にルビを付けた例
An example of ruby attached to both sides of the base characters. 親文字の両側にルビを付けた例

In the following sections, the ruby composition methods will be explained on the assumption that the size of ruby is half the size of the base characters, and they will be attached to the right in vertical writing mode and above in horizontal writing mode. First we look at the basic composition rules of mono-ruby, group-ruby and jukugo-ruby, then the rules of positioning of ruby with respect to those characters which come before and after the base characters, and finally the composition rules at the line head and at the line end.

以下では,ルビの文字サイズを親文字の文字サイズの1/2とし,縦組では親文字の右側,横組では親文字の上側にルビを付ける場合に限定し,その配置方法を解説する.最初にモノルビグループルビ及び熟語ルビの親文字とルビ文字の原則的な配置方法を解説し,その後で,前後に配置する文字との関係,さらに行頭行末における配置方法を解説する.

Positioning of Mono-ruby with Respect to Base Characters モノルビの親文字に対する配置位置

When mono-ruby characters are Japanese, they are set solid. If mono-ruby characters have their own character widths such as Western characters or European numerals, they are set according to their own widths and then the ruby text is placed so that its center matches that of its base character. There are more variations depending on the combination of the base character and ruby text and accordingly various composition rules have been invented, which will be explained with examples.

モノルビの場合,モノルビのルビ文字列はベタ組とし,ルビ文字列が欧字やアラビア数字など固有の字幅を持つ文字の場合には,それぞれの文字の固有の字幅に応じて配置する.そのうえで,親文字列とルビ文字列の中央をそろえて配置することが原則である.しかし,親文字とルビの組合せに種々の例があり,様々な工夫もされているので,例を挙げながら解説する.

When attaching two hiragana (cl-15) ruby characters to a single base character, the lengths of the ruby text and the base text are the same and they are positioned as shown in [[[#fig2_3_13]]].

親文字1文字に平仮名(cl-15)のルビ文字が2字付く場合は,親文字の長さとルビ文字の文字列の長さはそろい,[[[#fig2_3_13]]]のようになる.

An example of composition with two ruby characters. ルビ文字が2字の場合の配置例
An example of composition with two ruby characters. ルビ文字が2字の場合の配置例

When attaching a single hiragana (cl-15) ruby character to a single base character, there are two ways of positioning the ruby character.

親文字1文字に付く平仮名(cl-15)のルビ文字が1字の場合は,次の2つの方法がある.

  1. In vertical writing mode, attach a ruby character so that its vertical center matches that of the base character (see [[[#fig2_3_14]]]). In horizontal writing mode, attach a ruby character so that its horizontal center matches that of the base character (see [[[#fig2_3_14]]]). This positioning of a ruby character is called 'nakatsuki' (center-alignment).

    縦組においては親文字の天地中央とルビ文字の天地中央をそろえて配置する([[[#fig2_3_14]]]).横組においては親文字の左右中央とルビ文字の左右中央をそろえて配置する([[[#fig2_3_14]]]).この配置方法は,中付き(中付きルビ)とよばれている.

    Examples of nakatsuki and katatsuki alignment. 中付きと肩付きの例
    Examples of nakatsuki and katatsuki alignment. 中付きと肩付きの例
  2. In vertical writing mode, attach a ruby character so that the top of its virtual body is aligned with the top of that of the base character (see [[[#fig2_3_14]]]). This positioning of a ruby character is called 'katatsuki' (top-alignment). For horizontal writing mode, 'katatsuki' should not be adopted. If a ruby character is attached so that the left-edge of its virtual body is aligned with the left-edge of that of the base character, it would result in the loss of the center of balance, which doesn't look good (see [[[#fig2_3_15]]]).

    縦組においては親文字の上端とルビ文字の上端をそろえて配置する([[[#fig2_3_14]]]).この配置方法は,肩付き(肩付きルビ)とよばれている.なお,横組では,肩付きの配置方法にはしない.横組において親文字の左端とルビ文字の左端をそろえて配置すると,左右のバランスが壊れ,体裁がよくないからである([[[#fig2_3_15]]]).

    Example of katatsuki alignment in horizontal layout (this is intentionally wrong and should not be applied). 横組で肩付きとした例 (このような配置法にはしない)
    Example of katatsuki alignment in horizontal layout (this is intentionally wrong and should not be applied). 横組で肩付きとした例(このような配置法にはしない)

When attaching three or more hiragana (cl-15) ruby characters to a single base character, the ruby characters are set solid. In this case, where the length of a ruby text is longer than that of its base character, positioning of the ruby text depends on which alignment has been adopted for a single ruby character. There is another issue: how to maintain the spatial balance of the ruby characters hanging over those characters which are not related base characters. The adjustment of inter-character spacing for those characters which come before and after the base character will be explained in [[[#adjustments_of_ruby_with_length_longer_than_that_of_the_base_characters]]].

親文字1文字に平仮名(cl-15)ルビ文字が3字以上付く場合は,ルビ文字列はベタ組にする.しかし,親文字列よりルビ文字列が長くなるので,その配置位置が問題となる.ルビ文字が1字の場合にどの方法を採用したかにより異なる.一般に次のようにしている.なお,親文字からルビがはみ出した場合における前後にくる文字との字間処理は[[[#adjustments_of_ruby_with_length_longer_than_that_of_the_base_characters]]]で解説する.

  1. When nakatsuki alignment is adopted for a single ruby character, position a ruby text so that its vertical center is aligned with that of its base character in vertical writing mode (see [[[#fig2_3_16]]]). In horizontal writing mode, position a ruby text so that its horizontal center is aligned with that of its base character (see [[[#fig2_3_16]]]).

    縦組において,ルビ文字が1字の配置方法を中付きとした場合は,親文字の天地中央とルビ文字列全体の天地中央をそろえて配置する([[[#fig2_3_16]]]).横組においては親文字の左右中央とルビ文字列全体の左右中央をそろえて配置する([[[#fig2_3_16]]]).

    Example 1 of positioning of ruby text with three or more  characters. 親文字にルビ文字が3字以上付く場合の配置例1
    Example 1 of positioning of ruby text with three or more characters. 親文字にルビ文字が3字以上付く場合の配置例1
  2. When katatsuki alignment is adopted for a single ruby character, there are two methods, as follows.

    縦組においてルビ文字が1字の配置方法を肩付きとした場合は,次の2つの方法がある.

    1. Position the ruby text so that its vertical center is aligned with that of its base character (see [[[#fig2_3_16]]]).

      親文字の天地中央とルビ文字列全体の天地中央をそろえて配置する([[[#fig2_3_16]]]).

    2. Depending on the type of script of the adjacent characters to the base character, and the number of ruby characters, a decision is made about whether ruby hangover is allowed on the character before its base character, or on the character after, or on both adjacent characters. At break-even situation, the hangover is usually on the character after its base character (see [[[#fig2_3_17]]]).

      親文字の前後に配置する文字の種類及びルビ文字の字数により親文字からのルビのはみ出しが後ろになるか,前になるか,又は両側になるかを決めるが,下側へのはみ出しを優先する([[[#fig2_3_17]]]).

Example 2 of positioning of ruby text with three or more characters (vertical writing mode). 親文字にルビ文字が3字以上付く場合の配置例2 (縦組)
Example 2 of positioning of ruby text with three or more characters (vertical writing mode). 親文字にルビ文字が3字以上付く場合の配置例2(縦組)

For mono-ruby, base characters and attached ruby characters are handled as one object, and internal line-breaks are prohibited.

モノルビの場合,親文字とそれに付くルビ文字の文字列は,一体として扱い,2行に分割してはならない.

Positioning of Group-ruby with Respect to Base Characters グループルビの親文字に対する配置位置

When the length of a sequence of base characters (number of characters * advance-width of each character) and that of the ruby text are the same, each text is set solid and the center of both texts are aligned with each other (see [[[#fig2_3_18]]]).

親文字の文字列の長さとルビ文字の文字列の長さが同じ場合は,それぞれの文字列をベタ組にし,文字列の中心をそろえて配置する([[[#fig2_3_18]]]).

Examples of group-ruby where the length is the same as that of the base text. 親文字と同じ長さの場合のグループルビの配置例
Examples of group-ruby where the length is the same as that of the base text. 親文字と同じ長さの場合のグループルビの配置例

When the length of the ruby text is shorter than that of its base characters, set the base text solid and attached ruby character, so that both texts balance each other. To be more specific, where 2 units of inter-character spacing are used between ruby characters, add 1 unit of spacing between the start of the base text and the start of the ruby text, and between the end of the ruby text and the end of the base text. This will give a balanced appearance, and is the method specified in JIS X 4051 (see [[[#fig2_3_19]]]). Another way is to first align the leading characters for both the base text and ruby text and the ends of both trailing characters, and then add the same amount of inter-character spacing between the rest of the ruby characters (see [[[#fig2_3_20]]]).

親文字の文字列の長さよりルビ文字の文字列の長さが短い場合は,親文字の文字列をベタ組にし,ルビ文字の文字列の字間及びその前後を適当に空け,親文字とのバランスをとる.この場合,JIS X 4051で規定しているように,ルビ文字の文字列の字間の空き量の大きさ2に対して,先頭までの空き量及び親文字の文字列の末尾からルビ文字の文字列の末尾までの空き量を1の比率で空けると体裁がよい([[[#fig2_3_19]]]).親文字の文字列及びルビ文字の文字列の先頭及び末尾をそろえ,ルビ文字の文字列の字間だけを空ける方法もある([[[#fig2_3_20]]]).

Example 1 of distribution of group-ruby alongside base characters where the length of the ruby is shorter than that of the base characters. 親文字よりルビが短い場合のグループルビの配置例1
Example 1 of distribution of group-ruby alongside base characters where the length of the ruby is shorter than that of the base characters. 親文字よりルビが短い場合のグループルビの配置例1
Example 2 of distribution of group-ruby alongside base characters where the length of the ruby is shorter than that of the base characters. 親文字よりルビが短い場合のグループルビの配置例2
Example 2 of distribution of group-ruby alongside base characters where the length of the ruby is shorter than that of the base characters. 親文字よりルビが短い場合のグループルビの配置例2
Examples of distribution of group-ruby where the length is much shorter than that of the base text. 親文字に比べルビが極端に短い場合のグループルビの配置例
Examples of distribution of group-ruby where the length is much shorter than that of the base text. 親文字に比べルビが極端に短い場合のグループルビの配置例

When the length of the ruby text is longer than that of the base characters, balance the base characters with the ruby text by setting the ruby text solid and adding a certain amount of inter-character spacing between each adjacent base character. To be more specific, for 2 units of inter-character spacing, add 1 unit of spacing between the start of the ruby text and the start of the base text, and between the end of the base text and the end of the ruby text, as specified in JIS X 4051 (see [[[#fig2_3_22]]]). Another way is to first align the start of both the leading characters and the end of the trailing characters, and then add a certain amount of inter-character spacing between each adjacent base character (see [[[#fig2_3_23]]]).

親文字の文字列の長さよりルビ文字の文字列の長さが長い場合は,ルビ文字の文字列をベタ組とし,親文字の文字列の字間及びその前後を適当に空け,ルビ文字とのバランスをとる.この場合,JIS X 4051で規定しているように,親文字の文字列の字間の空き量の大きさ2に対して,ルビ文字の文字列の先頭から親文字の文字列の先頭までの空き量及びルビ文字の文字列の末尾から親文字の文字列の末尾までの空き量の大きさを1の比率で空けると体裁がよい([[[#fig2_3_22]]]).親文字の文字列とルビ文字の文字列の先頭及び末尾をそろえ,親文字の文字列の字間だけを空ける方法もある([[[#fig2_3_23]]]).

Example 1 of distribution of group-ruby where the length is longer than that of the base characters. 親文字よりルビが長い場合のグループルビの配置例1
Example 1 of distribution of group-ruby where the length is longer than that of the base characters. 親文字よりルビが長い場合のグループルビの配置例1
Example 2 of distribution of group-ruby where the length is longer than that of the base characters. 親文字よりルビが長い場合のグループルビの配置例2
Example 2 of distribution of group-ruby where the length is longer than that of the base characters. 親文字よりルビが長い場合のグループルビの配置例2

For group-ruby, base characters and attached ruby characters are handled as one object, and internal line-breaks are prohibited. Also, for an object constructed with base characters and attached ruby characters it is prohibited to insert additional spacing between each character for line adjustment.

グループルビの場合,親文字の文字列とそれに付くルビ文字の文字列は,一体として扱い,2行に分割してはならない.また,親文字の文字列とそれに付くルビ文字の文字列を合わせた親文字群は,行の調整処理の際に字間を空ける処理をしてはならない.

Positioning of Jukugo-ruby with Respect to Base Characters 熟語ルビの親文字に対する配置位置

If the number of ruby characters are two or less for each ideographic characters (cl-19) which participates in a kanji compound word (or jukugo), then for each run of ruby text associated with each base character, compose ruby characters as described in [[[#positioning_of_monoruby_with_respect_to_base_characters]]] (see [[[#fig2_3_24]]]).

熟語を構成するそれぞれの漢字等(cl-19)に付くルビ文字がそれぞれ2文字以下の場合,それぞれの親文字の漢字等(cl-19)とルビ文字を対応させ,[[[#positioning_of_monoruby_with_respect_to_base_characters]]]で述べた方法で配置する([[[#fig2_3_24]]]).

Example 1 of distribution of jukugo-ruby. 熟語ルビの配置例1
Example 1 of distribution of jukugo-ruby. 熟語ルビの配置例1

If there is any ideographic character (cl-19) in a given kanji compound word which needs three or more ruby characters, the jukugo-ruby layout cannot be used. In this case, attach the ruby text to the kanji compound word as a whole. The available methods include the layout as specified in JIS X 4051, which is similar to the group-ruby method described in [[[#positioning_of_groupruby_with_respect_to_base_characters]]] (see [[[#fig2_3_25]]]), and layout decided by the phonetic structure of the kanji compound word and the type of script of the adjacent characters (see [[[#fig2_3_26]]]). The latter method can be used unless a run of ruby text for the base character hangs over another base character more than a full character width (or one and a half times the full-width) of a ruby character. (The detail of this method is described in [[[#positioning_of_jukugoruby]]].)

熟語を構成するそれぞれの漢字等(cl-19)の中で,1字でもそれに対応するルビ文字が3字以上のものがある場合,熟語全体とルビ文字の文字列を対応させて配置する.熟語全体とルビ文字の文字列を対応させる方法としては,JIS X 4051で規定しているように[[[#positioning_of_groupruby_with_respect_to_base_characters]]]項のグループルビと同様な方法で配置する方法([[[#fig2_3_25]]])と,熟語の構成,さらにその熟語の前後にくる文字の種類を考慮して配置する方法とがある([[[#fig2_3_26]]]).後者の方法では,熟語を構成するそれぞれの漢字等(cl-19)に対応するルビ文字が,熟語内の他の漢字等(cl-19)に最大でルビ文字サイズで全角(又は1.5倍)まで掛かってよい,としている(この処理方法の詳細は,[[[#positioning_of_jukugoruby]]]で解説する).

Example 2 distribution of jukugo-ruby. 熟語ルビの配置例2
Example 2 distribution of jukugo-ruby. 熟語ルビの配置例2
Example 3 distribution of jukugo-ruby. 熟語ルビの配置例3
Example 3 distribution of jukugo-ruby. 熟語ルビの配置例3
Example of distribution as mono-ruby for jukugo. 熟語に付くルビをモノルビとして配置した例
Example of distribution as mono-ruby for jukugo. 熟語に付くルビをモノルビとして配置した例

Jukugo-ruby can be split into two lines at the boundary of each unit of ruby text attached to one ideographic character (cl-19). When a kanji compound word consists of two characters, each unit will be processed using the mono-ruby method. When dividing a compound word that consists of three ideographic characters (cl-19), use the mono-ruby method for the first ideographic character (cl-19) and use the jukugo-ruby method for the remaining two ideographic characters (cl-19), and vice versa. In order to maintain the correspondence of each ideographic character (cl-19) to its ruby annotation, the layout of the ruby may be different after the division (see [[[#fig2_3_28]]]). Note that jukugo-ruby and its base characters cannot be the subject of inter-character spacing expansion for line adjustment.

熟語ルビは,それぞれの漢字等(cl-19)とそれに対応するルビ文字を単位として2行に分割してもよい.漢字等(cl-19)が2字の熟語を分割する場合は,それぞれがモノルビとして処理されることになる.漢字等(cl-19)が3字の熟語ルビを分割する場合は,漢字等(cl-19)が1字のモノルビと漢字等(cl-19)が2字の熟語ルビ,又は漢字等(cl-19)が2字の熟語ルビと漢字等(cl-19)が1字のモノルビになる.それぞれの漢字等(cl-19)とそれに対応するルビ文字との関係を維持するので,分割以前と以後とでは,漢字等(cl-19)とルビ文字との対応が変わる場合もある([[[#fig2_3_28]]]).ただし,熟語を構成する漢字等(cl-19)熟語ルビを付けた場合には,ルビ付きの親文字の字間は,行の調整処理で字間を空ける処理の対象としない.

Examples of distribution of jukugo-ruby split across two lines. 熟語ルビを2行に分割して配置した例
Examples of distribution of jukugo-ruby split across two lines. 熟語ルビを2行に分割して配置した例

Adjustments of Ruby with Length Longer than that of the Base Characters ルビが親文字よりはみ出した場合の処理

When the length of any ruby text is shorter than that of the base characters, the main text can be just set solid because there is no need for any adjustment of the inter-character spacing between base characters and their adjacent characters in the main text.

ルビ文字の文字列が親文字の文字列より短い場合は,親文字の前後に配置する他の漢字等(cl-19)平仮名(cl-15)とルビの付く親文字との字間をベタ組にして配置すればよい([[[#fig2_3_29]]]).

Set solid when the length of ruby text is shorter than that of base characters. ルビ文字の文字列が親文字の文字列より短い場合は前後の文字との間はベタ組
Set solid when the length of ruby text is shorter than that of base characters. ルビ文字の文字列が親文字の文字列より短い場合は前後の文字との間はベタ組

When the length of the ruby text is longer than that of the base characters, the method of composing the main text depends on how much the ruby text hangs over the ideographic character (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) or punctuation marks, which are attached to the base characters. The following are the general rules (see [[[#fig2_3_30]]] and [[[#fig2_3_31]]]). They were established especially in order to avoid misreading the base text, as well as to maintain the beauty of the layout. Note that the detailed values for inter-character spacing for cases of ruby characters hanging over the base characters is described in [[[#spacing_between_characters]]] as Table 1 in accordance with [[[#about_character_classes]]].

ルビ文字の文字列が親文字の文字列より長い場合は,親文字の前後に配置する他の漢字等(cl-19)平仮名(cl-15)約物などにどこまで親文字よりはみ出したルビ文字が掛かってよいかが問題となる.一般に次のように処理している([[[#fig2_3_30]]],[[[#fig2_3_31]]]).これはもっぱら誤読を避けること,及び体裁を考慮しての処理である.なお,ルビ文字の文字列が親文字の文字列よりはみ出した場合についての詳細は,[[[#about_character_classes]]]で説明する文字クラスに従い,表の形式にして附属書 B 文字間の空き量で示す.

Example 1 of distribution of ruby characters overhanging adjacent characters. ルビ文字のはみ出しがある場合の配置例1
Example 1 of distribution of ruby characters overhanging adjacent characters. ルビ文字のはみ出しがある場合の配置例1
Example 2 of distribution of ruby characters overhanging adjacent characters. ルビ文字のはみ出しがある場合の配置例2
Example 2 of distribution of ruby characters overhanging adjacent characters. ルビ文字のはみ出しがある場合の配置例2
  1. Ruby text shall not hang over the ideographic characters (cl-19) adjacent to the base characters.

    前又は後ろにくる漢字等(cl-19)ルビ文字を掛けてはならない

  2. When the adjacent character is a hiragana (cl-15), katakana (cl-16), prolonged sound mark (cl-10) or small kana (cl-11), the ruby text may overhang the character up to the full-width size of the ruby characters.

    前又は後ろにくる平仮名(cl-15)片仮名(cl-16)長音記号(cl-10)又は小書きの仮名(cl-11)に最大でルビ文字サイズの全角までルビ文字を掛けてもよい

    An example of not recommended case that two different group of ruby characters are consecutive without space ルビ文字のはみ出しがつながってしまう望ましくない例
    An example of not recommended case that two different group of ruby characters are consecutive without added spacing ルビ文字のはみ出しがつながってしまう望ましくない例
    An example of  two different group of ruby characters are consecutive with space ルビ文字のはみ出しがつながらないようにした例
    An example of two different group of ruby characters are consecutive with added spacing ルビ文字のはみ出しがつながらないようにした例
  3. The ruby character may overhang the base characters and overhang the half em spacing which is added after closing brackets (cl-02), full stops (cl-06) or commas (cl-07), set before the target ruby object, up to the full-width size of a ruby character. Also, the ruby character may overhang the base characters and hang over the half em spacing which is added before opening brackets (cl-01), set after the target ruby object, up to the full-width size of a ruby character. Note that when the half em spacing is reduced for line adjustment, the room for ruby character overhang is also compressed to the reduced spacing. (For example, if the spacing is a quarter em in the base character size, the ruby character can overhang by a half em in ruby character size.)

    前にくる終わり括弧類(cl-02)句点類(cl-06)若しくは読点類(cl-07)の後ろにある二分アキ,又は後ろにくる始め括弧類(cl-01)の前にある二分アキには,最大でルビ文字サイズで全角までルビ文字を掛けてもよい.ただし,行の調整処理で二分アキが詰められている場合は,調整で詰められた空き量までとする(例えば,四分アキとなっていれば,最大でルビ文字サイズの二分までルビ文字を掛けてもよい).

  4. When the adjacent character is an inseparable character (cl-08), the ruby text may overhang the character up to the full-width size of a ruby character.

    分離禁止文字(cl-08)にも,最大でルビ文字サイズの全角までルビ文字を掛けてもよい.

  5. When the adjacent character is one of the middle dots (cl-05), the ruby text may overhang the middle dots, in principle, up to the full-width size of a ruby character. But if there is any reduction of spacing before and after the middle dots as a result of the line adjustment, the amount of the extension shall be up to the amount of spacing after the middle dots plus 1/2 a ruby character size when the middle dots are set before the ruby object, or the spacing before the middle dots plus 1/2 a ruby character size when the middle dots are set after the ruby object.

    中点類(cl-05)にも最大でルビ文字サイズの全角までルビ文字を掛けてもよい.ただし,中点類の前後の四分アキが行の調整処理で詰められている場合は,前にくる中点類の場合は中点類の後ろの空き量+ルビ文字サイズの二分まで,後ろにくる中点類の場合は中点類の前の空き量+ルビ文字サイズの二分までである.

  6. When the adjacent character is one of the closing brackets (cl-02), full stop (cl-06) or comma (cl-07) after the ruby object, or one of the opening brackets (cl-01) before the ruby object, the ruby text may overhang the adjacent base character up to the full-width size of a ruby character. Note that the overhang must not go beyond the closing brackets (cl-02), the full stop (cl-06), the comma (cl-07) or the opening brackets (cl-01) itself.

    後ろにくる終わり括弧類(cl-02)句点類(cl-06)若しくは読点類(cl-07),又は前にくる始め括弧類(cl-01)には,最大でルビ文字サイズの全角までルビ文字を掛けてもよい.この場合,後ろにくる終わり括弧類(cl-02)句点類(cl-06)若しくは読点類(cl-07)の後ろの空き量,又は前にくる始め括弧類(cl-01)の前の空き量に掛けてはならない.

Example 3 of distribution of ruby characters overhanging adjacent characters. ルビ文字のはみ出しがある場合の配置例3
Example 3 of distribution of ruby characters overhanging adjacent characters. ルビ文字のはみ出しがある場合の配置例3
Example 4 of distribution of ruby characters overhanging adjacent characters. ルビ文字のはみ出しがある場合の配置例4
Example 4 of distribution of ruby characters overhanging adjacent characters. ルビ文字のはみ出しがある場合の配置例4

When the line head starts with ruby annotated text where the ruby text length is shorter than that of the base characters, compose the text so that the first base character is aligned with the line head. Similarly, when ruby annotated text ends at the line end and the ruby length is shorter than that of the basic characters, compose the text so that the last basic character is aligned with the line end.

行頭又は行末にルビが付いた親文字を配置する場合,ルビ文字の文字列が親文字の文字列より短いときは,親文字の先頭又は末尾を行頭又は行末にそろえて配置すればよい.

When the line head starts with ruby annotated text where the ruby text length is longer than that of the base characters, compose the text so that the first ruby character which overhangs the base text is aligned with the line head, and vice versa (see [[[#fig2_3_34]]]). Alternatively, there is a variation by which the text is composed so that the first base character is aligned with the line head, and vice versa (see [[[#fig2_3_35]]]).

行頭又は行末にルビが付いた親文字を配置する場合,ルビ文字の文字列が親文字の文字列より長いときは,親文字よりはみ出したルビ文字の文字列の先頭又は末尾を行頭又は行末にそろえて配置する([[[#fig2_3_34]]]).また,親文字の先頭又は末尾を行頭又は行末にそろえて配置する方法もある([[[#fig2_3_35]]]).

Example 1 of positioning of ruby characters at the line head and at the line end. ルビ文字の行頭・行末の配置例1
Example 1 of positioning of ruby characters at the line head and at the line end. ルビ文字の行頭・行末の配置例1
Example 2 of positioning of ruby characters at the line head and at the line end. ルビ文字の行頭・行末の配置例2
Example 2 of positioning of ruby characters at the line head and at the line end. ルビ文字の行頭・行末の配置例2

When aligning the first base character to the line head and the last base character to the line end, ruby text is not allowed to extend beyond the hanmen or the area of the column. If it does, the following adjustments should be considered in positioning base characters and ruby characters.

親文字の先頭又は末尾を行頭又は行末にそろえて配置する方法では,行頭又は行末では,ルビ文字が版面又はの領域よりはみ出すことは認められていないので,親文字とルビ文字の配置方法を変更する必要がある.次のようにする.

  1. Mono-ruby at the line head: Make adjustments so that the top of the ruby text is aligned with that of the base characters (see [[[#fig2_3_35]]]).

    モノルビの行頭:ルビ文字の文字列の先頭と親文字の文字列の先頭をそろえる形に変更する([[[#fig2_3_35]]]).

  2. Mono-ruby at the line end: Make adjustments so that the bottom of the ruby text is aligned with that of the last base character (see [[[#fig2_3_35]]]).

    モノルビの行末:ルビ文字の文字列の末尾と親文字の文字列の末尾をそろえる形に変更する([[[#fig2_3_35]]]).

  3. Group-ruby at the line head: Make adjustments so that the top of the ruby text is aligned with that of the first base character, and add the same amount of inter-character spacing between the base characters and between the end of the last base character and the end of the last ruby character after the last base character (the method specified in JIS X 4051) (see [[[#fig2_3_36]]]).

    グループルビ行頭ルビ文字の文字列の先頭と親文字の文字列の先頭をそろえ,親文の文字列の字間の空き量と,親文字の文字列の末尾からルビ文字の文字列の末尾までの空き量とを1対1の比率に変更する(JIS X 4051で規定している方法,[[[#fig2_3_36]]]).

    Example 3 of positioning of ruby characters at the line head and at the line end. ルビ文字の行頭・行末の配置例3
    Example 3 of positioning of ruby characters at the line head and at the line end. ルビ文字の行頭・行末の配置例3
  4. Group-ruby at the line end: Make adjustments so that the end of the ruby text is aligned with that of the last base character and add the same amount of inter-character spacing between the base characters and the spacing between the start of the base text and the start of the ruby text (the method specified in JIS X 4051) (see [[[#fig2_3_36]]]).

    グループルビ行末ルビ文字の文字列の末尾と親文字の文字列の末尾をそろえ,親文字の文字列の字間の空き量と,親文字の文字列の先頭からルビ文字の文字列の先頭までの空き量とを1対1の比率に変更する(JIS X 4051で規定している方法,[[[#fig2_3_36]]]).

  5. Jukugo-ruby at the line head or at the line end: Make the same adjustments as described in (c) or (d) for the group-ruby.

    グループルビと同様に処理した熟語ルビが行頭又は行末にきた場合:c又はdと同じ処理になる.

  6. Jukugo-ruby at the line head: Make adjustments so that the top of the ruby text is aligned with that of the first base character. A run of ruby characters for a base character may overhang the adjacent base characters of the same kanji compound word, up to the full-width size (or one and a half of it) of a ruby character. If the extension should go beyond the limit, just force the ruby text out of the base characters, or make a further adjustment by adding inter-character spacing between the base characters.

    熟語の構成などを考慮して配置する熟語ルビが行頭にきた場合:ルビ文字の文字列の先頭と親文字の文字列の先頭を行頭にそろえて配置する.この場合,熟語を構成するそれぞれの漢字等(cl-19)に付くルビ文字が熟語内の他の漢字等(cl-19)に最大でルビ文字サイズで全角(又は1.5倍)まで掛かってよい.それ以上掛かる場合は,親文字の文字列からルビ文字の文字列をはみ出させるか,親文字の字間を空ける.

  7. Jukugo-ruby at the line end: Make adjustments so that the end of the ruby text is aligned with that of the last base character. A run of ruby characters for a base character may overhang the adjacent base characters of the same kanji compound word, up to the full-width size (or one and a half of it) of the ruby characters. If the extension should go beyond the limit, just force the ruby text out of the base characters, or make a further adjustment by adding inter-character spacing between the base characters.

    熟語の構成などを考慮して配置する熟語ルビが行末にきた場合:ルビ文字の文字列の末尾と親文字の文字列の末尾を行末にそろえて配置する.この場合,熟語を構成するそれぞれの漢字等(cl-19)に付くルビ文字が熟語内の他の漢字等(cl-19)に最大でルビ文字サイズで全角(又は1.5倍)まで掛かってよい.それ以上掛かる場合は,親文字の文字列からルビ文字の文字列をはみ出させるか,親文字の字間を空ける.

  8. Jukugo-ruby split across two lines: jukugo-ruby can be split across two lines, with one part at the line end and the other at the line head. In the case of a compound word with two ideographic characters (cl-19), it is as the same as dealing with one ideographic character (cl-19) with a mono-ruby text at the line end and the other ideographic characters (cl-19) with another mono-ruby text at the next line head. In the case of a phrase with three ideographic characters (cl-19), handle one ideographic character (cl-19) with mono-ruby text and the remaining two ideographic characters (cl-19) with jukugo-ruby, and vice versa. The layout of one ideographic character (cl-19) with mono-ruby text will be composed by method (a) or (b) described above. The layout of two ideographic characters (cl-19) with jukugo-ruby text will be composed by method (f) or (g) above.

    熟語ルビを親文字単位で2行に分割した場合:熟語ルビは,2行に分割され,行末及び行頭に分かれることがある.漢字等(cl-19)が2字の熟語の場合は,行末に漢字等(cl-19)が1字のモノルビ,次の行頭に漢字等(cl-19)が1字のモノルビという形になる.漢字等(cl-19)が3字の場合は,漢字等(cl-19)が1字のモノルビと漢字等(cl-19)が2字の熟語ルビ又は漢字等(cl-19)が2字の熟語ルビと漢字等(cl-19)が1字のモノルビとなる.漢字等(cl-19)が1字のモノルビの形になった場合は,a項又はb項で処理することになる.漢字等(cl-19)が2字以上の熟語ルビとなった場合は,e項,f項又はg項で処理することになる.

Composition of Emphasis Dots 圏点の処理

Emphasis dots (also known as bouten or side dots) are symbols placed alongside a run of ideographic character (cl-19) or hiragana (cl-15) characters to emphasize the text.

圏点(傍点ともいう)は,漢字等(cl-19)平仮名(cl-15)などの文字列に付け,その文字列を強調する役割を果たす.

Composition of emphasis dots is as follows (see [[[#fig2_3_37]]]).

圏点の組版処理は,次のようにする([[[#fig2_3_37]]]).

Composition of emphasis dots. 圏点の配置例
Composition of emphasis dots. 圏点の配置例
  1. The character size of emphasis dots is the half size of the base characters to be emphasized.

    圏点の文字サイズは,圏点を付ける対象となる親文字の文字サイズの1/2とする.

  2. Emphasis dots are attached to the right of the base characters in vertical writing mode, or above them in horizontal writing mode. The center of emphasis dots is aligned with that of the base characters.

    圏点の位置は,縦組では親文字の右側とし,横組では親文字の上側とし,親文字に接し,それぞれの中心をそろえて配置する.

  3. There are many symbols that could be specified for use as emphasis dots. SESAME DOT "﹅" in vertical writing mode and BULLET "•" in horizontal writing mode are those used for emphasis dots in general.

    圏点にどのような記号を付けるかは指定によるが,一般に縦組ではゴマ[] (SESAME DOT)横組ではビュレット[] (BULLET)が使用されている.

Inline Cutting Note (Warichu) 割注処理

Where the Inline Cutting Note (Warichu) is used 割注の利用

Warichu (inline cutting note) is a type of inline notation, where two lines of small characters are inserted into the text. Warichu divides a line into two sub lines. The frequency of use of the inline cutting note is not so high. However, the inline cutting note is very important for study guides, travel guides, reference books, encyclopedias and manuals, because it is very effective for inserting notes at the point in the text where they are needed (see [[[#fig2_4_1]]]). Inline cutting note is usually used in vertical writing mode. It is very infrequently used in horizontal writing mode.

割注とは,行の途中に挿入する挿入注)の一種で,2行に割って(割り書きという)挿入することから,その名前が付けられている.割注の使用頻度は多くないが,その該当用語が出てきた箇所に直接補足説明できることから,学習参考書,旅行ガイド,事典類,解説書などで利用されており,人物・用語等の簡単な紹介に重要な役割を果たしている([[[#fig2_4_1]]]).縦組での利用が多く,横組での例は非常に少ない.

Warichu (inline cutting note). 割注の例
Warichu (inline cutting note). 割注の例

Character Size for Inline Cutting Notes and Line Gaps 割注の文字サイズと行間など

Character size for an inline cutting note depends on the character size established for the kihon-hanmen. Usually, around six point size is used (see [[[#fig2_4_1]]]).

割注の文字サイズは,指定によるが,一般に6ポイント程度の文字が使用されている([[[#fig2_4_1]]]).

The space between adjacent lines in an inline cutting note is zero, that is to say, there is no line gap between them (see [[[#fig2_4_2]]]).

割注そのものの行間は,一般に0である.つまり,行間をとらない([[[#fig2_4_2]]]).

As shown in [[[#fig2_4_2]]], an inline cutting note usually has two lines, and is surrounded by LEFT PARENTHESIS "(" and RIGHT PARENTHESIS ")" characters that are double the size of the characters in the inline cutting note itself. There is no space between the surrounding text and parentheses for the inline cutting note.

割注は,[[[#fig2_4_2]]]のように,通常,2行に割り書きし,割注全体の先頭及び末尾に,行送り方向の割注の幅と同じ文字サイズの始め小括弧[(] (LEFT PARENTHESIS)及び終わり小括弧[)] (RIGHT PARENTHESIS)でくくる形式が多い.したがって,割注を囲む括弧類(以下,割注始め括弧類(cl-28)及び割注終わり括弧類(cl-29)とよぶ)のサイズは,割注の文字サイズの2倍にする.なお,割注始め括弧類の前,及び割注終わり括弧類の後ろの漢字等,平仮名,片仮名との字間ベタ組とする.

Example of construction of an inline cutting note. 割注の指定例
Example of construction of an inline cutting note. 割注の指定例

Symbols, like opening brackets (cl-01), closing brackets (cl-02), commas (cl-07) and full stops (cl-06) are also used in inline cutting note text. In such cases, the handling of such symbols is the same as for the main text.

割注の中には始め括弧類(cl-01)終わり括弧類(cl-02)句点類(cl-06)読点類(cl-07)も使用される.これらの組版処理は,本文と同じである.

In vertical text, the horizontal width of the inline cutting note area is wider than the width of a kihon-hanmen line. The horizontal centers of the kihon-hanmen line and inline cutting note area are aligned. The line gap used to establish the kihon-hanmen should not be affected by the horizontal width of the inline cutting note area. In other words, the line gap for the kihon-hanmen needs to be designed wider than usual in preparation for the use of the inline cutting note. (see [[[#fig_ad1_18]]] and [[[#fig2_4_1]]]) Warichu is used also in horizontal text, however it is not so common, and usually occurs only in study guides and encyclopedias.

割注は,本文の1行の行送り方向の幅の中心と,割注の行送り方向の幅の中心をそろえて配置する.割注の2行の行送り方向の幅は,本文の行の幅より大きくなるが,はみ出しは両方に均等に出すことになる.この場合の行間は,割注のない部分の行間を基本版面として設定した行間とし,割注の部分は狭くなる([[[#fig_ad1_18]]]及び[[[#fig2_4_1]]]).したがって,基本版面を設定する際に,これを考慮し,行間を広めに設計する必要がある.割注は,横組に用いられる場合もあるが,その例はほとんど学習参考書や百科事典に限られる.

The length of the two lines of the inline cutting note should be as near as possible the same. When the inline cutting note can be set in one kihon-hanmen line, the whole inline note text should be broken at a position where line breaking is permitted, and where the two resulting lines are as close as possible to the same length. The length of the second line should not be longer than the length of the first line. Note that the same line breaking rules are used as for basic text (see [[[#fig2_4_3]]]).

割注の2行の行長は,できるだけそろえる.本文の1行の中に割注がすべて配置できる場合は,2行に分割可能な箇所で,かつ割注全体の文字列の半分に最も近い位置で分割する(この場合の2行に分割するルール(分割可能箇所)も本文と同じである).ただし,割注の2行目の行長を1行目の行長より長くしない([[[#fig2_4_3]]]).

Examples showing how the inline cutting note can be set in one line of base text. 1行の中に割注がすべて配置できる場合の例
Examples showing how the inline cutting note can be set in one line of base text. 1行の中に割注がすべて配置できる場合の例

Handling an Inline Cutting Note when it Straddles Two Kihon-hanmen Lines 割注を本文の2行以上にわたって配置する処理

When an inline cutting note will not fit on a single kihon-hanmen line, it will wrap onto the following line, and will be set as shown in [[[#fig2_4_4]]] or [[[#fig2_4_5]]].

割注の挿入位置や分量によっては,本文の1行の中に割注がすべて配置できなく,割注を本文の2行又は3行以上にわたって配置する場合がある.この場合の文字列の配置順序及びそれぞれの割注の行長は,[[[#fig2_4_4]]]又は[[[#fig2_4_5]]]のようにする.

Example of an inline cutting note straddling two base text lines. 2行にわたって割注を配置する例
Example of an inline cutting note straddling two base text lines. 2行にわたって割注を配置する例
Example of an inline cutting note straddling three base text lines. 3行にわたって割注を配置する例
Example of an inline cutting note straddling three base text lines. 3行にわたって割注を配置する例

Paragraph Adjustment Rules 段落整形,そろえ及び段落末尾処理

Line Head Indent at the Beginning of Paragraphs 段落先頭行の字下げ

A paragraph, a section of a document which consists of one or more sentences to indicate a distinct idea, usually begins on a new line. For the related line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs (in JIS 4051, this is called the "paragraph line head indent") the following methods are available. The amount of spacing used for the indentation is, in principle, one em spacing using the character size in the paragraph.

ある意味のまとまりを持った複数の文で構成されている段落(意味上の段落)を示す場合に,通常,新しい段落で改行にしている.この際,段落先頭行の字下げ(JIS X 4051では“段落字下げ”という用語を使用している)については,次のような方法がある.なお,字下げする場合は,その段落で使用している文字サイズ全角アキが原則である.

  1. Line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs is applied to all paragraphs. Nearly all books and magazines make use of this method (see [[[#fig2_5_1]]]).

    すべての段落の先頭行の字下げを行う.ほとんどの書籍・雑誌は,この方法を採用している([[[#fig2_5_1]]]).

    Example of line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs. 段落の先頭行の字下げを行った例
    Example of line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs. 段落の先頭行の字下げを行った例
    Layout example 1 of a line immediately following a written conversation. 会話の直後の行の配置例1
    Layout example 1 of a line immediately following a written conversation. 会話の直後の行の配置例1
    Layout example 2 of a line immediately following a written conversation. 会話の直後の行の配置例2
    Layout example 2 of a line immediately following a written conversation. 会話の直後の行の配置例2
  2. Line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs is not applied for any paragraph at all, and the tentsuki position is used (see [[[#fig2_5_4]]]). There are examples of this method being used in certain books and magazines for the sake of styling, but this is rather hard to read.

    すべての段落の先頭行の字下げを行わないで,天付きとする([[[#fig2_5_4]]]).横組などの一部の書籍・雑誌で体裁を優先して採用している例があるが,あまり読みやすいとはいえない.

    Example of no line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs. 段落の先頭行の字下げを行わない例
    Example of no line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs. 段落の先頭行の字下げを行わない例
  3. In principle, line head indent is applied at the beginning of a paragraph. However, a paragraph immediately following a tentsuki-set heading is also set tentsuki, so that the beginning of the heading and the paragraph are aligned (see [[[#fig2_5_5]]]). In some books and magazines this method is applied to text in horizontal writing mode.

    段落の先頭行の字下げは原則として行うが,見出しの直後の段落に限り字下げを行わないで,天付きとする([[[#fig2_5_5]]]).字下げを行わない見出しと体裁をそろえるということもあり,横組の一部の書籍・雑誌などでこの方法が採用されている.

    Example of no line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs immediately following headings. 見出しの直後の段落に限り字下げを行わない例
    Example of no line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs immediately following headings. 見出しの直後の段落に限り字下げを行わない例

On the other hand, for example with itemization, there is also the method that indents the second and following lines of the paragraph (see [[[#fig2_5_6]]]). This is the so-called "questions and answer" (Q&A) form. It has the effect that numbers (if used) stand out.

なお,箇条書きなどでは,逆に,段落の2行目以下の行頭を字下げするという方法も行われている([[[#fig2_5_6]]]).“問答形式(Q&A)”などとよばれる処理方法である.番号が付く場合など,この番号が目立つという効果がある.

Layout example for itemization. 箇条書きの配置例
Layout example for itemization. 箇条書きの配置例

Line Head Indent and Line End Indent 字下げと字上げ

The line head indent is the indentation of the line head by a fixed amount, starting from the line head side of the hanmen (in the case of one column) or of the column area (in the case of several columns). In contrast, the indentation of the line end position by a fixed amount, starting from the line head, is called line end indent.

字下げは,版面(1段組の場合)又はの領域(多段組の場合)の行頭側の端から指定された量だけ行頭位置を下げる処理である.逆に行末側の端から指定された量だけ行末位置を上げる処理が字上げである.

There are examples of line head indent for quotations in separate lines (see [[[#fig2_5_7]]]) or for headings in separate lines. Line end indent is used, for example, for headings or for quotations in separate lines.

字下げは,引用文を別行にして示す場合([[[#fig2_5_7]]])や,別行の見出しで行う例がある.字上げは,別行の見出しなどで行う場合や引用文に例がある.

Example of line head indent for a quotation in a separate line. 別行の引用文を字下げした例
Example of line head indent for a quotation in a separate line. 別行の引用文を字下げした例

Single Line Alignment Processing そろえの処理

The Japanese "single line alignment method" is a process for setting alignment for a run of text that is shorter than a given line length. This method is frequently used for headings and poems. The following methods are available (see [[[#fig2_5_8]]]).

日本語組版でいう“そろえ”とは,1行の文字列について,指定した位置に文字の配置位置を合わせることである.見出しや詩などの比較的短い行をある一定の長さと位置に調整することである.次のような方法がある([[[#fig2_5_8]]]).指定された行長以下の文字列を処理する方法なので,見出しや,複数行からなるが短い文章で構成される“詩”などで,指定の位置にそろえる場合に利用されている.

Single line alignment processing. そろえの配置例
Single line alignment processing. そろえの配置例
  1. Centering: The spacing between adjacent characters is, in principle, set solid. (If spacing is needed between Japanese text and western text, before opening brackets (cl-01) and after closing brackets (cl-02), that spacing is added based on the table in [[[#spacing_between_characters]]].) Also, if there is an explicit instruction to add spacing, such spacing is added. If there is not solid setting but a fixed spacing between characters, this is used; the amount of spacing at the line head and line end is made equal, and the center of the character sequence is unified with the center of the line.

    中央そろえ:隣接する文字の字間は,原則としてベタ組(和文と欧文との字間,始め括弧類(cl-01)の前,終わり括弧類(cl-02)の後ろなど[[[#spacing_between_characters]]]に示した原則とする空き量が必要なときは,その空き量を入れる)とするか,又は明示的に指定された空き量がある場合はその空き量を挿入し,行頭側及び行末側の空き量を均等にし,文字列の中央を,行の中央の位置に合わせて配置する.

  2. Line head alignment: The spacing between adjacent characters is, in principle, set solid. (If spacing is needed between Japanese text and western text, before opening brackets (cl-01) and after closing brackets (cl-02), that spacing is added based on the table in [[[#spacing_between_characters]]].) Also, if there is an explicit instruction to add spacing, such spacing is added. If there is not solid setting but a fixed spacing between characters, this is used; the start of the character sequence is unified with the line head, and if the line is not full, the line end is kept empty.

    行頭そろえ:隣接する文字の字間は,原則としてベタ組(和文と欧文との字間,始め括弧類(cl-01)の前,終わり括弧類(cl-02)の後ろなど[[[#spacing_between_characters]]]に示した原則とする空き量が必要なときは,その空き量を入れる)とするか,又は明示的に指定された空き量がある場合はその空き量を挿入し,文字列の先頭を行頭の位置に合わせ,1行に満たないときは行末側を空けて配置する.

  3. Line end alignment: The spacing between adjacent characters is, in principle, set solid. (If spacing is needed between Japanese text and western text, before opening brackets (cl-01) and after closing brackets (cl-02), that spacing is added based on the table in [[[#spacing_between_characters]]].) Also, if there is an explicit instruction to add spacing, such spacing is added. If there is not solid setting but a fixed spacing between characters, this is used; the end of the character sequence is unified with the line end, and if the line is not full, the line head is kept empty.

    行末そろえ:隣接する文字の字間は,原則としてベタ組(和文と欧文との字間,始め括弧類(cl-01)の前,終わり括弧類(cl-02)の後ろなど[[[#spacing_between_characters]]]に示した原則とする空き量が必要なときは,その空き量を入れる)とするか,又は明示的に指定された空き量がある場合はその空き量を挿入し,文字列の末尾を行末の位置に合わせ,1行に満たないときは行頭側を空けて配置する.

  4. Even inter-character spacing: The spacing between adjacent characters is, in principle, set solid. (If spacing is needed between Japanese text and western text, before opening brackets (cl-01) and after closing brackets (cl-02), that spacing is added based on the table in [[[#spacing_between_characters]]].) Also, if there is an explicit instruction to add spacing, such spacing is added. In addition, using the spacing made available during line adjustment processing, equal character spacing is applied where possible. The start of the character sequence is aligned to the position of the line head, and the end of the character sequence to the position of the line end.

    均等割り:隣接する文字の字間は,原則としてベタ組(和文と欧文との字間,始め括弧類(cl-01)の前,終わり括弧類(cl-02)の後ろなど[[[#spacing_between_characters]]]に示した原則とする空き量が必要なときは,その空き量を入れる)とするか,又は明示的に指定された空き量がある場合はその空き量を挿入し,そのうえで,行の調整を行う際に空ける調整が可能な箇所で字間を均等に空けて,文字列の先頭を行頭の位置に,文字列の末尾を行末の位置に合わせる.

Example of Haiku positioning with even inter-character spacing. 均等割りにした俳句の配置例
Example of Haiku positioning with even inter-character spacing. 均等割りにした俳句の配置例

Widow Adjustment of Paragraphs 段落末尾処理

The intent of widow adjustment of paragraphs is to avoid that the last line of a paragraph contains less than a given number of characters. This is also called "widow" processing.

段落末尾処理とは,段落の最終行の文字数が,ある文字数未満になることを避けるための処理のことである.ウィドウ(widow)処理ともいう.

Example of just one character on a page just before a page break (to be avoided). 改ページで始まる直前のページに1字だけ配置された例 (これは避ける)
Example of just one character on a page just before a page break (to be avoided). 改ページで始まる直前のページに1字だけ配置された例(これは避ける)

Tab Setting タブ処理

Usage of Tab Setting タブ処理の利用

Tab setting is useful for alignment of table data, itemized lists, etc. where a series of characters need to be set at specific alignment positions within a line (see [[[#fig2_6_1]]]).

タブ処理とは,ある特定の文字列を行中の指定された位置に合わせて配置することである.1つあるいは複数の文字列を行の特定の位置に配置する場合に利用できる.形式のデータの配置,箇条書きなどに利用されている([[[#fig2_6_1]]]).

Example of tab setting. タブ処理の機能を使用して配置した例
Example of tab setting. タブ処理の機能を使用して配置した例

For tab setting, it is necessary to identify tab positions, tab types (how to align the characters in the tab position), and the characters to be set. For this purpose, it is necessary to insert a tab sign before the tabbed character. The series of characters just after the tab sign are the target characters (see [[[#fig2_6_2]]]). If there is more than one tab sign, it is necessary to set the same numbers of tab positions and tab types as the number of tab signs.

タブ処理を行うためには,タブ位置及びそのタブ種(配置位置にどのようにそろえるかの形式)の指定,さらに,その指定位置に配置する文字列が必要である.そこで,タブ処理を行う文字列の前にタブ記号を挿入しておく必要がある.タブ記号の直後にある文字列がタブ処理を行う対象の文字列になる([[[#fig2_6_2]]]).そして,1行中に挿入したタブ記号の数だけのタブ位置とそのタブ種を指定する.

Tab signs and the target text of tab setting. タブ記号とタブ処理の対象となる文字列
Tab signs and the target text of tab setting. タブ記号とタブ処理の対象となる文字列

Types of Tab Settings タブ処理で指定する配置位置にそろえる形式

There are the following types of tab setting to align texts.

タブ処理で指定する配置位置にどのようにそろえるかの形式(タブ種)としては,次のようなものが必要になる.

  1. Start alignment tab setting: the start position of the text is aligned to the tab position (see [[[#fig2_6_3]]]).

    左(上)そろえタブ:タブ処理を行う対象の文字列の先頭をタブ位置に合わせて配置する([[[#fig2_6_3]]]).左そろえタブは横組の場合のタブ種,上そろえタブは縦組の場合のタブ種である.

    Examples of start alignment tab settings. 左(上)そろえタブの例
    Examples of start alignment tab settings. 左(上)そろえタブの例
  2. End alignment tab setting: the end position of the text is aligned to the tab position (see [[[#fig2_6_4]]]).

    右(下)そろえタブ:タブ処理を行う対象の文字列の末尾をタブ位置に合わせて配置する([[[#fig2_6_4]]]).右そろえタブは横組の場合のタブ種,下そろえタブは縦組の場合のタブ種である.

    Examples of end alignment tab settings. 右(下)そろえタブの例
    Examples of end alignment tab settings. 右(下)そろえタブの例
  3. Center alignment tab setting: the center of the text is aligned to the tab position (see [[[#fig2_6_5]]]).

    中央そろえタブ:タブ処理を行う対象の文字列の中央をタブ位置に合わせて配置する([[[#fig2_6_5]]]).

    Examples of center alignment tab settings. 中央そろえタブの例
    Examples of center alignment tab settings. 中央そろえタブの例
  4. Alignment with a specified character tab setting: the start position of a specified character or sign (for example, a period) in the text is aligned to the tab position (see [[[#fig2_6_6]]]).

    指定文字そろえタブ:タブ処理を行う対象の文字列の中にある指定された文字(例えばピリオド)の先頭をタブ位置に合わせて配置する([[[#fig2_6_6]]]).

    Examples of specified character alignment tab settings. 指定文字そろえタブの例
    Examples of specified character alignment tab settings. 指定文字そろえタブの例

The Method of Setting the Target Text タブ処理を行う対象の文字列の配置方法

Set the text from the line head to the position before the tab sign in the first tab position, set the text from the first tab sign to the next tab sign in the second tab position, and so on. The behavior of opening brackets (cl-01) and closing brackets (cl-02), etc. is same as for the main text.

行頭から,タブ記号で区切られた文字列と,タブ処理として指定された配置位置(タブ位置)を,順番に対応させて配置する.それぞれの文字列に含まれる始め括弧類(cl-01)終わり括弧類(cl-02)などの組版処理は,本文と同じである.

Following are some examples. The behavior of text before and after the tab positions are very difficult to anticipate, so it is necessary to design using trial and error.

いくつかの配置例を示す.ただし,b以降は設計段階では予想しなかった配置となる場合が多く,一般に,タブ位置の設計のやり直しが必要になる.

  1. If the target string is the first series of the line, the characters should be set in the first tab position from the start of the line, and so on, one after another (see [[[#fig2_6_7]]]).

    タブ処理の対象となる文字列が行の最初の文字列であれば,行頭に一番近いタブ位置にその文字列を合わせ,以下,順番に対応させて配置する([[[#fig2_6_7]]]).

    Example of tab setting 1. タブ処理による配置例1
    Example of tab setting 1. タブ処理による配置例1
  2. If the target string of text is too long to be set before the next tab position and overflows, the next string of text is aligned to the tag position after the end of the preceding string (see [[[#fig2_6_8]]]).

    タブ処理の対象となる文字列が長くて,次にくるタブ位置をはみ出した場合は,その長い文字列の後ろのタブ処理の対象となる文字列は,そのはみ出した長い文字列の末尾以降にある最初のタブ位置が対応する([[[#fig2_6_8]]]).

    Example of tab setting 2. タブ処理による配置例2
    Example of tab setting 2. タブ処理による配置例2
  3. If the beginning of the string overlaps with the end of the preceding string as the result of the tab setting indication, the following string is set just after the preceding string (see [[[#fig2_6_9]]]).

    指定位置にタブ処理の対象となる文字列を配置した結果,前の文字列と重なってしまった場合は,直前の文字列の末尾に続けて配置する([[[#fig2_6_9]]]).

    Example of tab setting 3. タブ処理による配置例3
    Example of tab setting 3. タブ処理による配置例3
  4. If there is no tab position corresponding to the target string, the string should be set from the tab position of the next line, and so forth (see [[[#fig2_6_10]]]).

    タブ処理の対象となる文字列に対応するタブ位置がない場合は,次行の先頭のタブ位置から順番に対応をとって配置する([[[#fig2_6_10]]]).

    Example for tab setting 4. タブ処理による配置例4
    Example for tab setting 4. タブ処理による配置例4

Other Rules of Japanese Typesetting その他の行組版処理

Superscripts and Superscripts 添え字処理

Superscripts and subscripts are small letters associated with base characters, and typically used to indicate SI unit symbols, or used for mathematical or chemical formulae.

添え字とは,文字のそばに付ける上付き文字又は下付き文字をいう.国際単位系(SI)の単位,数式,化学式等で使用されている.

Superscripts and subscripts are usually set after the base character, with some exceptions for chemical formulae (which appear before the base character). They should be set solid.

上付き文字は,一般に親文字の後ろに付くが,化学式では前に付く場合がある.下付き文字は,一般に親文字の後ろに付くが,化学式では前に付く場合がある.親文字と添え字との字間ベタ組にする.

For examples of superscripts and subscripts see [[[#fig2_7_1]]]. In this document, superscripts and subscripts and their base characters are handled as ornamented character complex (cl-21) characters.

添え字が付く例をいくつか掲げる([[[#fig2_7_1]]]).なお,添え字については,添え字が付く親文字を含め,この文書では親文字群中の文字(添え字付き)(cl-21)として扱う.

Examples of superscripts and subscripts. 添え字の配置例
Examples of superscripts and subscripts. 添え字の配置例

JIS X 4051 specifies the character size and the block direction positioning of superscripts and subscripts alongside the base character to be implementation definable parameters. However it is recommended that the size of superscripts and subscripts are around 60% of the base character, depending on the size of the base character.

添え字の文字サイズ及び親文字に対する添え字の行送り方向の配置位置については,JIS X 4051では,“処理系定義とする”となっている.添え字の文字サイズは,親文字のサイズにもよるが,一般に親文字の60%くらいがよいであろう.

It is prohibited to break lines within an ornamented character complex (cl-21) sequence. Also, it is prohibited to use inter-character spacing within an ornamented character complex (cl-21) sequence for line adjustment.

なお,親文字群中の文字(添え字付き)(cl-21)の文字列の字間で2行に分割してはならない.また,その文字列の字間は,行の調整処理で字間を空ける箇所にはしない.

Furiwake Processing 振分け処理

Furiwake is a typesetting style for setting multiple phrases or sentences in the middle of a line. Furiwake is also used to indicate options (see [[[#fig2_7_2]]]). Study guides, manuals and reference books sometimes use furiwake. In many furiwake styles, multiple lines are indicated with opening brackets (cl-01) and closing brackets (cl-02), etc.

振分けとは,1行の途中に複数の言葉や文を配置する処理である.複数の選択肢を示す場合などに利用されている([[[#fig2_7_2]]]).学習参考書,マニュアル,解説書などで使用している例がある.振分けを行う場合,複数の行を括弧類でくくることも多い.

Example of furiwake. 振分けの例
Example of furiwake. 振分けの例

Furiwake is usually done as follows (see [[[#fig2_7_3]]]). In this document, the lines which combine to make the furiwake are called furiwake-gyou.

振分け処理は,一般に次のように行っている([[[#fig2_7_3]]]).以下では,振分けするそれぞれの文字列を振分け行とよぶ.

  1. The character size of the furiwake-gyou is usually the same as that of the base paragraph. Sometimes, the furiwake-gyou is a little bit smaller than the size of the base paragraph. Sometimes, the font style of the furiwake-gyou is different typeface the style of the base paragraph.

    振分けに使用する文字は,その段落で使用している文字サイズとするが,やや小さい文字サイズにしたり,書体を変える場合もある.

  2. In the same furiwake block, the top positions of all the furiwake-gyou lines are aligned.

    同一の振分け処理の中のすべての振分け行の先頭は,そろえる.

  3. The line length of the furiwake block is the line length of the longest furiwake-gyou. However, it is permitted to indicate the length of the furiwake block, and break the furiwake-gyou lines. In this style, the start positions of the broken lines should be explicitly indicated. When there are line break marks in the furiwake-gyou, the line is broken in the indicated places. In this style, the start positions of the wrapped lines are aligned to the first line. The spacing between wrapped lines should be set solid.

    振分けの行長は,同一の振分け処理の中で最も長い振分け行の行長を振分け行長とする.ただし,振分けの行長を指定し,長い同一の振分け行を折り返して複数の行にすることもある.この場合の2行目以下の行頭は指定による.同一の振分け行とする文字列中に改行の指定がある場合は,その指定箇所で振分け行を分割する.この場合の行頭は,振分け行の1行目の位置とそろえる.また,同一の振分け行を複数の行に分割した場合の行間は0とする.

  4. The line-feed spacing of each furiwake block should be explicitly indicated.

    異なる振分け行の行送り方向の行間は,指定による.

  5. The center line of the furiwake block should be aligned with the center line of the main text.

    同一振分け処理に含まれる行送り方向の幅(の合計)の中心と,本文の行の中心とをそろえて配置する.

  6. When the furiwake block is enclosed by opening brackets (cl-01) and closing brackets (cl-02), etc. the width of brackets should be the same as the width of the furiwake block.

    振分けの前後を括弧類で囲む場合,括弧類の行送り方向の幅は,振分け行の行送り方向の幅(の合計)とそろえる.

  7. One furiwake block should be set per base text line. One furiwake block should not be extended across multiple base text lines.

    同一の振分けは,一体として扱い,本文の複数の行にわたって配置してはならない.

Setting method of furiwake. 振分けの配置方法
Setting method of furiwake. 振分けの配置方法

The size of the line-feed spacing of the paragraph which contains the furiwake block, should be explicitly indicated. The spacing should be decided by considering the content of the furiwake block, and may therefore differ from the size of the line-feed spacing of kihon-hanmen.

振分けを含む段落の行間は,指定による.そこに配置される振分けの内容を考慮して指定する必要がある.

In general, the width of the furiwake block is larger than the width of an inline cutting note block. However, unlike in the case of the inline cutting block, the whole furiwake block should be set inside of the kihon-hanmen, or a column of the kihon-hanmen Setting a furiwake block that extends beyond the border of the kihon-hanmen is prohibited.

振分けは割注と異なり,一般に行送り方向のサイズが大きくなる.そこで,版面又はの領域の外側へのはみ出しは認められていない.版面又は段の領域の範囲内に配置する.

Jidori Processing 字取り処理

In cases such as lists of names of Japanese people, the length of some part of the text may be explicitly defined. In such cases, different numbers of characters are set, using adjustment of the inter-character spacing, so that they are all aligned to the same length. This is called jidori processing (see [[[#fig2_7_4]]]).

日本人名の名簿を一覧にする場合など,行中の文字列の一部について全長を指定する例がある.このような場合に,行中の指定された文字列を,字間を調整して,字詰め方向について指定された長さにする処理が字取り処理である([[[#fig2_7_4]]]).人名など字数の異なる文字列を指定した一定の長さでそろえたい場合に利用できる.

Example 1 of jidori processing. 字取り処理の例1
Example 1 of jidori processing. 字取り処理の例1

Sometimes, in horizontal writing mode, text in running heads (with the exception of chapter and section numbers) are set using jidori processing. For example, three to six characters are set in a 7 character space (based on the size of the characters in the running head (see [[[#fig2_7_5]]]). Two characters are set in a 6 character space to avoid too much space. Seven characters are set solid in a seven character space, and eight or more characters are set solid in a space of eight or more characters. This rule can be applied to other numbers of characters, such as five, six and eight.

横組などでは,例えば,章番号などの後ろに続く文字列だけを,字取り処理する例がある.例えば,2字の文字列の字取りは,空き過ぎになるので例外的に柱の文字サイズの6倍とし,3字から6字までの文字列の字取りを柱の文字サイズの7倍とする([[[#fig2_7_5]]]).この例では,7字以上は,ベタ組とする.

Example 2 of jidori processing. 字取り処理の例2
Example 2 of jidori processing. 字取り処理の例2

Jidori processing should be done as follows:

字取り処理は,次のように行う.

  1. The length for the jidori processing should be defined as a whole number of full-width characters at the size defined for the surrounding text.

    字取りの全長の指定は,そこに使用されている文字サイズの整数倍とする.

  2. The jidori text should be adjusted using spacing between characters so that the sides of the text are aligned at the defined length. The following, however, should be set solid:

    指定された文字列について,字間を均等に空け,字詰め方向の先頭から末尾までを,指定された長さにする.ただし,次のような箇所は,空ける対象としない

    1. Positions where line breaks are prohibited: between grouped numerals (cl-24); between Western characters (cl-27); between two inseparable characters (cl-08); and so on. These sequences should be treated as a single block.

      2行に分割してはならない箇所.連数字中の文字(cl-24)の字間,欧文用文字(cl-27)の字間,同一の分離禁止文字(cl-08)の字間など.これらの文字列は一体として扱いたいからである.

      Examples of jidori processing including opening brackets and closing brackets. 始め括弧類及び終わり括弧類を含んだ文字列の字取り例
      Examples of jidori processing including opening brackets and closing brackets. 始め括弧類及び終わり括弧類を含んだ文字列の字取り例
    2. Where Western word space (cl-26) or full-width ideographic space (cl-14) are inserted, add the same spacing to those space characters as is being added to the other characters.

      欧文間隔(cl-26)和字間隔(cl-14)など空白を挿入してある箇所は,その空白の前及び後ろの2箇所ではなく,空白の前(又は後ろ)だけとする.空白の前後2箇所で空けると空き過ぎになる.

  3. If there is only one character, it should be aligned to the left of the jidori block.

    指定された文字列が1字の場合など,字間を空ける箇所がないときは,文字列の後ろを空けておく.

Processing of Math Symbols and Math Operators 等号類と演算記号の処理

Math symbols and math operators, such as EQUALS SIGN "=", APPROXIMATELY EQUAL TO OR THE IMAGE OF "≒", PLUS SIGN "+" and MINUS SIGN "−" are commonly used not only for scientific and technical documents but also for ordinary books. In the Japanese composition system, there are two different groups of math symbols, which are each treated differently. So in this document math symbols are classified into two different classes; math symbols (cl-17) and math operators (cl-18).

理工学書だけでなく,一般の本でも,等号[=] (EQUALS SIGN),ほとんど等しい[≒] (APPROXIMATELY EQUAL TO OR THE IMAGE OF),正符号[+] (PLUS SIGN),負符号[−] (MINUS SIGN)などの数学記号が使用されている.日本語組版では,等号,ほとんど等しいなどと,正符号,負符号などでは組版処理方法が異なる.そこで,この文書では,等号の類似記号を等号類(cl-17)に,正符号などの類似記号を演算記号(cl-18)に分けて,それらに限り,処理方法を解説する.

Composition rules for math symbols (cl-17) and math operators (cl-18) are as follows:

等号類(cl-17)及び演算記号(cl-18)の組版処理は,次のようにする.

  1. The width of math symbols (cl-17) and math operators (cl-18) is full-width, i.e. one em (see [[[#fig2_7_6]]]).

    等号類(cl-17)及び演算記号(cl-18)の字幅は,全角とする([[[#fig2_7_6]]]).

  2. The inter-character spacing between math symbols (cl-17) or math operators (cl-18) and before and after adjacent characters, such as grouped numerals (cl-24), Western characters (cl-27), and ornamented character complex (cl-21) in one line is set solid (see [[[#fig2_7_6]]]). However, when the top and/or the bottom of the mathematical formula is grouped numerals (cl-24) or Western characters (cl-27), the spacing between ideographic characters (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) is quarter em spacing.

    別行としないで,行の途中に配置する等号類(cl-17)及び演算記号(cl-18)は,その前後に配置する連数字中の文字(cl-24)欧文用文字(cl-27)及び親文字群中の文字(添え字付き)(cl-21)との字間をベタ組とする([[[#fig2_7_6]]]).なお,数式の先頭及び/又は末尾が連数字中の文字(cl-24)又は欧文用文字(cl-27)の場合は,漢字等(cl-19)平仮名(cl-15)及び片仮名(cl-16)と数式との間は,四分アキとする.

    Example of math symbols and math operators set within an ordinary line. 行の途中に配置する等号類及び演算記号の配置例
    Example of math symbols and math operators set within an ordinary line. 行の途中に配置する等号類及び演算記号の配置例
    Example of math symbols and math operators set within an ordinary line. 漢字等,平仮名及び片仮名の前後に等号類又は演算記号を配置した例
    Example of math symbols and math operators set within an ordinary line. 漢字等,平仮名及び片仮名の前後に等号類又は演算記号を配置した例
  3. When math formulae or chemical formulae are set in one independent line, the inter-character spacing between math symbols (cl-17) and adjacent grouped numerals (cl-24), Western characters (cl-27) and ornamented character complex (cl-21) is quarter em. Also, when math formulae or chemical formulae are set in an individual line, the inter-character spacing between math operators (cl-18) and adjacent grouped numerals (cl-24), Western characters (cl-27) or ornamented character complex (cl-21) is set solid.

    別行とする数式,化学式などに配置する等号類(cl-17)連数字中の文字(cl-24)欧文用文字(cl-27)及び親文字群中の文字(添え字付き)(cl-21)との字間は,四分アキとする.別行とする数式,化学式などに配置する演算記号(cl-18)と,連数字中の文字(cl-24)欧文用文字(cl-27)及び親文字群中の文字(添え字付き)(cl-21)との字間は,ベタ組とする.

    Example of math symbols and math operators in one independent line. 別行式に配置する等号類及び演算記号の配置例1
    Example of math symbols and math operators in one independent line. 別行式に配置する等号類及び演算記号の配置例1
    Another example of setting math symbols  and math operators in one independent formula line. 別行式に配置する等号類及び演算記号の配置例2
    Another example of setting math symbols and math operators in one independent formula line. 別行式に配置する等号類及び演算記号の配置例2
  4. A line can be broken between math symbols (cl-17) or math operators (cl-18) and adjacent grouped numerals (cl-24), Western characters (cl-27) or ornamented character complex (cl-21).

    等号類(cl-17)及び演算記号(cl-18)は,その前後に配置する連数字中の文字(cl-24)欧文用文字(cl-27)及び親文字群中の文字(添え字付き)(cl-21)などとの字間で2行に分割してよい.

Line Adjustment 行の調整処理

Necessity for Line Adjustment 行の調整処理の必要性

Line adjustment processing is applied where inter-character adjustments are needed to bring the line end into the correct alignment, e.g. because of line wrap or other reasons. Within a paragraph, lines are created by separating character sequences at places where line breaking is not prohibited. Except for the end of the last line of a paragraph, it is necessary to set the head and end of each line at predicable, aligned positions. For the last line of the paragraph, it is still necessary to set the head at the aligned position, however the line end need not aligned to the other alignment position. To achieve this, only inter-character spacing indicated in the table of [[[#spacing_between_characters]]], or explicitly chosen spacing, are added, and other inter-character spacing is set solid.

禁則処理その他の要因により行長に過不足が出る場合は,行の調整処理を行う.段落内では,分割禁止とされていない箇所で文字列を分割し,それぞれの行を構成していく.この際,段落末尾の1行の行長に満たない行以外の行は,指定された行長にし,段落末尾の1行の行長に満たない行以外の行頭及び行末の位置を所定の位置に配置する必要がある.段落末尾の1行の行長に満たない行は,隣接する文字の字間に[[[#spacing_between_characters]]]に示した原則とする空き量を挿入するか,又は指定された空き量がある場合はその空き量を挿入する以外は,原則としてベタ組にして文字列の先頭を行頭にそろえて配置し,文字列の末尾は行末にそろえる必要はない.

There are various reasons for line adjustment processing. Examples of the most important ones will be given below.

行の調整処理が必要となる要因は様々であるが,主なものに次のような例がある.

  1. Mixed use of characters and symbols (e.g. grouped numerals (cl-24) or Western characters (cl-27)) where not all characters are full-width (see [[[#fig2_51]]]).

    連数字中の文字(cl-24)欧文用文字(cl-27)など字幅が全角でない文字・記号を混用する([[[#fig2_51]]]).

    Example of grouped numerals and Western characters. 連数字中の文字,欧文用文字を使用した例
    Example of grouped numerals and Western characters. 連数字中の文字,欧文用文字を使用した例
  2. Sequences of punctuation marks. For example, a sequence of a closing bracket (cl-02) and a full stop (cl-06) takes one and a half em of spacing altogether (see [[[#fig2_52]]]). However, if an opening bracket (cl-01) follows immediately after the full stop, these punctuation marks will need two em of spacing altogether. Hence, no adjustment is needed to correctly align the line end (see [[[#fig2_52]]]).

    約物が連続する.例えば,終わり括弧類(cl-02)句点類(cl-06)が連続した場合は,終わり括弧類(cl-02)句点類(cl-06)及び空き量の合計は1.5倍となる([[[#fig2_52]]]).ただし,終わり括弧類(cl-02)句点類(cl-06),さらに始め括弧類(cl-01)が連続した場合は,これら約物の字幅と空き量の合計は2倍となるので,過不足はでない([[[#fig2_52]]]).

    Examples of sequences of punctuation marks. 約物が連続した例
    Examples of sequences of punctuation marks. 約物が連続した例
  3. Mixtures of characters with different sizes (see [[[#fig2_53]]]).

    文字サイズの異なる文字を混用する([[[#fig2_53]]]).

    Example of characters within brackets which are made a level smaller than the normal character size. 括弧内の文字サイズを1段階小さくした例
    Example of characters within brackets which are made a level smaller than the normal character size. 括弧内の文字サイズを1段階小さくした例
  4. Cases where line head wrapping, line end wrapping or unbreakable character sequences should not be broken (see [[[#fig2_33]]]).

    行頭禁則行末禁則又は分割禁止を回避する([[[#fig2_33]]]).

Reduction and Addition of Inter-Character Spacing 詰める処理と空ける処理

Line adjustment processing targets places with a predefined spacing or solid setting. Methods for line adjustment are as follows.

行の調整処理は,規定されている空き量を確保した箇所又はベタ組の字間で調整する.その方法としては,次がある.

  1. Line adjustment by inter-character spacing reduction. This means that half em spacing is reduced after commas (cl-07) or closing brackets (cl-02), or before opening brackets (cl-01), and Western word space (cl-26) is reduced within a defined limit.

    規定されている空き量を詰める処理追込み処理).追込み処理では,読点類(cl-07)又は終わり括弧類(cl-02)の後ろの二分アキや,始め括弧類(cl-01)の前の二分アキ,欧文間隔(cl-26)などの空き量を規定の範囲内で詰める処理を行う.

  2. Line adjustment by inter-character spacing expansion. Line adjustment by inter-character spacing expansion means expanding inter-character spacing for line adjustment, where inter-character spacing is allowed to be extended up to a defined limit, such as for Western word space (cl-26) or other places where it is not prohibited to extend inter-character spacing.

    字間を空ける処理追出し処理).追出し処理では,欧文間隔(cl-26)など規定の範囲内で空けることが許されている箇所や,行の調整処理で字間を空ける処理を避けるとされていない箇所の字間について空ける処理を行う.

Normally line adjustment by inter-character spacing reduction is preferred. Only when there is no spacing that can be reduced is line adjustment by inter-character spacing expansion applied. The reason for the preference of line adjustment by inter-character spacing reduction comes from the thinking that characters in solid setting should not have more inter character spacing, if at all possible.

通常,詰める処理(追込み処理)を優先し,それで処理できない場合は空ける処理(追出し処理)を行う.詰める処理(追込み処理)を優先するのは,ベタ組の箇所はできるだけ空けないという考え方による.

Examples of line adjustment by hanging punctuation. ぶら下げ組の例
Examples of line adjustment by hanging punctuation. ぶら下げ組の例

Procedures for Inter-Character Spacing Reduction 詰める処理の優先順位

For line adjustment by inter-character spacing reduction decisions must first be made about the preferred order in which reduction processing options are applied, and the maximum amount of spacing reduction needed. Inter-character spacing reduction is processed with following priorities.

詰める処理(追込み処理)を行う場合は,通常,優先順位と詰める限界を決めて行う.詰める処理は,次の順序で行う.

  1. Western word spaces (cl-26) are reduced to leave a minimum of one-quarter em spacing between words. The same width reduction is applied to all spaces on the target line at the same time.

    欧文間隔(cl-26)を,最小で四分アキまで文字サイズ比で均等に詰める.

  2. The half em spacing after closing brackets (cl-02),commas (cl-07) and full stops (cl-06) at the end of a line, is removed and set solid.

    行末に配置する終わり括弧類(cl-02)読点類(cl-07)及び句点類(cl-06)の後ろの二分アキをベタ組にする.

  3. The quarter em spacing both before and after the middle dots (cl-05) is removed and set solid.

    行末に配置する中点類(cl-05)の前及び後ろの四分アキを一緒にベタ組にする.

  4. The quarter em spacing before or after middle dots (cl-05), in the middle of a line, is reduced equally in proportion to the character size, to a minimum of zero (solid setting).

    行中の中点類(cl-05)の前後の四分アキを,最小でベタ組まで文字サイズ比で均等に詰める.

  5. The half em spacing before opening brackets (cl-01) or after closing brackets (cl-02) or commas (cl-07), in the middle of a line, is reduced equally in proportion to the character size, to a minimum of zero (solid setting).

    行中の始め括弧類(cl-01)の前側,並びに終わり括弧類(cl-02)及び読点類(cl-07)の後ろ側の二分アキを,最小でベタ組まで文字サイズ比で均等に詰める.

  6. The quarter em spacing between Japanese text (hiragana (cl-15), katakana (cl-16) and ideographic characters (cl-19)) and Latin script text (grouped numerals (cl-24), Western characters (cl-27) and unit symbols (cl-25)), is reduced equally with proportional character size, as far as one eighth em spacing.

    平仮名(cl-15)片仮名(cl-16)漢字等(cl-19)などと,連数字中の文字(cl-24)欧文用文字(cl-27)又は単位記号中の文字(cl-25)との字間の四分アキを,最小で八分(全角の8分の1)アキまで文字サイズ比で均等に詰める.

In JIS X 4051, the spacing after closing brackets (cl-02), commas (cl-07) and middle dots (cl-05) at the end of a line are set solid, and the spacing after commas (cl-07) at the end of a line is set to a half em. Accordingly, JIS X 4051 defines the priority of processing as follows:

なお,JIS X 4051では,行末に配置する終わり括弧類(cl-02)読点類(cl-07)及び中点類(cl-05)の後ろをベタ組とし,行末に配置する句点類(cl-06)の後ろは二分アキとすることから,次の順序で処理するように規定している.

  1. Western word space (cl-26), which is usually one third em, is reduced by equal amounts, to leave a minimum of a quarter em spacing between words.

    欧文間隔(cl-26)を,最小で四分アキまで文字サイズ比で均等に詰める.

  2. The quarter em spacing before and after middle dots (cl-05) is reduced equally with proportional character size as far as solid setting.

    中点類(cl-05)の前後の空き量を,最小でベタ組まで文字サイズ比で均等に詰める.

  3. The half em spacing before opening brackets (cl-01) and after closing brackets (cl-02) or commas (cl-07), is reduced equally in proportion to the character size, to a minimum of zero (solid setting).

    始め括弧類(cl-01)の前側,並びに終わり括弧類(cl-02)及び読点類(cl-07)の後ろ側の二分アキを,最小でベタ組まで文字サイズ比で均等に詰める.

  4. The quarter em spacing between Japanese text (hiragana (cl-15), katakana (cl-16) and ideographic characters (cl-19)) and Latin script text (grouped numerals (cl-24), Western characters (cl-27) and unit symbols (cl-25)) are reduced in proportion to the character size, to a minimum of 1/8th em spacing.

    平仮名(cl-15)片仮名(cl-16)漢字等(cl-19)などと,連数字中の文字(cl-24)欧文用文字(cl-27)又は単位記号中の文字(cl-25)との字間の四分アキを,最小で八分アキまで文字サイズ比で均等に詰める.

Procedures for Inter-Character Space Expansion 空ける処理の優先順位

As with line adjustment by inter-character spacing reduction, for line adjustment by inter-character spacing expansion at first the order of processing and the maximum amount of spacing to be added are defined. In JIS X 4051, the following processing order is defined.

空ける処理(追出し処理)を行う場合も詰める処理(追込み処理)と同様,優先順位と空ける限界を決めて行う.JIS X 4051では,次の順序で処理するように規定している.

  1. Western word space (cl-26), which is usually one third em, is added equally with proportional character size up to a maximum of a half em size for each space.

    欧文間隔(cl-26)を,最大で二分アキまで文字サイズ比で均等に空ける.

  2. The quarter em spacing between Japanese text (hiragana (cl-15), katakana (cl-16) and ideographic characters (cl-19)) and Latin script text (grouped numerals (cl-24), Western characters (cl-27) and unit symbols (cl-25)) is increased equally with proportional character size, up to half em spacing (or one third em spacing).

    平仮名(cl-15)片仮名(cl-16)漢字等(cl-19)などと,連数字中の文字(cl-24)欧文用文字(cl-27)又は単位記号中の文字(cl-25)との字間の四分アキを,最大で二分アキまで(又は三分アキまで)文字サイズ比で均等に空ける.

  3. For places which do not fall under (a) or (b) and which do not have the inseparable character rule (bunrikinshi), spacing is added equally with proportional character size up to one quarter em spacing.

    a及びb以外の行の調整処理で字間を空ける処理を避けるとされていない箇所(空ける処理が可能な箇所)の字間を,最大で四分アキまで文字サイズ比で均等に空ける.

  4. In addition to the adaptation in the manner of (a), (b) and (c), in cases where such processing is not possible, spacing is added equally with proportional character size, with the exception of places which require the inseparable character rule (bunrikinshi).

    a,b,cで調整できない場合は,a,b,cに加え,分割禁止とされていない文字間を均等に空ける.

About Character Classes 文字クラスについて

Differences in Positioning of Characters and Symbols 文字・記号により振る舞い方は異なる

The positioning of characters and symbols may vary depending on the following.

文字や記号を行に配置する場合,次のような点でその振る舞い(配置方法)が異なる.

  1. Is the character width full-width, half-width, or something else?

    文字・記号の字幅は,全角か,半角か,又はそれ以外か.

  2. Is it allowed or forbidden to place the character or symbol at the line head? If it is allowed, how will it be placed?

    行頭に配置してよいか,又は禁止するのか.配置してよい場合,どのように配置するか.

  3. Is it allowed or forbidden to place the character or symbol at the line end? If it is allowed, how will it be placed?

    行末に配置してよいか,又は禁止するのか.配置してよい場合,どのように配置するか.

  4. Are characters and symbols appearing in sequence in solid setting, or will there be a fixed size space between them? For example, sequences of ideographic characters (cl-19) and hiragana (cl-15) are set solid, and for Western characters (cl-27) following hiragana (cl-15) there will be quarter em spacing.

    文字・記号が並んだ場合,その字間はベタ組にするか,又は一定の空き量をとるのか.例えば,漢字等(cl-19)平仮名(cl-15)が並んだ場合,その字間はベタ組であり,平仮名(cl-15)の後ろに欧文用文字(cl-27)がきた場合,その字間は四分アキとなる.

  5. Is it allowed to have a line break within a sequence of characters? For example, there must not be a line break in a sequence of grouped numerals (cl-24).

    文字が並んだ場合,その字間で2行に分割してよいか.例えば,連数字中の文字(cl-24)が並んだ場合,その字間では2行に分割してはならない.

  6. Is it allowed to use the spacing between characters in a sequence during line adjustment processing? For example, is inter-character spacing reduction or addition possible between the characters appearing in sequence? Another issue to be decided is the preferred order for adjustment processing, and the amount of the allowed adjustment.

    行の調整処理の際に,その並んだ文字の字間を使用してよいか.例えば,字間を詰めてよいか,逆に字間を空けてよいか.なお,調整処理の優先順位と調整量の限界も問題となる.

Grouping of Characters and Symbols depending on their Positioning 文字・記号を振る舞い方により分ける

During layout processing, the issues mentioned in the previous section are addressed by grouping characters and symbols according to their characteristics, and handling them as character classes.

組版処理を行う場合,前項で述べたような事項について,性格を同じにする文字・記号ごとにグループに分け,文字クラスとして管理する方法がある.

JIS X 4051 also provides similar character classes but that are slightly different from this document. Furthermore JIS X 4051 states that it is implementation-defined how to handle characters that are not explicitly mentioned, e.g. whether they should belong to either class or not.

JIS X 4051でも,“6.1.1 文字クラス”に文字クラスが示されている.なお,JIS X 4051では,“ここに挙げた文字以外を,それぞれの文字クラスに追加するか否かは,処理系定義とする”と備考に書かれている.

A few character classes of this document are modified from JIS X 4051. In [[[#character_classes]]], there is a whole mapping table to ISO/IEC 10646 Annex A collection 285 (BASIC JAPANESE) and collection 286 (JAPANESE NON IDEOGRAPHIC EXTENSION). All character classes of this document are as follows:

この文書における文字クラスは,JIS X 4051における文字クラス分けを一部修正し,次のようにする.なお,[[[#character_classes]]]に,各文字クラスに含まれている文字・記号とISO/IEC 10646(UCS)のAnnex Aで規定されている“基本日本語文字集合”(UCSのコレクション285)及び“拡張非漢字集合”(UCSのコレクション286)に含まれる非漢字との対応を示す.

  1. Opening brackets (cl-01)

    始め括弧類(cl-01)

    ‘“(〔[{〈《「『【 etc. など

  2. Closing brackets (cl-02)

    終わり括弧類(cl-02)

    ’”)〕]}〉》」』】 etc. など

  3. Hyphens (cl-03)

    ハイフン類(cl-03)

    ‐〜 etc. など

  4. Dividing punctuation marks (cl-04)

    区切り約物(cl-04)

    ?! etc. など

  5. Middle dots (cl-05)

    中点類(cl-05)

    ・:;

  6. Full stops (cl-06)

    句点類(cl-06)

    。.

  7. Commas (cl-07)

    読点類(cl-07)

    、,

  8. Inseparable characters (cl-08)

    分離禁止文字(cl-08)

    —…‥ etc. など

  9. Iteration marks (cl-09)

    繰返し記号(cl-09)

    ヽヾゝゞ々 etc. など

  10. Prolonged sound marks (cl-10)

    長音記号(cl-10)

  11. Small kana (cl-11)

    小書きの仮名(cl-11)

    ぁぃぅぇぉァィゥェォっゃゅょッャュョ etc. など

  12. Prefixed abbreviations (cl-12)

    前置省略記号(cl-12)

    ¥$£# etc. など

  13. Postfixed abbreviations (cl-13)

    後置省略記号(cl-13)

    °′″℃¢%‰ etc. など

  14. Full-width ideographic space (cl-14)

    和字間隔(cl-14)

    U+3000 (IDEOGRAPHIC SPACE)

    U+3000 (IDEOGRAPHIC SPACE)

  15. Hiragana (cl-15)

    平仮名(cl-15)

    あいうえおかがきぎ etc. など

  16. Katakana (cl-16)

    片仮名(cl-16)

    アイウエオカガキギ etc. など

  17. Math symbols (cl-17)

    等号類(cl-17)

    =≠<>≦≧⊆⊇∪∩ etc. など

  18. Math operators (cl-18)

    演算記号(cl-18)

    +-÷× etc. など

  19. Ideographic characters (cl-19)

    漢字等(cl-19)

    亜唖娃阿哀愛挨〃仝〆♂♀ etc. など

  20. Characters as reference marks (cl-20)

    合印中の文字(cl-20)

    Characters which are inside verification seal (those are characters inside a verification seal that appear in the line just after the item applicable for reference marks of notes). See [[[#note_numbers]]].

    の参照のために該当する項目の直後の行中に配置した合印中の文字である([[[#note_numbers]]]).

  21. Ornamented character complexes (cl-21)

    親文字群中の文字(添え字付き)(cl-21)

  22. Simple-ruby character complexes (cl-22)

    親文字群中の文字(熟語ルビ以外のルビ付き)(cl-22)

  23. Jukugo-ruby character complexes (cl-23)

    親文字群中の文字(熟語ルビ付き)(cl-23)

  24. Grouped numerals (cl-24)

    連数字中の文字(cl-24)

    Sequences of European numerals which are not full-width and are handled as Japanese text, the decimal point or the comma and space used as a decimal place indicator in numbers.

    連数字として扱われる連続した数字(アラビア数字)及び小数点のピリオド,並びに位取りのコンマ及び空白のことである.

  25. Unit symbols (cl-25)

    単位記号中の文字(cl-25)

    Units described here include combinations of Latin script and Greek script characters used for international units (SI).

    ここでいう単位記号は,国際単位系(SI)として使用されているラテン文字又はギリシャ文字を組み合わせて単位を示すものである.

    Example of a unit which encompasses a full-width unit character (upper part) and characters for Latin script text (lower part). 全角単位字(上側)と欧文用文字(下側)を用いた単位記号の例
    Example of a unit which encompasses a full-width unit character (upper part) and characters for Latin script text (lower part). 全角単位字(上側)と欧文用文字(下側)を用いた単位記号の例
  26. Western word space (cl-26)

    欧文間隔(cl-26)

  27. Western characters (cl-27)

    欧文用文字(cl-27)

  28. Warichu opening brackets (cl-28)

    割注始め括弧類(cl-28)

    (〔[ etc. など

  29. Warichu closing brackets (cl-29)

    割注終わり括弧類(cl-29)

    )〕] etc. など

  30. Characters in tate-chu-yoko (cl-30)

    縦中横中の文字(cl-30)

Positioning Methods for each Character Class 各文字クラスの配置方法

For each character class it is possible to describe whether the characters may appear at the line head or line end or not, the positioning method for the line head or line end positions (if available), the amount of spacing between sequences of several characters, and the combination with character classes before or after the characters (in a 2 dimensional table). In JIS X 4051 this is shown in table 5 "Amount of spacing (between characters)".

文字クラスごとに,行頭・行末に配置してよいか,禁止するか,さらに行頭・行末にきた場合の配置法や,それぞれが並んだ場合の文字間の空き量は,前に配置される文字クラスと後ろに配置される文字クラスの組合せ(2次元の表)で示すことができる.JIS X 4051では,表5に“(文字間の)空き量”として示されている.

Also, it can be defined for each combination of the character classes (in a two dimensional table) whether the characters of classes appearing in sequence allow for a line break between them, or whether it is possible during line adjustment processing to add inter character spacing between them. In JIS X 4051 these items are also shown in a two dimensional table. Table 6 shows whether a line break is possible, and table 7 shows if it is possible to add inter-character spacing.

また,文字クラスの文字・記号が並んだ場合,その字間で2行に分割が可能か,行の調整処理の際に字間を空けてよいかどうかも,各文字クラスの組合せ(2次元の表)で規定できる.このような事項についても,JIS X 4051では2次元の表で示している.2行に分割が可能かどうかは表6,行の調整処理の際に字間を空けてよいかどうかは表7に示されている.

The width, in principle, of the spacing between each character or symbol in character classes used in this document is described in the table of [[[#spacing_between_characters]]].

この文書における,それぞれの文字クラスの文字・記号が並んだ場合の文字間の原則的な空き量の表を[[[#spacing_between_characters]]]に掲げる.

The combinations of adjacent characters and symbols in character classes used in this document, and where text is breakable or not, is described in the table of [[[#possibilities_for_linebreaking_between_characters]]].

この文書における,それぞれの文字クラスの文字・記号が並んだ場合に,その字間で2行に分割が可能かどうかを示す表を[[[#possibilities_for_linebreaking_between_characters]]]に掲げる.

The width of spacing between each character or symbol in character classes used in this document, and which can be reduced, is described in the table of [[[#opportunities_for_intercharacter_space_reduction_during_line_adjustment]]]. Also, expandable spacing is described in the table of [[[#opportunities_for_intercharacter_space_expansion_during_line_adjustment]]].

この文書における,それぞれの文字クラスの文字・記号が並んだ場合に,行の調整処理の際に字間を詰めてよいかを示す表を[[[#opportunities_for_intercharacter_space_reduction_during_line_adjustment]]],行の調整処理の際に字間を空けてよいかを示す表を[[[#opportunities_for_intercharacter_space_expansion_during_line_adjustment]]]に掲げる.

Positioning of Headings, Notes, Illustrations, Tables and Paragraphs 見出し・注・図版・表・段落の配置処理

Handling of Headings (including Page Breaks) 見出し処理(改ページ処理も含む)

Types of Headings 見出しの種類

In terms of text composition, there are four types of headings.

見出しは,組版処理の方法で分けると,次の4つになる.

  1. Naka-tobira or han-tobira

    中扉又は半扉

  2. Block headings

    別行見出し

  3. Run-in headings

    同行見出し

  4. Cut-in headings

    窓見出し

Naka-tobira is used to separate sections of books. One whole odd page is used for the section title and the following even page is left blank. Naka-tobira sometimes includes author's names and illustrations, in addition to the section title (see [[[#fig3_1_1]]]) (see [[[#fig3_1_1]]]). Some kinds of book, such as encyclopedias, dictionaries and annual reports, use a different kind of paper from that in the main text.

中扉は,書籍の内容を大きく区分する場合に用いる.標題のために1ページを用い(改丁とする),裏面は白ページにする.標題の他に,執筆者名や図版などを掲げる場合もある([[[#fig3_1_1]]]).事典などでは,本文とは別の用紙を使用する例もある.

An example naka-tobira 中扉の例
An example naka-tobira 中扉の例

Han-tobira is a simplified naka-tobira. The following even page is not blank, and is used for the main text.

半扉は,中扉を簡略にしたもので,裏面を白ページとしないで,裏面から本文を開始する.

Most books are usually set using naka-tobira or han-tobira, even when sections need not be separated with naka-tobira. In such cases, at the very top of the main text, namely just after the front matter, one naka-tobira is commonly set to show the book title itself.

多くの書籍では中扉又は半扉を付けている.大きく内容を区切る要素がない場合は,前付の直後,つまり本文の先頭に書名を中扉として掲げることもよく行われている.

A block heading is the heading occupying a whole, independent line. The main text is set from the very next line. Top level headings and medium level headings are of this type (see [[[#fig3_1_2]]]).

別行見出しは,独立した行として見出しを掲げたものである.見出しの直後に本文を続けて配置する.大見出しや中見出しは,この形式である([[[#fig3_1_2]]]).

An example of block heading 別行見出しの例
An example of block heading 別行見出しの例
An example with Spanning block heading 段抜きの別行見出しの例
An example with Spanning block heading 段抜きの別行見出しの例

A run-in heading is a heading immediately followed by main text without a line break, and is usually used as a low level heading (see [[[#fig3_1_4]]]). Note that a low level heading can also appear as a block heading.

同行見出しは,見出しに続く文章を改行することなく,見出しの直後に続ける形式の見出しである([[[#fig3_1_4]]]).同行見出しは,小見出しに利用されている.なお,小見出しは別行見出しとすることもある.

An example of run-in heading. 同行見出しの例
An example of run-in heading. 同行見出しの例

A drop heading is a somewhat modified run-in heading style. The footprint of the heading is followed by two or three main text lines without line breaks, like drop caps (see [[[#fig3_1_5]]]). Drop headings are usually used for low level headings.

窓見出しは,同行見出しを少し変形した形式で,見出しに続く文章を改行することなく,見出しの直後に続けるが,見出しの後ろを2行又は3行にする([[[#fig3_1_5]]]).窓見出しは,小見出しに利用されている.

An example of cut-in heading 窓見出しの例
An example of cut-in heading 窓見出しの例

Elements of Block Heading 別行見出しの構成

JIS X 4051 describes the elements of a block heading for three levels: top level heading, medium level heading, and low level heading. These block headings have to have a heading text, and may have a label name, number, and subtitle (see [[[#fig3_1_6]]]).

別行見出しの構成については,JIS X 4051では大見出し,中見出し及び小見出しを定義し,それぞれラベル名番号見出し文字列及び副題で構成するとしている([[[#fig3_1_6]]]).ただし,ラベル名,番号及び副題は,必須要素ではなく,省略してもよいとなっている.

Elements of block heading 別行見出しの構成
Elements of block heading 別行見出しの構成

There are several different styles of heading as follows: the heading is enclosed with symbols at the top and the bottom, rules (or thin lines) are inserted before and after the heading line, or the heading is enclosed with rectangular rules (or thin lines).

なお,これ以外に見出しの前後に記号を付ける,あるいは罫線を見出しの前後に配置する,罫線で見出しを囲むなどといったことも行われている.

Font Selection and Heading Font Size 見出しにアクセントを付ける

Headings have a hierarchical structure. So, each level of heading has to have an appropriate visual style. The following issues have to be considered:

見出しは,階層構造を示しているわけであるから,それぞれのレベルに応じた表示体裁にする必要がある.見出しについては,次のような事項で見出しのレベルに応じた表示体裁にしている.

  1. Character size for the heading

    使用する文字サイズ

    The character size of headings should be selected as appropriate in accordance with the level of headings. For example, when the character size of main text is 9 point, the low level headings are usually set with 10 points, medium level headings are usually set with 12 points and top level headings are usually set with 14 points. The character size of headings is usually larger than main text, and the character size of higher level headings are larger than the size of smaller size headings. [[[#fig3_1_7]]] is an example of this principle.

    見出しのレベルに応じた文字サイズにする場合,例えば,大見出し,中見出し,小見出しとあったときは,小見出しは,本文の文字サイズ(例:9ポイント)より1段階大きく(例:10ポイント),中見出しは小見出しより1段階大きく(例:12ポイント),大見出しは中見出しより1段階大きくする(例:14ポイント).この例に従った文字サイズの見出し例を[[[#fig3_1_7]]]に示す.

    An example of different character sizes corresponding to the heading levels 見出しの文字サイズに変化を付けた例
    An example of different character sizes corresponding to the heading levels 見出しの文字サイズに変化を付けた例
  2. Type faces for headings

    使用する書体

    Both mincho and Japanese gothic are usually used. Other type face designs are seldom used.

    本文と同じ明朝体とする方法と,ゴシック体にする方法とがある.なお,これ以外の書体にする例もあるが,その例は少ない.

    An example of same mincho but different weight for headings 見出しの明朝体のウェイトに変化を付けた例
    An example of same mincho but different weight for headings 見出しの明朝体のウェイトに変化を付けた例
  3. Alignment of headings (inline direction)

    そろえ(字送り方向の配置位置)

    In the case of horizontal writing mode, top level headings and medium level headings are in most cases centre-aligned. In the case of vertical writing mode, headings are usually aligned to the line head with some indent.

    横組の大見出しや中見出しは,中央そろえにする例が比較的多い.これに対して,縦組では,行頭そろえとし,一般に字下げを行う.

    An example of indented heading 見出しを字下げした例
    An example of indented heading 見出しを字下げした例
  4. Block direction footprint of headings

    行送り方向の見出しの占める領域行取り

    Generally, the block direction footprint of any element of layout, including figures, notes and headings, should be aligned to the line positions of the kihon-hanmen. Accordingly, the block direction space is set based on a number of lines in the kihon-hanmen. This method is usually called "gyou-dori". "Gyou-dori" is a very complicated issue, and provokes much discussion, so the detail will be discussed in another section with examples. Details will be discussed in [[[#processing_of_gyoudori]]] and [[[#processing_of_gyoudori_heading_set_in_the_bottom_of_the_page]]].

    各ページで行を配置していく場合,基本版面で設定した行位置にそろった方が望ましい.そこで,行送り方向の見出しの占める領域は,基本版面で設定した行位置を基準にして設定する方法が行われている.このような設定方法を行取りという.行取りの組版処理については問題が多いので,詳細は[[[#processing_of_gyoudori]]]及び[[[#processing_of_gyoudori_heading_set_in_the_bottom_of_the_page]]]で解説する.

  5. The beginning position of headings around page breaks etc.

    見出しの配置される部分の開始方法(改ページなど)

    The handling of headings around page breaks and other places will be discussed in [[[#how_to_handle_headings_with_new_recto_page_break_and_bew_column]]].

    改ページなどの組版処理については,[[[#how_to_handle_headings_with_new_recto_page_break_and_bew_column]]]で解説する.

  6. At any level, when the number of characters for a heading is two or three, the heading is sometimes set with fixed inter-character spacing. Examples are shown below (see [[[#fig3_1_10]]]).

    見出しのレベルの表示とは直接には関係しないが,見出しでは2字や3字といった極端に字数が少ない場合がある.そこで,見出しの字数に応じてアキ組にする例がある.[[[#fig3_1_10]]]にいくつかの例を掲げておく.

    An example of a heading with fixed inter-character spacing 見出しをアキ組にした例
    An example of a heading with fixed inter-character spacing 見出しをアキ組にした例
  7. Whether to decorate with solid lines, or give a symbol on the top of the heading.

    その他,罫線で飾りを付ける,記号を付けるなど

How to Handle Headings with New Recto, Page Break and New Column 改丁・改ページ・改段処理

A top level heading sometimes starts with a new page following a page break, to clarify the separation between sections. The processing below should be followed:

大見出しなどでは,区切りを明確にするために新しいページから始める方法も行われている.次のような処理が必要になる.

  1. Always begin with odd pages, i.e. new recto. Used for Naka-tobira, han-tobira and top level heading.

    必ず奇数ページから開始する.改丁という.中扉,半扉,大見出しなどで採用されている.

    An example of new recto (vertical writing mode) 改丁の例 (縦組)
    An example of new recto (vertical writing mode) 改丁の例(縦組)
  2. Always begin with new pages, regardless of even pages or odd pages, i.e. page breaking. Used for top level heading.

    偶数ページか奇数ページかに関わらず,新しいページから開始する.改ページという.大見出しなどで採用されている.

  3. Always begin with even pages. Used for magazines articles beginning a spread page. Begin with right pages when in vertical writing mode and bound on the right-hand side. Begin with left pages when in horizontal writing mode and bound on the left-hand side.

    必ず偶数ページから開始する.雑誌などで新しい記事を見開きページで開始する場合などに採用されている.縦組の右綴じの場合は,右ページから開始する(右ページおこし),横組の左綴じの場合は,左ページから開始する(左ページおこし)となる.

  4. In multicolumn format, begin with a new column.

    段組の場合,新しい段から開始する.改段という.

  5. Following previous text (see [[[#fig3_1_12]]]), i.e. "nariyuki". Medium level headings and low level headings are usually processed with "nariyuki". Note that medium level headings are sometimes processed with a page break. Even when "nariyuki" mode is adopted, low level headings sometimes happen to be set at the top of new pages, also the headings at the very end of pages or columns are sometimes moved to the top of next page or column, for aesthetic reasons. (Details are described at [[[#processing_of_gyoudori_heading_set_in_the_bottom_of_the_page]]].)

    前の文章に続ける([[[#fig3_1_12]]]).“なりゆき”という.中見出しや小見出しは,一般に“なりゆき”で処理している(中見出しは改ページとすることもある).“なりゆき”の場合でも,位置により,たまたま小見出しなどが新しいページの先頭に配置されるケースもある.また“なりゆき”で配置した見出しの位置がページ末又は段の末尾になった場合も,体裁がよくないので,次のページの先頭又は段の先頭に見出しを移動することがある(詳細は[[[#processing_of_gyoudori_heading_set_in_the_bottom_of_the_page]]]).

    An example of a "nariyuki" heading “なりゆき”の見出しの例
    An example of a "nariyuki" heading “なりゆき”の見出しの例

Handling of Space just before the New Recto, Page Breaks and New Edges 改ページ等の直前ページの処理

Spacing just before new rectos, page breaks and new columns is treated as follows (the last pages are treated as the same):

改丁・改ページ・改段処理を行う場合,その直前のページの処理が問題となる(最終ページも同じ扱いとなる).次のようにする.

  1. In the case of single column typesetting, the space just before the new rectos and page breaks is left alone (see [[[#fig3_1_12_2]]]).

    1段組の改丁・改ページの場合,改丁・改ページの指定直前に配置した行などの末尾の後ろは空けておけばよい([[[#fig3_1_12_2]]]).

    An example of processing of the page just before a page break (one column setting) 改ページの直前ページの処理例 (1段組)
    An example of processing of the page just before a page break (one column setting) 改ページの直前ページの処理例(1段組)
  2. In the case of multiple columns, the remaining space of preceding columns is left as-is.

    改段の場合,その指定直前に配置した行などの末尾の後ろは空けておけばよい.

  3. In the case of vertical writing mode, columns are filled with text lines from upper right to lower left. There is no need to align line numbers of the upper column and lower column, and remaining space is left alone (see [[[#fig3_1_13]]]).

    縦組の段組の場合,上段から下段に行を順次配置していく([[[#fig3_1_13]]]).基本版面で指定された各段に配置する行数はそろえないでよい.

    An example of text handling for vertical writing mode and multi-column format just before the page break. 縦組の段組の場合における改ページ等の直前ページの処理例
    An example of text handling for vertical writing mode and multi-column format just before the page break. 縦組の段組の場合における改ページ等の直前ページの処理例
  4. In horizontal writing mode and multi-column format, the number of lines for each column is set to be the same, but where the result of the total number of lines divided by the column number chosen for the kihon-hanmen results in an odd number, the last column may have a smaller number of lines and may be followed by blank space (see [[[#fig3_1_14]]]).

    横組の多段組の場合,基本版面で指定された各段に配置する行数をそろえる.ただし,そのページに配置する総行数を段数で割り切れなく半端が出る場合は,その半端の不足行は最も右にくる段末を空ける([[[#fig3_1_14]]]).

    An example of handling of space just before page breaks, in the case of horizontal writing mode and multi-column format 横組の段組の場合における改ページ等の直前ページの処理例
    An example of handling of space just before page breaks, in the case of horizontal writing mode and multi-column format 横組の段組の場合における改ページ等の直前ページの処理例

Processing of Gyou-dori 行取りの処理例

"Gyou-dori" is the process of specifying the footprint of headings in the block direction by using the line positions provided by the kihon-hanmen as a basis and by deciding how many times they need to be used. The length of the footprint in the block direction is calculated as follows: (line width in the block direction) × (line number) + (line gap) * (line number − 1). However, when the heading footprint happens to appear in middle of the page or the column, the footprint has adjacent line gaps before and after, and when the heading footprint happens to appear at the top of the page or the column, the footprint has an adjacent line gap after.

見出しを配置する行送り方向の領域設定で,基本版面で設定した行位置を基準にして設定する方法が行取りである.この場合,見出しの行送り方向に占める領域は,“行の幅×行数+行間×(行数-1)”となる.しかし,見た目には,ページ(又は段)の途中に見出しを配置する場合は,その領域の前及び後ろの行間が加わり,ページ(又は段)の先頭に見出しを配置する場合は,その領域の後ろの行間が加わった大きさとなる.

The following procedures are some of the ways "betsugyou" headings are processed based on the "gyou-dori" method:

別行見出しの配置を行取りの考え方で設定する方法には,次のようなものがある.

  1. Set the heading text at the center of the space specified with multiple lines of the kihon-hanmen. For example, when the heading is set at the center of a three line space, it is called "center of three lines space". Following are some examples (see [[[#fig3_1_15]]] et al). In these figures, gray rectangles indicate the main text, and dotted rectangles in the heading area indicate the space specified with kihon-hanmen text lines. Also, running headings and page numbers are indicated with gray rectangles.

    基本版面で設定した2行以上の複数行の領域の中央に配置する.例えば,基本版面で設定した3行の中央に配置する場合は,“3行取り中央”という.いくつかの配置例を[[[#fig3_1_15]]]以下に示す.なお,以下の図版において,グレーの長方形は本文の文章を示し,見出しのバックにある点線の長方形は基本版面で設定した文字及び行の配置位置を示すものである.

  2. Set the heading text at the center of the footprint specified with a multiple number of lines of the kihon-hanmen, and add spacing before and/or after also specified using numbers of lines of the kihon-hanmen. For example, when adding space corresponding to the size of one line of the kihon-hanmen, it is called a one line blank space. Following are some examples (see [[[#fig3_1_20]]] et al).

    基本版面で設定した2行以上の複数行の領域の中央に配置し,その前又は後ろに基本版面で設定した行数で空き量を設定する.例えば,基本版面で設定した1行の空き量をとる場合は,1行アキという.いくつかの配置例を[[[#fig3_1_20]]]以下に示す.

  3. Set the heading text in the space specified with multiple number of lines from the kihon-hanmen, with specific specifications regarding size. In this case, the size of the heading block in the block direction is the total of the previous space, the character size and the after space, and the size should be the same as the space occupied by multiple lines of the kihon-hanmen. Following are some examples (see [[[#fig3_1_23]]] et al).

    基本版面で設定した2行以上の複数行の領域の指定した位置に見出しを配置する.この場合,見出しの文字サイズ+前の空き量+後ろの空き量の合計が,基本版面で設定した2行以上の複数行の領域の合計と一致していなければならない.いくつかの配置例を[[[#fig3_1_23]]]以下に示す.

  4. Set one line heading at the place decided by the kihon-hanmen design and set one blank line before the heading line. Blank lines may be more than one line, but such cases are very rare. This style is commonly used for low level headings. Following are some examples (see [[[#fig3_1_25]]] et al).

    1行の見出しを基本版面で設定した行位置に配置し,その前を1行(又は複数行)空ける(複数行空ける例は少ない).この配置方法は小見出しの場合に利用されている.いくつかの配置例を[[[#fig3_1_25]]]以下に示す.

  5. When headings are on multiple levels, set "gyou-dori" headings with different line spacing per heading level. There are two cases. One is the single heading case, the other is adjacent multiple level headings. In these cases, spacing in the block direction should look the same in both the single heading case and in the case of adjacent different level headings. To implement this design, in some cases, same level headings have different spacing depending on whether the heading is single or whether headings are adjacent. There are some examples in [[[#fig3_1_28]]].

    行取りで配置するレベルの異なった見出しが複数あった場合,見出しのレベルに応じて行取り数を変える.また,見出しは単独で掲げる場合と,レベルの異なる見出しを連続して掲げる場合がある.この場合,同一のレベルの見出しについて,単独で掲げるときの見出しの行送り方向の空き量と,連続して掲げるときの見出しの行送り方向の空き量をできるだけそろえた方がよい.したがって,同一のレベルの見出しについて,単独で掲げるときの見出しの行取りと,連続して掲げるときの見出しの行取りを変える場合がある.その例を[[[#fig3_1_28]]]に示す.

  6. The heading is set in a block of multiple lines, which is specified by using the line positions provided by the kihon-hanmen as a basis, but is not set in the center of the block but rather specified by specification of line numbers and space before and after. See an example in [[[#fig3_1_28_2]]] et al.

    見出しを基本版面で設定した複数行の領域に配置するが,複数行の行送り方向の中央に配置するのではなく,配置する行数とその前又は後ろの空き量を指示する方法もある.その例を[[[#fig3_1_28_2]]]以下に示す.

    Example one of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines (the heading is set around the center of the page). 指定した複数行の中央に配置した例1 (見出しがページの中ほどにきた場合)
    Example one of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines (the heading is set around the center of the page). 指定した複数行の中央に配置した例1(見出しがページの中ほどにきた場合)
    Example two of a heading set in the center of indicated lines (The heading is set in the top of the page). 指定した複数行の中央に配置した例2 (見出しがページの先頭にきた場合)
    Example two of a heading set in the center of indicated lines (The heading is set in the top of the page). 指定した複数行の中央に配置した例2(見出しがページの先頭にきた場合)
    Example three of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines (the heading, which is permitted to be set in one column of the hanmen, is set at the bottom of an even page). 指定した複数行の中央に配置した例3  (縦組の1段組にのみ許される見出しが偶数ページの末尾にきた場合)
    Example three of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines (the heading, which is permitted to be set in one column of the hanmen, is set at the bottom of an even page). 指定した複数行の中央に配置した例3(縦組の1段組にのみ許される見出しが偶数ページの末尾にきた場合)
    Example four of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines (a heading with subtitle is set around the center of the page). 指定した複数行の中央に配置した例4 (副題が付いた見出しがページの中ほどにきた場合)
    Example four of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines (a heading with subtitle is set around the center of the page). 指定した複数行の中央に配置した例4(副題が付いた見出しがページの中ほどにきた場合)
    Example five of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines (the heading has two lines and set in around the center of the page). 指定した複数行の中央に配置した例5 ​(2行になった見出しがページの中ほどにきた場合)
    Example five of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines (the heading has two lines and set in around the center of the page). 指定した複数行の中央に配置した例5​(2行になった見出しがページの中ほどにきた場合)
    Example one of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines with a blank line before (the heading is set around the center of the page). 指定した行の中央に配置し,前を空けた例1 (見出しがページの中ほどにきた場合)
    Example one of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines with a blank line before (the heading is set around the center of the page). 指定した行の中央に配置し,前を空けた例1(見出しがページの中ほどにきた場合)
    Example two of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines with a blank line before (the heading is set in the top of the page). 指定した行の中央に配置し,前を空けた例2 (見出しがページの先頭にきた場合)
    Example two of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines with a blank line before (the heading is set in the top of the page). 指定した行の中央に配置し,前を空けた例2(見出しがページの先頭にきた場合)
    Example  of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines with one blank line after (the heading is set in the top of the page). 指定した行の中央に配置し,後ろを空けた例​ (見出しがページの先頭にきた場合)
    Example of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines with one blank line after (the heading is set in the top of the page). 指定した行の中央に配置し,後ろを空けた例​(見出しがページの先頭にきた場合
    Example one of a heading set in the specified position relative to multiple lines (the heading is set in around the center of the page). 指定した複数行の指定位置に配置した例1 (見出しがページの中ほどにきた場合)
    Example one of a heading set in the specified position relative to multiple lines (the heading is set in around the center of the page). 指定した複数行の指定位置に配置した例1(見出しがページの中ほどにきた場合)
    Example two of a heading set the specified position relative to multiple lines (the heading is set in the top of the page). 指定した複数行の指定位置に配置した例2 (見出しがページの先頭にきた場合)
    Example two of a heading set the specified position relative to multiple lines (the heading is set in the top of the page). 指定した複数行の指定位置に配置した例2(見出しがページの先頭にきた場合)
    Example one of a heading with one blank line before (the heading is set in around the center of the page). 見出しの前を1行アキにして配置した例1 (見出しがページの中ほどにきた場合)
    Example one of a heading with one blank line before (the heading is set in around the center of the page). 見出しの前を1行アキにして配置した例1(見出しがページの中ほどにきた場合)
    Example two of a heading set with one blank line before (the heading is set in the top of the page). 見出しの前を1行アキにして配置した例2 (見出しがページの先頭にきた場合)
    Example two of a heading set with one blank line before (the heading is set in the top of the page). 見出しの前を1行アキにして配置した例2(見出しがページの先頭にきた場合)
    Example three of a heading set with one blank line before (the heading is set in the bottom of even page (This case is limited to vertical writing mode and one column style)). 見出しの前を1行アキにして配置した例3  (見出しが偶数ページの末尾にきた場合(縦組の1段組の場合に限る))
    Example three of a heading set with one blank line before (the heading is set in the bottom of even page (This case is limited to vertical writing mode and one column style)). 見出しの前を1行アキにして配置した例3(見出しが偶数ページの末尾にきた場合(縦組の1段組の場合に限る))
    Examples of top level,  medium level and low level heading in gyou-dori style. 大・中・小見出しの行取りの設定例
    Examples of top level, medium level and low level heading in gyou-dori style. 大・中・小見出しの行取りの設定例
    Example one of a heading set with specification of line numbers in kihon-hanmen and blank lines before and after (the heading is set in around the center of the page). 配置する行数とその前又は後ろの空き量を指示した設定例1 (見出しがページの中ほどにきた場合)
    Example one of a heading set with specification of line numbers in kihon-hanmen and blank lines before and after (the heading is set in around the center of the page). 配置する行数とその前又は後ろの空き量を指示した設定例1(見出しがページの中ほどにきた場合)
    Example one of instruction of line numbers in block direction for headings and blank lines before and after (The heading is set in the top of the page). 配置する行数とその前又は後ろの空き量を指示した設定例1 (見出しがページの先頭にきた場合)
    Example one of instruction of line numbers in block direction for headings and blank lines before and after (The heading is set in the top of the page). 配置する行数とその前又は後ろの空き量を指示した設定例1(見出しがページの先頭にきた場合)

Processing of Gyou-dori Heading Set at the bottom of the Page 行取り処理した見出しがページ末にきた場合の処理

When the gyou-dori heading is set at the bottom of the page (or the top of the page), the processing is done as follows in consideration of the visual effect:

行取り処理した見出しがページ末(又はページ先頭)にきた場合の処理については,体裁を考慮して次のように処理する.

  1. Except for (d) of the previous section, when it is not possible to set the heading block at the bottom of the page, the block is set at the top of the next page and the remaining space at the bottom of the former page may be left blank (see [[[#processing_when_one_line_space_before_low_level_heading_is_set]]] for the case of the previous section).

    前項のd以外の場合,ページ末に指定された行数が確保できないときは,その行取りの設定がされた見出し全体を次ページの冒頭に配置する.前のページ末は,空けたままにしておく(dの場合は[[[#processing_when_one_line_space_before_low_level_heading_is_set]]]).

  2. When there is space for the heading block at the bottom of the page but no space for following main text, in cases involving vertical writing style on an odd page, horizontal writing style on an odd page and horizontal writing style on an even page, the heading block is set at the top of the next page and remaining space at the bottom of the previous page may be left blank (see [[[#fig3_1_29]]]). In the case of vertical writing style on an even page, the heading block is set at the bottom of the page.

    ページ末に指定された行数は確保できるが,見出しの後ろに本文の行が1行も配置できない場合,縦組の奇数ページ,横組の奇数ページ及び横組の偶数ページのときは,その行取りの設定がされた見出し全体を次ページの冒頭に配置する([[[#fig3_1_29]]]).前のページ末は,空けたままにしておく.縦組の偶数ページの場合は,ページ末に見出しを配置する.

    An example of heading blocks set at the top of even page, when the heading block is come to the bottom of odd page of vertical writing style. 縦組の奇数ページ末の見出しを次ページに配置した例
    An example of heading blocks set at the top of even page, when the heading block is come to the bottom of odd page of vertical writing style. 縦組の奇数ページ末の見出しを次ページに配置した例
    An example of heading set at the bottom of vertical writing style even page 縦組の偶数ページ末に見出しを配置した例
    An example of heading set at the bottom of vertical writing style even page 縦組の偶数ページ末に見出しを配置した例
  3. When the heading block of gyou-dori comes at the bottom of the column, the block is moved to the top of the next for reasons of visual aesthetics. The blank space of the bottom of a previous column needs some processing, however it may be left blank if there is no solution.

    行取り処理した見出しが段の領域の末尾にきた場合は,体裁がよくないので,次の段の先頭に配置する.前段の末尾は空けておくのは体裁がよくないので,なんらかの処理を行い,空けないようにするのが望ましいが,やむを得ない場合は空けておく.

Processing when a One Line Space is Set Before a Low Level Heading 小見出しの前を1行アキにした場合の処理

When a one line space is set before a low level heading, the following different cases apply when the one line space comes at the top of the page.

見出しの前を1行アキに設定した小見出しがページ先頭にきた場合は,1行アキの処理の違いから次のような方法がある.

  1. When the low level heading with a one line space before comes at the top of the page, the one line space is always set before the heading. The reason is that the heading and the one line space before are regarded as one unified object.

    見出しの前を1行アキに設定した小見出しがページ先頭にきた場合,常に小見出しの前を1行アキにする.小見出しと1行アキはセットであり,これを一体に扱うという考え方からである.

    Example one of a low level heading where one blank line comes at the top of the page 見出しの前を1行アキに設定した小見出しがページ先頭にきた場合の配置例1
    Example one of a low level heading where one blank line comes at the top of the page 見出しの前を1行アキに設定した小見出しがページ先頭にきた場合の配置例1
  2. When a heading with one blank line comes at the top of the page, the blank line before should be deleted. At the top of the page there is already space before the line, so there is no need for an additional blank line.

    見出しの前を1行アキに設定した小見出しがページ先頭にきた場合,常に小見出しの前を1行アキにしない.ページの先頭では,その前に余白があるので,1行アキにする必要はない,という考え方からである.

    Example two of a heading with one blank line that comes at the top of the page 見出しの前を1行アキに設定した小見出しがページ先頭にきた場合の配置例2
    Example two of a heading with one blank line that comes at the top of the page 見出しの前を1行アキに設定した小見出しがページ先頭にきた場合の配置例2
  3. When a heading with one blank line before comes at the top of the page, if the previous page is filled with lines of text, set the blank line before the heading, and if the bottom of the previous page has one or two blank lines, set no blank line before the heading ([[[#fig3_1_33]]]).

    見出しの前を1行アキに設定した小見出しがページ先頭にきた場合,前のページ末まで本文が配置されているときは,1行アキにする.前のページ末で1行アキ又は2行アキになっている場合は,1行アキにしない.いってみれば,“なりゆき”で処理するという方法である([[[#fig3_1_33]]]).

    Example three of a heading with one blank line before that comes at the top of the page 見出しの前を1行アキに設定した小見出しがページ先頭にきた場合の配置例3
    Example three of a heading with one blank line before that comes at the top of the page 見出しの前を1行アキに設定した小見出しがページ先頭にきた場合の配置例3

Processing of Run-in Headings 同行見出しの処理

Run-in headings are usually used for low level headings. The following are some examples of run-in headings. Inter-character spacing between the run-in heading and following main text is usually one em spacing of the base character size decided for the kihon-hanmen. Note that the run-in heading may be set at the last line of the page, or of the column in multi column style.

同行見出しは,小見出しに利用されている.いくつかの同行見出しの配置例を次に掲げる.同行見出しと次に続く本文との空き量は,一般に基本版面の文字サイズの全角アキとする.なお,同行見出しは,ページ末及び段組において段末に配置してよい.

  1. The run-in heading is set with the same character size as the main text and with Japanese gothic face (see [[[#fig3_1_34]]]).

    本文と同じ文字サイズにし,書体をゴシック体にする([[[#fig3_1_34]]]).

    Example one of run-in heading 同行見出しの配置例1
    Example one of run-in heading 同行見出しの配置例1
  2. Set the run-in heading with one level smaller character size than the main text and use Japanese gothic face (see [[[#fig3_1_35]]]).

    本文の文字サイズより1段階小さな文字サイズにし,書体をゴシック体にする([[[#fig3_1_35]]]).

    Example two of run-in heading 同行見出しの配置例2
    Example two of run-in heading 同行見出しの配置例2
  3. Set the run-in heading with the same character size and type-face as the main text. Note that the heading number or Western characters (cl-27) at the top of the heading are set with Japanese gothic face or bold face, for emphasis (see [[[#fig3_1_36]]]).

    本文と同じ文字サイズ及び書体にする.ただし,先頭に付くアラビア数字又は欧文用文字(cl-27)の番号をゴシック体又はウェイトの太い書体にし,やや目立つようにする([[[#fig3_1_36]]]).

    Example three of run-in heading 同行見出しの配置例3
    Example three of run-in heading 同行見出しの配置例3

Processing of Cut-in Headings 窓見出しの処理

Drop headings are also used for low level headings. A drop heading has no label name or heading number. Processing is as follows (see [[[#fig3_1_37]]]):

窓見出しも小見出しに利用される.窓見出しでは,ラベル名や番号を付けない.次のように処理する([[[#fig3_1_37]]]).

An example of cut-in headings 窓見出しの例
An example of cut-in headings 窓見出しの例
  1. Set the cut-in heading with one level smaller character size than the main text or the same character size as the main text, and with Japanese gothic face.

    窓見出しの文字は,本文より1段階小さくするか同じ文字サイズで,書体をゴシック体にする.

  2. It is better that the cut-in heading occupies a maximum of three lines and ten characters per line. JIS X 4051 determines that cut-in headings with up to six characters should be one line, up to twenty characters should be two lines and more than twenty-one characters should be three lines. When the cut-in heading has two lines, each line has half the number of characters of the heading text. When the cut-in heading has three lines, each line has a third of the number of characters of the heading text. If lines have a different number of characters, the last line may have less characters, and the remainder may be blank space. The line gap of two or three lines of cut-in heading is usually a fourth of an em of the heading character size.

    窓見出しの行数は,最大3行とし,1行の字数は最大で10字くらいとすることが望ましい.JIS X 4051では,“窓見出しの文字数が6字までは1行,20字までは2行,21字以上は3行とすることを既定値とする”と規定している.窓見出しの行数を2行にする場合は,窓見出しの字数の1/2の位置で折り返し,窓見出しの行数を3行にする場合は,窓見出しの字数の1/3及び2/3の位置で折り返す.不足分は,最終行の末尾を空ける.窓見出しを2行又は3行にする場合の行間は,窓見出しの文字サイズの四分アキくらいが望ましい.

  3. The line indent of a cut-in heading is usually a half em of the base character size for the kihon-hanmen. The in-line direction length of a cut-in heading is usually multiples of the character size for the kihon-hanmen. The space between the cut-in heading and the main text is usually more than one em and less than two em of the character size for the kihon-hanmen.

    窓見出しの字下げは,基本版面の文字サイズの二分アキくらいがよく,窓見出しの字詰め方向の領域は,基本版面の文字サイズの整数倍とする.窓見出しと本文との空き量は,基本版面の文字サイズの全角以上,2倍未満とする.

  4. When a cut-in heading has one line, the heading is set in the center of a two line space of the kihon-hanmen and two lines of main text are set following the cut-in heading. When the cut-in heading has two lines or three lines, the heading is set in the center of a three line space of the kihon-hanmen and three lines of main text follow the cut-in heading.

    窓見出しが1行の場合は,2行取りの中央に配置し,窓見出しに続く本文は2行配置する.窓見出しが2行又は3行の場合は,3行取りの中央に配置し,窓見出しに続く本文は3行配置する.

    An example of a one line cut-in heading 窓見出しが1行の配置例
    An example of a one line cut-in heading 窓見出しが1行の配置例
    An example of two lines or three lines cut-in headings 窓見出しが2行又は3行の配置例
    An example of two lines or three lines cut-in headings 窓見出しが2行又は3行の配置例
  5. A cut-in heading may be set at the end of a page or column. Note that if the space is less than the block direction width of the cut-in heading, the heading should be set on a new page or new column and the blank before the heading may be left as is. One cut-in heading is not set across two pages or two columns.

    窓見出しは,ページ末及び段組において段末に配置してよい.ただし,配置する行数が不足する場合は,次ページ又は次段に窓見出しを追い出し,そのページ又はその段の末尾は空けておく.1つの窓見出しを2つのページ又は2つの段にまたがって配置してはならない.

Processing of Column Spanning Headings 段抜きの見出しの処理

In multi-column pages, headings spanning multiple columns are processed as follows:

段組における複数の段の領域にわたって配置する段抜きの別行見出しは,次のように処理する.

  1. A spanning heading spanning all columns in the kihon-hanmen is usually set at the top of the page after the page break or new recto. However, there are cases where full spanning headings are set around the middle of the page. In such cases, main text lines are turned back before the heading block, including before headings that are not full spanning headings (see [[[#fig3_1_38]]]).

    基本版面で設定した段数にする段抜きの別行見出しは,一般に改ページ又は改丁で開始する先頭ページに配置する.しかし,ページの途中に配置する場合もある.この場合は,基本版面で設定した段数より少ない段数を使った段抜きの別行見出しを含め,本文は,別行見出しを“かべ”として,その前で折り返すようにする([[[#fig3_1_38]]]).

    Example one of spanning block heading turned back before the heading block 段抜きの別行見出しの前で本文は折り返す例1
    Example one of spanning block heading turned back before the heading block 段抜きの別行見出しの前で本文は折り返す例1
  2. When turning back main text before a spanning block, if the divided text lines are not same, the last column has less lines and remaining blank lines may be left as is (see [[[#fig3_1_39]]]). In vertical writing mode, the column with the least number of lines is the column nearest the bottom, and in horizontal writing mode, the column with the least number of lines is the right-most column.

    段抜きの見出しの前で折り返す場合,行数に半端が出るときは,その半端の不足行は,最も後ろになる段を空ける([[[#fig3_1_39]]]).縦組では最下段,横組では最右段を空ける.

    Example two of turning back of main text lines before spanning block heading 段抜きの別行見出しの前で本文は折り返す例2
    Example two of turning back of main text lines before spanning block heading 段抜きの別行見出しの前で本文は折り返す例2
  3. The less spanning block headings are usually set in the middle of the page. In these cases, the way in which multi column heading blocks are set is decided as follows:

    基本版面で設定した段数より少ない段抜きの別行見出しは,ページの途中に配置される場合が多い.この場合の配置位置,つまり,どの段から開始するかは,次のように処理する.

    1. When setting main text lines in multiple columns, if the spanning block heading appears in the first column, the spanning heading block is set to start from the first column ([[[#fig3_1_40]]]).

      段の領域に配置していった結果,段抜きの別行見出しが版面内の先頭の段に出現した場合は,先頭の段を開始する段とする([[[#fig3_1_40]]]).

      Example one of spanning block heading started from the first column 段抜きの別行見出しを開始する段の例1
      Example one of spanning block heading started from the first column 段抜きの別行見出しを開始する段の例1
    2. When main text lines are set following the multi column region, if a spanning block heading does not appear in the top column, the heading is set in that column or in the previous column. If the heading block appears before the block direction center of the column, the heading is set from the previous column (see [[[#fig3_1_41]]]). If the heading block appears after the block direction center of the column, the heading is set from that column itself (see [[[#fig3_1_42]]]). Note that if the line direction bottom of the heading block runs out of the hanmen, the heading block is set from previous columns (see [[[#fig3_1_43]]]).

      段の領域に配置していった結果,段抜きの別行見出しが版面内の2段目以降の段に出現した場合は,出現した段又はその上の段を開始する段とする.出現位置が段の領域の前(例えば1/2未満の位置)にきた場合は,すぐ上の段とする([[[#fig3_1_41]]]).出現位置が段の領域の後ろになる場合は,出現した段とする([[[#fig3_1_42]]]).ただし,配置した結果,段抜きの別行見出しが版面の領域をはみ出した場合は,上の段にする([[[#fig3_1_43]]]).

      Example two of spanning block heading started from the first column 段抜きの別行見出しを開始する段の例2
      Example two of spanning block heading started from the first column 段抜きの別行見出しを開始する段の例2
      Example three of which  column the spanning block heading is set from 段抜きの別行見出しを開始する段の例3
      Example three of which column the spanning block heading is set from 段抜きの別行見出しを開始する段の例3
      Example four of which column the spanning block heading is set from 段抜きの別行見出しを開始する段の例4
      Example four of which column the spanning block heading is set from 段抜きの別行見出しを開始する段の例4
  4. Spanning block headings are not set at the bottom of columns. Full spanning block headings are moved to the top of the next page. The bottom of the previous page is processed in the same way as for new recto and page break cases. Less column spanning block headings are moved to other positions, usually one column down.

    段抜きの別行見出しは,段の末尾に配置してはならない.基本版面で設定した段数にする段抜きの別行見出しは,次ページの先頭に配置する.前のページ末は,改丁・改ページの直前のページと同じ処理を行う.基本版面で設定した段数より少ない段抜きの別行見出しは,配置位置を変更する(開始する段を1段下にする).

Processing of Notes 注の処理

Kinds of Notes 注の種類

The following kinds of notes are used in Japanese text layout, besides notes between LEFT PARENTHESIS "(" and RIGHT PARENTHESIS ")" or warichu:

日本語組版で利用されている注を表す形式としては,始め小括弧[(] (LEFT PARENTHESIS)及び終わり小括弧[)] (RIGHT PARENTHESIS)内に補足する方法や割注以外に次がある.

  1. Endnotes: Notes used both in horizontal writing mode and vertical writing mode, set after a paragraph, a clause, a chapter or the whole base text. In vertical writing mode this type is most frequently used (see [[[#fig3_2_1]]]). In horizontal writing mode, the frequency of this type is second after footnotes (see [[[#fig3_2_1_2]]]).

    後注(こうちゅう):縦組でも横組でも利用される形式で,段落の後ろ,項・節・章の後ろ又は本全体の本文の後ろに掲げる注である.縦組では,この後注が最も多い([[[#fig3_2_1]]]).横組では脚注に続いて使用例が多い([[[#fig3_2_1_2]]]).

    An example of an endnote in vertical writing mode 縦組における後注の例
    An example of an endnote in vertical writing mode 縦組における後注の例
    An example of an endnote in horizontal writing mode 横組における後注の例
    An example of an endnote in horizontal writing mode 横組における後注の例
  2. Headnotes (in vertical writing mode) : Notes set above the kihon-hanmen in vertical writing mode. The area for the headnote is reserved at the upper part of the kihon-hanmen when the kihon-hanmen is designed, and notes related to a page or spread are set in the same page or spread (see [[[#fig3_2_2]]]). Headnotes are frequently used as explanations for words and idioms of Japanese classic texts. Japanese classic texts are sometimes set with three vertical areas, the top area is used for head notes, the middle area is used for the original text and the bottom area is used for a modern Japanese translation.

    頭注(縦組):縦組において,基本版面の天側に掲げられる注である.基本版面の設計段階であらかじめ注のための領域を天側に確保し,ページ(又は見開き)を単位として,その範囲にある項目に関連した注を設定した領域内に配置していく([[[#fig3_2_2]]]).頭注は,例えば,古典の注釈本において,文中の語句に説明を施す場合によく利用されている.この場合,版面内を上中下の3つの領域に分け,一番上の領域を注,中央領域に古典の原文,下端の領域に翻訳した現代文を掲げるという形式も行われている.

    An example of headnotes in vertical writing mode 縦組における頭注の例
    An example of headnotes in vertical writing mode 縦組における頭注の例
  3. Footnotes (in horizontal writing mode) : Notes set beneath the kihon-hanmen (see [[[#fig3_2_3]]]). In horizontal writing mode, footnotes are the most frequently used note style.

    脚注(横組):脚注は,基本版面の地側に掲げられる注である([[[#fig3_2_3]]]).横組では,脚注の利用が最も多い.

    An example of a footnote in horizontal writing mode 横組における脚注の例
    An example of a footnote in horizontal writing mode 横組における脚注の例
  4. Footnotes (in vertical writing mode) : The area for the footnote for vertical writing mode is reserved at the bottom of the kihon-hanmen beforehand, when the kihon-hanmen is designed, and notes are set in this area. This is similar to a headnote, but the location is beneath the base text. It is used in Japanese classic texts and keimousho (enlightening books), as explanations for technical terms. When illustrations are included in the footnote, basically the illustrations should be set within the footnote area (see [[[#fig3_2_4]]]).

    脚注(縦組):縦組の脚注は,基本版面の設計段階であらかじめ注のための領域を基本版面の地側に確保し,そこに配置していく.頭注の形式に似ているが,注の配置位置を下部にした形式である([[[#fig3_2_4]]]).古典などの注釈本や啓蒙的な本で,専門的な事項の説明を施す場合などに利用されている.この形式の注を採用した場合で図版を配置するときは,図版のサイズにもよるが,できるだけ,注の領域に図版も配置するようにしている.

    An example of a footnote in vertical writing mode 縦組における脚注の例
    An example of a footnote in vertical writing mode 縦組における脚注の例
  5. Sidenotes (in vertical writing mode) : In vertical writing mode, related notes in a spread are set in the fore-edge of the left (recto) page (see [[[#fig3_2_5]]]). In vertical writing mode, sidenotes are not frequently used. However, this style may be used more frequently, because for the reader this style causes minimal disturbance when following the flow of the base text, and the notes can be set very near to the related base text.

    傍注(縦組):縦組において,見開きを単位として,その範囲にある項目に関連した注を,見開きの左ページ(奇数ページ)の小口側に掲げる注である([[[#fig3_2_5]]]).縦組の傍注の使用例は少ないが,本文の流れを阻害しないで,かつ,関連項目の近くに注を掲げることができるので,もっと利用が増えてもよい形式である.

    An example of a sidenote in vertical writing style 縦組における傍注の例
    An example of a sidenote in vertical writing style 縦組における傍注の例
  6. Sidenotes (in horizontal writing mode) : In horizontal writing mode an area for a sidenote is reserved at the fore-edge side when the kihon-hanmen is designed, and the notes related to the page are set in the sidenote area of the same page ([[[#fig3_2_6]]]). Related illustrations are also set in the area. There are cases where sidenotes in horizontal writing style are set not in the fore-edge but right side of both recto and verso pages ([[[#fig3_2_7]]]). There are not so many cases of sidenotes in horizontal writing style. This style is sometimes used for keimousho (enlightening books) with many illustrations.

    傍注(横組):横組おける傍注は,サイドノートとよばれており,基本版面の設計段階であらかじめ注のための領域を小口側に確保し,ページを単位として,その範囲にある項目に関連した注をそこに配置していく([[[#fig3_2_6]]]).注だけでなく,この領域に図版等も配置される.横組おける傍注の位置を小口側でなく,ページの右側とした例もある([[[#fig3_2_7]]]).横組の傍注の使用例は多くないが,図版等が入る啓蒙的な本で利用されている.

    Example one of a sidenote in horizontal writing mode 横組における傍注の例1 (傍注を小口側に配置)
    Example one of a sidenote in horizontal writing mode 横組における傍注の例1(傍注を小口側に配置)
    Example two of a sidenote in horizontal writing mode (sidenotes are set in the right side of the pages) 横組における傍注の例2 (傍注をページの右側に配置)
    Example two of a sidenote in horizontal writing mode (sidenotes are set in the right side of the pages) 横組における傍注の例2(傍注をページの右側に配置)
An example of a note in inter lines 行間に配置した注の例
An example of a note in inter lines 行間に配置した注の例

Note Numbers 注の番号

Some notes have no explicit relationship to the specific position of the base text, and describe issues only vaguely related to the issues on the same page. However, in most cases, notes are explicitly related to specific positions within the base text using note numbers.

注は,本文の該当箇所との関連を示さないで,そのページにある項目に関連した注を配置する例もある.しかし,多くは本文の該当箇所との関連を示す注の番号を付け,関連を示す方法をとっている.

An example of western numerals as note numbers in tate-chu-yoko style. アラビア数字の注の番号を縦中横にした例
An example of western numerals as note numbers in tate-chu-yoko style. アラビア数字の注の番号を縦中横にした例
An example of ideographic numerals as note numbers with hiraji shape 注の番号に平字の漢数字を使用した例
An example of ideographic numerals as note numbers with hiraji shape 注の番号に平字の漢数字を使用した例

Note numbers in corresponding positions in the base text are called reference marks. The character class of reference mark is characters as reference marks (cl-20).

本文中の該当項目に付けた注の番号を合印(あいじるし)という.文字クラスとしては,合印中の文字(cl-20)となる.

There are several principles related to how to reset the series of note numbers. Endnotes are usually reset every chapter or section. Sidenotes in vertical writing mode are usually reset in every spread. Footnotes in horizontal writing mode are usually reset in every page.

注の番号の開始方法には,いくつかの方針がある.後注の場合は,配置位置にもよるが,章,節などを単位として,章や節が変わるたびに1から開始する形式が多い.縦組の傍注は,見開き単位で開始する形式が多く,横組の脚注は,ページ単位で開始する形式が多い.

Headnotes (in vertical writing mode), footnotes (vertical writing mode) and sidenotes (in horizontal writing mode) sometimes have no note numbers and are set with corresponding heading text with Japanese gothic typeface at the top of the note text (see [[[#fig3_2_11]]]).

頭注(縦組),脚注(縦組),傍注(横組)では,注の番号を付けずに,該当項目を見出し項目としてゴシック体にして冒頭に掲げる形式もとられている([[[#fig3_2_11]]]).

An example of a footnote (in vertical writing mode), with corresponding heading text with Japanese gothic face 脚注(縦組)で冒頭の項目名をゴシック体にした例
An example of a footnote (in vertical writing mode), with corresponding heading text with Japanese gothic face 脚注(縦組)で冒頭の項目名をゴシック体にした例

The Processing of the Reference Mark 合印の処理

There are two styles for setting reference marks (characters as reference marks (cl-20)). One is to set the reference mark adjacent to the target word and on the interlinear right side (in vertical writing mode) or interlinear upper side (in horizontal writing mode). The other is to set the reference mark in the line just after the target word.

縦組又は横組の合印合印中の文字(cl-20))は,該当項目に接して,その右側(縦組)又は上側(横組)の行間に配置する方法と,該当項目の後ろの行中に配置する方法がある.

The method where the reference mark is set on the right side (vertical writing mode) or above (horizontal writing mode) is as follows (see [[[#fig3_2_12]]], [[[#fig3_2_13]]]).

該当項目の右側(縦組)又は上側(横組)に配置する場合は,次のようにする([[[#fig3_2_12]]],[[[#fig3_2_13]]]).

An example where reference marks are set in the right inter-line space in vertical writing mode 縦組の合印中の文字を右側の行間に配置する例
An example where reference marks are set in the right inter-line space in vertical writing mode 縦組の合印中の文字を右側の行間に配置する例
An example where reference marks are set in inter-line space above in horizontal writing mode 横組の合印を上側の行間に配置する例
An example where reference marks are set in inter-line space above in horizontal writing mode 横組の合印を上側の行間に配置する例
  1. Character size of reference marks is around 6 points.

    文字サイズは,6ポイントくらいとする.

  2. In vertical writing mode, the bottom edges of the character frames of the target word and the characters as reference marks (cl-20) are aligned. In horizontal writing mode, the right side of the characters as reference marks (cl-20) and the target word are aligned. The characters as reference marks (cl-20) are not set outside of the area of the hanmen or column, so in such cases, characters as reference marks (cl-20) are aligned at the top of the line. In this case, characters as reference marks (cl-20) may jut out of the bottom of the target word.

    縦組の場合,合印中の文字(cl-20)の最下端と該当項目の最下端とをそろえる.横組の場合,合印中の文字(cl-20)の最右端と該当項目の最右端とをそろえる.そろえた結果,行頭側に付く合印中の文字(cl-20)が版面又は段の領域よりはみ出す場合は,このはみ出しは禁止されているので,合印中の文字(cl-20)の先頭を行頭にそろえる.この場合,該当項目の最下端又は最右端よりはみ出してもよい.

  3. The target word corresponding to the reference mark can be split across a line break where permitted. However, characters as reference marks (cl-20) are not split when including opening brackets (cl-01) and closing brackets (cl-02) and are treated as one object.

    合印中の文字(cl-20)が付く該当項目は,2行に分割可能な箇所では2行に分割してよいが,合印中の文字(cl-20)始め括弧類(cl-01)及び終わり括弧類(cl-02)を含めて一体として扱い,その字間では2行に分割してはならない.

  4. Reference marks do not affect the default line gap.

    合印中の文字(cl-20)が付く場合でも,その行間は変更しない.

  5. Reference marks, attached to the word set in the first line of the page or column, are set touching the outside of the hanmen or column area (see ([[[#fig3_2_12]]], [[[#fig3_2_13]]]).

    版面又は段の先頭の行に合印中の文字(cl-20)が付く場合,合印中の文字(cl-20)は,版面の外側に接して配置する.([[[#fig3_2_12]]],[[[#fig3_2_13]]])

In vertical writing mode, characters as reference marks (cl-20) are set just after the target word inline, as follows (see [[[#fig3_2_14]]]):

縦組において,合印中の文字(cl-20)を該当項目の後ろの行中に配置する場合は,次のようにする([[[#fig3_2_14]]]).

An example of reference marks set inline just after the target word in vertical writing mode 縦組の合印中の文字を該当項目の後ろの行中に配置する例
An example of reference marks set inline just after the target word in vertical writing mode 縦組の合印中の文字を該当項目の後ろの行中に配置する例
  1. Character size of reference marks is one or two levels smaller than the character size defined for the kihon-hanmen.

    合印中の文字(cl-20)文字サイズは,基本版面の文字サイズより1段階又は2段階小さくする.

  2. The right side of characters as reference marks (cl-20) is set aligned with the right side of the base character line.

    合印中の文字(cl-20)の行における行送り方向の文字の配置位置は,行の右端にそろえて配置する.

  3. Characters as reference marks (cl-20) are set solid with the base text before and after, except when followed by opening brackets (cl-01) (see [[[#spacing_between_characters]]]).

    合印中の文字(cl-20)の前後は,合印中の文字(cl-20)の後ろ側に始め括弧類(cl-01)が配置される場合を除いて,ベタ組とする([[[#spacing_between_characters]]]).

  4. Characters as reference marks (cl-20) do not include line breaks when including opening brackets (cl-01) and closing brackets (cl-02), and are handled as one object. Characters as reference marks (cl-20) are not used for the line adjustment process, i.e., are set solid. Also, characters as reference marks (cl-20) and base characters before and after are set solid.

    合印中の文字(cl-20)始め括弧類(cl-01)及び終わり括弧類(cl-02)を含めて一体として扱い,その字間では2行に分割してはならない.また,行の調整処理で字間を空けてはならない.また,合印中の文字(cl-20)の前とその前に配置される文字・記号との字間も同様とする.

In horizontal writing mode, characters as reference marks (cl-20) are set inline just after the target word as follows ([[[#fig3_2_15]]]):

横組において,合印中の文字(cl-20)を該当項目の後ろの行中に配置する場合は,次のようにする([[[#fig3_2_15]]]).

An example of reference marks set inline just after the target word in horizontal writing mode 横組の合印中の文字を該当項目の後ろの行中に配置する例
An example of reference marks set inline just after the target word in horizontal writing mode 横組の合印中の文字を該当項目の後ろの行中に配置する例
  1. Characters as reference marks (cl-20) are same kind to characters for superior scripts.

    合印中の文字(cl-20)に使用する文字は,添え字の上付き文字と同じとする.

  2. Characters as reference marks (cl-20) and base characters before and after are set solid, except for characters as reference marks (cl-20) followed by opening brackets (cl-01).

    合印中の文字(cl-20)の前後は,合印中の文字(cl-20)の後ろ側に始め括弧類(cl-01)が配置される場合を除いて,ベタ組とする.

  3. Characters as reference marks (cl-20) are not broken across a line end when including opening brackets (cl-01) and closing brackets (cl-02), and are handled as a one object. Characters as reference marks (cl-20) are not used for the line adjustment process, i.e., are set solid. Also, characters as reference marks (cl-20) and base characters before and after are set solid.

    合印中の文字(cl-20)始め括弧類(cl-01)及び終わり括弧類(cl-02)を含めて一体として扱い,その字間では2行に分割してはならない.また,行の調整処理で字間を空けてはならない.また,合印中の文字(cl-20)の前とその前に配置される文字・記号との字間も同様とする.

Processing of Endnotes in Vertical Writing Mode or Horizontal Writing Mode 縦組又は横組の後注処理

The following figure is a common example of endnotes set at the end of paragraphs in vertical writing mode (see [[[#fig3_2_16]]]).

段落の後ろに配置した縦組における後注の一般的な配置例を図解して示す([[[#fig3_2_16]]]).

An example of endnotes set  at the end of paragraphs in vertical writing mode 段落の後ろに配置した縦組の後注の配置例
An example of endnotes set at the end of paragraphs in vertical writing mode 段落の後ろに配置した縦組の後注の配置例

Specific issues related to setting endnotes in vertical writing mode or horizontal writing mode include the following:

縦組又は横組において後注を配置する際に,特に問題となる事項を解説する.

  1. The character size of endnotes should be one or two levels smaller than the character size of the base text in the kihon-hanmen.

    後注の文字サイズは,基本版面の文字サイズより1段階又は2段階小さくする.

  2. The indent length should be around two characters sizes of the base text in the kihon-hanmen. The line length of endnotes should be an integer-based number of times the endnote character size. The bottom of the endnote line should be set aligned with the bottom edge of the kihon-hanmen or column area. Accordingly, the indent length of endnotes needs to be adjusted and the length may sometimes differ by an integer-based number of units based on the base character size of the kihon-hanmen.

    字下げは,基本版面の文字サイズの2倍くらいにする.後注の行長は,後注の文字サイズの整数倍にする.また,後注の末尾は,版面又は段の領域の下端(縦組)又は右端(横組)に接して配置する.これに従い,字下げの量は調整が必要になり,基本版面の文字サイズの整数倍にならない例も多い.

  3. The inter-letter spacing after the head endnote number is usually the size of a full-width character of the endnote.

    後注の行頭側に付く注の番号の後ろは,一般に後注の文字サイズの全角アキとする.

  4. When the endnote is two lines or more, the second line and after are indented one or two full-width character sizes longer than the first line.

    後注が2行以上となった場合,後注の2行目以下の字下げは,1行目より,後注の文字サイズの2倍又は全角とする.

  5. Line gaps of endnotes are narrower than the line gap of the kihon-hanmen because of the smaller character size of endnotes.

    後注の行間は,文字サイズを小さくしているので,それに応じて狭くする.

  6. When new chapters are begun after a page break or new recto, endnotes are set just before the page or page break or new recto, and the space after the endnote may be left as is. Only the line gap between the base text and the endnote should be specified. However, when the endnotes are set between paragraphs, the line gap before and after the endnote becomes an issue. Basically, the minimum size of line gaps between the endnote and the base text, before and after, is the line gap decided for the kihon-hanmen, and usually, the line at the end of the hanmen or a column is aligned with the bottom of the hanmen or the column. In these cases, the fraction of line gap is basically adjusted by the increase of the line gap after the endnote, but when the endnote comes to the end of the hanmen or the column, the line gap before the endnote is increased ([[[#fig3_2_17]]]).

    改ページ,改丁などで開始する章などの末尾に後注を配置する場合,改ページ,改丁などで開始される直前のページに後注は配置され,後注の後ろは空白となり,大きな問題はでない.後注とその前に配置される本文との行間を決めればよい.しかし,段落の間などに後注を挿入する場合は,後注の前及び後ろに配置される本文との行間が問題となる.原則として,後注とその前後に配置する本文との最小の行間は,基本版面で設定した行間とする.また,通常,版面又は段の末尾に配置される行は,版面又は段の領域の末尾にそろえる.この場合の行送り方向の半端は,原則として後注の後ろを増やして処理するが,版面又は段の末尾に後注がきたときは,後注の前にとる([[[#fig3_2_17]]]).

    An example of the handling of line gaps before and after  endnotes 後注前後の行間の処理例
    An example of the handling of line gaps before and after endnotes 後注前後の行間の処理例

Processing of Footnotes in Horizontal Writing Mode 横組の脚注処理

Setting positions of footnotes in horizontal writing mode are at the bottom of the hanmen in the page where the target words and the reference marks appear in one column, and at the bottom of the column space where the target words and the reference marks appear in two or more columns. When footnotes overflow from the hanmen or the column, the overflowed part of the footnotes is inserted before the footnotes of the next page or next column.

横組における脚注の配置位置は,1段組の場合は,合印があるページの版面の最下端に接して配置し,多段組の場合は,合印がある段の領域の最下端に接して配置する.そのページ又は段に対応する脚注の全部又は一部が入りきらない場合は,入りきらない脚注部分を次ページ又は次の段に,そのページ又は段に入る脚注の前に挿入する.

Example one of footnotes in multiple columns 多段組の脚注の配置例1
Example one of footnotes in multiple columns 多段組の脚注の配置例1
Example two of footnotes in multiple columns 多段組の脚注の配置例2
Example two of footnotes in multiple columns 多段組の脚注の配置例2
Example one of footnotes before page break or new recto 脚注の改ページ,改丁などの直前ページへの配置例1
Example one of footnotes before page break or new recto 脚注の改ページ,改丁などの直前ページへの配置例1
Example two of footnotes before page break or new recto 脚注の改ページ,改丁などの直前ページへの配置例2
Example two of footnotes before page break or new recto 脚注の改ページ,改丁などの直前ページへの配置例2

Following figure is an common example of footnotes in horizontal writing mode (see [[[#fig3_2_22]]]).

1段組の横組における脚注の一般的な配置例を図解して示す([[[#fig3_2_22]]]).

An example of footnotes in single column horizontal writing mode 1段組の横組の脚注の配置例
An example of footnotes in single column horizontal writing mode 1段組の横組の脚注の配置例

The following items are outstanding issues when setting footnotes in horizontal writing mode:

横組の脚注を配置する際に,特に問題となる事項を解説する.

  1. The character size of footnotes is one or two levels smaller than the character size of the base text in the kihon-hanmen.

    脚注の文字サイズは,基本版面の文字サイズより1段階又は2段階小さくする.

  2. Usually footnotes are accompanied by lines to separate the base text and footnotes (i.e. rules), indentation is not needed. However because the line length of footnotes should be multiples of the character size of footnotes, the difference in line length of the base text and line length of footnotes is adjusted with the insertion of left side spacing and the bottom of footnote is aligned with the kihon-hanmen or column area.

    脚注は,一般にその前に区切りのための罫線を挿入するので,字下げは行わなくてよい.ただし,脚注の行長は,脚注の文字サイズの整数倍にする必要があるので,基本版面で設定した行長と脚注の行長との差は,左端にとり(字下げとなる),脚注の行末は版面又は段の領域の右端に接するようにする.

  3. The inter-character spacing between footnote numbers at the top of the line and footnote text is usually a full-width of footnote text character in size.

    脚注の行頭側に付く注の番号の後ろは,一般に脚注の文字サイズの全角アキとする.

  4. When a footnote has two or more lines, the second line or below is indented by one em space, or the first line is indented by one em space of footnote character size ([[[#fig3_2_23]]]).

    脚注が2行以上となった場合,脚注の2行目以下の字下げを1行目より,脚注の文字サイズの全角アキとするか,逆に,1行目の字下げを2行目より,脚注の文字サイズの全角アキとする([[[#fig3_2_23]]]).

    Examples of indents of footnotes, first line indentation and second line and below indentation 脚注の2行目以下又は1行目の字下げの例
    Examples of indents of footnotes, first line indentation and second line and below indentation 脚注の2行目以下又は1行目の字下げの例
  5. Line gaps of footnotes are narrower according to the smaller size of footnote characters. The line gap of footnotes is recommended to be a half em of a footnote character size or slightly narrower, depending on the base text line gap.

    脚注の行間は,文字サイズを小さくしているので,それに応じて狭くする.脚注の行間は,基本版面の行間にもよるが,脚注の文字サイズの二分くらいか,それよりやや詰めるくらいがよい.

  6. A line called a rule is inserted between the base text and footnotes to distinguish the footprint of the footnotes. For this purpose, a thin border is used. The length of the line is usually one third of the line length of the kihon-hanmen, depending on the kihon-hanmen design. The left side of the line is aligned to the left side of the hanmen or column. The line gap between the line and the footnote is slightly wider than the usual line gap among footnotes.

    脚注とその前に配置する本文との間を区切るための罫線を挿入する.この罫線は,表罫(おもてけい)とする.罫線の長さは,基本版面で設定した行長にもよるが,行長の1/3くらいにする.左端は版面又は段の左端にそろえる.区切るための罫線と脚注との行間は,脚注の行間よりやや広くすることが望ましい.

  7. The minimum size of line gaps among base text, the rule, and footnotes is a line gap size of the base text in the kihon-hanmen. The bottom line of footnotes is aligned to the edge of the kihon-hanmen or column area. Accordingly, fractions will appear. This fraction is inserted between the base text area and the rule. Accordingly, the fraction between the rule and the base text area will change between the line gap of the kihon-hanmen and the character size plus line gap of the kihon-hanmen.

    脚注と本文とを区切る罫線と,その前にくる本文との空き量(行間)は,最小を基本版面で設定した行間の大きさとする.脚注の下端は,版面又は段の領域の最下端にそろえるので,行送り方向のサイズで半端が出る.この半端は本文と区切りのための罫線との間にとる.したがって,脚注と本文とを区切る罫線と,その前にくる本文との空き量(行間)は,基本版面で設定した行間から,基本版面の文字サイズ+行間未満の値の間で変動する.

Processing of Sidenotes in Vertical Writing Mode 縦組の傍注処理

The following figure is a common example of sidenotes in vertical writing mode (see [[[#fig3_2_24]]]).

縦組における傍注の一般的な配置例を図解して示す([[[#fig3_2_24]]]).

An example of sidenotes in vertical writing mode 縦組の傍注の配置例
An example of sidenotes in vertical writing mode 縦組の傍注の配置例

Side notes in vertical writing mode are similar to footnotes in horizontal writing mode. Accordingly, general methods for footnotes in horizontal writing mode can be applied to sidenotes in vertical writing mode. The following items are outstanding issues only applied to sidenotes in vertical writing mode:

縦組の傍注は,横組の脚注の形式と似ている.したがって,その処理は,横組の脚注の処理の応用でもある.縦組の傍注を配置する際に,特に問題となる事項に限り解説する.

  1. Side notes in vertical writing mode are set at the left side of the odd page of the spread to which corresponding reference marks appear. In multiple columns, sidenotes are aligned to the left side of the lowest column.

    縦組の傍注は,その見開き内に付いている合印に対応する注を,奇数ページの左端にそろえて配置する.多段組では最下段の左端にそろえて配置する.

  2. When the volume of sidenotes is too great, the sidenotes may overflow to the even page. In multiple columns, the sidenotes may overflow to the column above.

    注の分量が多い場合は,偶数ページにはみ出してよい.多段組の場合は,上の段にはみ出してよい.

  3. When it is not possible to set any sidenotes or some of the sidenotes in a spread, the overflowed part may be inserted before the sidenotes corresponding to the next reference mark in an odd page or the lowest column in an odd page of the next spread.

    対応する傍注の全部又は一部が入りきらない場合には,入りきらない傍注部分を,直後の見開きにおける奇数ページ又は奇数ページの最下段に,次の見開きの合印に対応する傍注の前に挿入する.

  4. In pages just before a page break or a new recto, the sidenotes are set in the last page of the section following the base text, even if the last page is even. If it is not possible to set the side notes in the page, the part of the notes that juts out is set from the top of the next page or the top of the first column, then the page is followed by page break or new recto.

    改ページ,改丁などの直前のページなどでは,奇数ページ・偶数ページに関わらず,その部分の最終ページに配置する.なお,最終ページに配置できないではみ出しが出る場合,そのはみ出しは,1段組のときは次ページの先頭から配置し,傍注の配置が済んだところで改ページ,改丁などの処理をする.多段組の場合は,はみ出しは,次ページの先頭段から配置し,傍注の配置が済んだところで改ページ,改丁などの処理をする.

  5. In the above cases, the remaining space is usually inserted after the sidenote, unlike the case where footnotes are inserted between the base text and the footnotes in horizontal writing mode.

    上記dで配置した結果,余白が出た場合の処理は,脚注のように本文と脚注との間にとる形式ではなく,傍注の後ろにとる方法が多い.

  6. A thin line is inserted between the base text and sidenotes to distinguish them. The line is a thin border. The length of the line depends on the line length of the kihon-hanmen, but is usually one third of the line length, and the top end of the line is aligned to the top edge of the kihon-hanmen. It is recommended that the gap between the line and the sidenotes is a little bit wider than for footnote cases.

    傍注とその前に配置する本文との間を区切るための罫線を挿入する.この罫線は,表罫(おもてけい)とする.罫線の長さは,基本版面で設定した行長にもよるが,行長の1/3くらいにする.上端は版面又は段の上端にそろえる.区切るための罫線と傍注との行間は,脚注の行間よりやや広くすることが望ましい.

  7. The minimum value of the line gap between the line to distinguish the base text and sidenotes is the value of line gap decided in the kihon-hanmen. The left side of the last line of the sidenotes is aligned to the left edge of the kihon-hanmen or the column. Accordingly, a fraction space in the block direction is inserted between the base text area and the rule, and the fraction between the rule and the base text area will change between the line gap of the kihon-hanmen and the character size plus line gap of the kihon-hanmen.

    傍注と本文とを区切る罫線と,その前にくる本文との空き量(行間)は,最小を基本版面で設定した行間の大きさとする.傍注の左端は,版面又は段の領域の最左端にそろえるので,行送り方向のサイズで半端がでる.この半端は本文と区切りのための罫線との間にとる.したがって,傍注と本文とを区切る罫線と,その前にくる本文との空き量(行間)は,基本版面で設定した行間から,基本版面の文字サイズ+行間未満の値の間で変動する.

Processing of Headnotes (in Vertical Writing Mode), Footnotes (in Vertical Writing Mode) and Sidenotes (in Horizontal Writing Mode) 頭注(縦組)・脚注(縦組)・傍注(横組)の処理

Processing of headnotes in vertical writing mode, footnotes in vertical writing mode and sidenotes in horizontal writing mode is very similar, so these processing methods will be described together in this section. These types of notes will be called parallel-notes, hereafter.

頭注(縦組),脚注(縦組)及び傍注(横組)(以下,この項では並列注という)の処理は似ているのでまとめて解説する.

There are the following relationships between the parallel-note and the main text:

並列注と本文との対応には,次のような方法がある.

  1. Setting the note number as a reference mark: Set a number as a reference mark (characters as reference marks (cl-20) at the corresponding main text position, and set the same number at the very top of the parallel-note.

    注の番号を付ける方法.本文の該当箇所に合印合印中の文字(cl-20))を付け,並列注の先頭に注の番号を掲げ,それで対応させる.

  2. Setting symbols as a reference mark: Set a symbol (ex. ASTERISK "*") beside the corresponding main text position or change the font style or corresponding main text position to another font style (ex. Japanese Gothic) ([[[#fig3_2_25_2]]], [[[#fig3_2_25_3]]]).

    記号などで示す方法.本文の該当項目の横に記号を付ける(例えば,アステリスク[*] (ASTERISK)),又は本文の該当語句の書体を変更し(例えば,ゴシック体),並列注の先頭に掲げる項目を強調する書体に変更して(例えば,ゴシック体)示す([[[#fig3_2_25_2]]],[[[#fig3_2_25_3]]]).

    Examples of numbers and a symbol to indicate corresponding reference marks 記号を付けて並列注の項目を示した例
    Examples of numbers and a symbol to indicate corresponding reference marks 記号を付けて並列注の項目を示した例
    Examples of changed font style to indicate corresponding reference marks 書体を変更して並列注の項目を示した例
    Examples of changed font style to indicate corresponding reference marks 書体を変更して並列注の項目を示した例
  3. Set parallel-notes in the same spread where the corresponding main text positions appear without reference marks. Only the key words are emphasized with a difference of font style (ex. Japanese Gothic).

    そのページ又は見開きにある項目に関係する並列注を掲げるが,本文との対応を示さない方法.並列注の先頭に掲げる項目を強調する書体にして(例えば,ゴシック体),それだけで示す.

There are some issues specific to setting parallel-notes as follows:

並列注を配置する際に,特に問題となる事項を解説する.

  1. The character size of parallel-notes is one or two levels smaller than the character size of main text in the kihon-hanmen.

    並列注の文字サイズは,基本版面の本文部分の文字サイズより1段階又は2段階小さくする.

  2. The line length of parallel-notes is an integer based multiple of the character size of notes. It depends on the book size; around fifteen characters to twenty characters in a line is recommended. In some cases around twenty five characters is acceptable.

    並列注の字詰め方向の長さ行長)は,注の文字サイズの整数倍にする.判型や注の分量にもよるが,15字から20字くらいである.ケースによっては25字程度にする場合もある.

  3. The line gap of parallel-notes is basically a half em of the character size of the parallel-notes. When the volume of parallel-notes is high, there are cases of one third em.

    並列注の行間は,並列注に使用する文字サイズの二分が基準である.並列注の分量が多い場合は,並列注に使用する文字サイズの三分くらいにする例もある.

  4. The size of the parallel-note area in the block direction is the same as the size of the main text in the kihon-hanmen.

    並列注の領域の行送り方向のサイズは,基本版面の本文部分の行送り方向のサイズとそろえる.

  5. It is recommended to set the space between parallel-notes and the main text in inline direction at around double the em character size of the main text in the kihon-hanmen.

    並列注と本文との字詰め方向の空き量は,基本版面の本文部分の文字サイズの2倍くらいとする.

  6. Usually, indentation of the second line and after, like end notes, is not applied to parallel-notes. In the majority of cases, the first line of a parallel-note is set as tentsuki. There are cases where the first line is indented by one a em character size of the parallel-notes, like common paragraphs.

    後注のように1行目の行頭の位置より2行目の行頭の位置を下げるということは,並列注では,通常,行わない.並列注の先頭行は,天付きとする例が多いが,(一般の段落と同じように)並列注に使用する文字サイズの全角下げる方法もある.

  7. The inter-letter spacing between the note number and the following parallel-note text is around one em of a parallel-note character size. There are cases where the note number and target word are changed to a different font style (ex. Japanese Gothic) and the note number and the target word are set solid. The inter-letter spacing between the target word and parallel-note text is one em of the parallel-note text size (see [[[#fig3_2_25]]]).

    注の番号とそれに続く並列注との間の空き量は,並列注に使用する文字サイズの二分アキくらいとする.注の番号の書体と対象となる用語を変更し(例えば,ゴシック体),ベタ組で続ける例もある.強調した用語とそれに続く並列注との間の空き量は,並列注に使用する文字サイズの全角アキとする.注の番号などの配置例をいくつか示す([[[#fig3_2_25]]]).

    Examples of headnotes in vertical writing mode 頭注(縦組)の注の番号などの配置例
    Examples of headnotes in vertical writing mode 頭注(縦組)の注の番号などの配置例

The setting of parallel-notes and the main text area is as follows:

並列注を配置する際の本文との位置関係は,次のようにする.

  1. The position of target text and the position of a parallel-note in block direction are aligned as near as possible. In vertical writing mode, the right edge of the target word and the right edge of the parallel-note are aligned. In horizontal writing mode, the upper edge of the target word and the upper edge of the parallel-note are aligned (see [[[#fig3_2_26]]]).

    本文の該当箇所と並列注の位置はできるだけそろえる.縦組では,該当項目の文字の右端と並列注全体の最右端とをそろえ,横組では,該当項目の文字の上端と並列注全体の最上端とをそろえる([[[#fig3_2_26]]]).

    Example one of headnotes in vertical writing mode 頭注(縦組)の配置位置例1
    Example one of headnotes in vertical writing mode 頭注(縦組)の配置位置例1
  2. After these methods are applied, if the parallel-note text overflows, there needs to be some arrangement to handle that within the page. In vertical writing mode, the parallel-note positions are shifted to the right, and in horizontal writing mode, the parallel-note positions are shift above (see [[[#fig3_2_27]]]). This arrangement is done until the first parallel-note reaches the right edge in vertical writing mode or the top edge in horizontal writing mode. If there is more overflow, the overflowed part of the parallel-notes is set at the top of the next page. In vertical writing mode, arrangements may be applied not within the page but within the spread.

    上記aにより配置した結果,並列注が並列注のページの領域をはみ出す場合は,ページ単位での調整を行う.ページ単位での調整を行う場合,縦組では右側,横組では上側に移動する([[[#fig3_2_27]]]).この処理は,並列注全体の最右端又は最上端を並列注領域の先頭に達するまで行い,それでもはみ出しが出る場合は,はみ出した並列注の全部又は一部を次のページの先頭に配置する.なお,縦組で並列注が全体に多数入るような場合は,ページを単位としての調整だけでなく,見開きを単位とした調整の処理を行う方法もある.

    Example two of headnote in vertical writing mode 頭注(縦組)の配置位置例2
    Example two of headnote in vertical writing mode 頭注(縦組)の配置位置例2
  3. When there are multiple parallel-notes set in the same page or the same spread, the following methods are applied:

    同一のページ又は見開きを単位に,その領域に複数の並列注を配置し,位置関係の調整が必要な場合は,次のようにする.

    1. The line gap between the two different parallel-notes is explicitly specified, or the value for the line gap within the parallel-note itself is applied if there is no explicit instruction.

      異なる並列注を密着して並べる場合の行送り方向の間の空き量は,指定した空き量(指定がないときは並列注の行間の大きさ)とする.

    2. The arrangement of positioning is done as follows. First, the parallel-note positions are settled from first parallel-note, and second parallel-note and after is set with the instructed line gap or corresponding position to the target word in the main text. Second, if the parallel-note will overflow, the parallel-notes are set from the bottom of parallel-note area. Third, if the parallel-notes still overflow, parallel-notes are set from the top of the parallel-note area with appropriate line gap, and the overflowed part of the parallel-notes is set at the top of the next page or next spread.

      位置の調整を行う際には,前に配置した並列注から位置を決めていき,次に配置する並列注は,本文の該当箇所又は直前の並列注との間に所定の空き量をとって配置していく.その結果,並列注の領域をはみ出した場合は,並列注の領域の末尾から配置していく.その結果,並列注の先頭からはみ出した場合は,先頭から出現順に,各並列注の間に所定の空き量を確保し,配置し,並列注が並列注の領域の末尾からはみ出したときは,はみ出した並列注を次のページ又は見開きの先頭に配置する.

    3. When the parallel-notes will overflow to the next page or next spread, the instructed line gap is inserted between the overflowed part of the parallel-notes and the original parallel-note part. The realm after the overflowed part is the area for the original parallel-notes.

      並列注を次のページ又は見開きに配置した場合,その配置した並列注の後ろに所定の空き量を確保して,その残りの領域を次のページ又は見開きの並列注の配置領域とする.

Positioning of Illustrations 図版の配置処理

Specification of the Position of Illustrations 図版配置の指定方法

There are two methods for specifying the position of illustrations.

書籍に図版(図や写真等)の配置を指定する方法としては,次の2つがある.

  1. With this method, first, the in slip for the body of the book is created. Then, for each page, layout processing is executed, and the positioning of illustrations on a specific page and its position in that page are specified.

    あらかじめ本文のテキストについて指定の文字サイズ,字詰めや行間で組版し,文字の配置領域のサイズを分かるようにしておき,それを利用して,ページごとにレイアウトを行い,図版を配置する具体的なページと,そのページ内での詳細な配置位置を指定する方法.

  2. With this method, the relation between the main text and the illustration is specified, and the position of the illustration within the page is specified only in principle.

    図版と本文のテキストとの対応を指示し,ページ内での図版配置位置は原則のみを指定する方法.

    Common example of illustration positioning 縦組の図版配置の一般的な例
    Common example of illustration positioning 縦組の図版配置の一般的な例
    Common example of figure positioning in horizontal layout 横組の図版配置の一般的な例
    Common example of figure positioning in horizontal layout 横組の図版配置の一般的な例
    Example for layout of captions キャプションの組方例
    Example for layout of captions キャプションの組方例

The explanation below is restricted to method (b). Illustration, captions and notes will be regarded as one piece of data. The positioning method for this single piece of data is explained.

以下では,bに限定して解説する.また,以下では,図版,キャプション及び注を一体としたデータがあるのものとし,その全体を配置する方法について解説する.

Basic Concepts about Illustration Positioning 図版配置の基本的な考え方

When the position of an illustration within a page is specified only by the relation between illustration and main text, it is desirable that the explanation of the illustration in the main text and the illustration are as close as possible to each other.

図版と本文のテキストとの対応を指示し,ページ内での図版配置位置は原則のみを指定する場合,本文のテキストの説明と図版配置位置との関係は,同一ページのできるだけ近い位置が望ましい.

Requirements for Illustration Positioning in Vertical Layout 縦組における図版配置の条件

For vertical layout as in [[[#fig3_1]]], the following requirements for illustration positioning apply.

[[[#fig3_1]]]の縦組の場合において,図版を配置する際に必要となる条件としては,次がある.

  1. In books, the spread is the basis for the design, and the illustration position is specified towards the head and fore-edge. Hence it is necessary to use the spread as the basis for the specification of the position. Concretely it means that the position has to correspond to "towards the fore-edge" or towards the gutter.

    書籍では見開きを基準に設計し,“天・小口寄り”などといった指定を行うので,見開きを基準とした指定ができなければならない.具体的には,“小口寄り”又は“のど寄り”という指定に対応しなければならない.

  2. In vertical layout, often the upper part of an illustration touches the head of the hanmen, or the left or right part touches the fore-edge. This makes it necessary to position the illustration relying on the hanmen (or the final size). Furthermore, even if the complete hanmen is occupied by the illustration, depending on the illustration content, in some cases it is better style to position the illustration about 1mm inside the hanmen.

    縦組では,図版の上端を版面の天側に,かつ図版の左端又は右端を版面の小口側に接して配置する例が多いので,版面(又は仕上りサイズ)から指定した位置に図版を配置できなければならない.なお,版面いっぱいに配置する場合でも,図版の内容によっては,版面から1mm程度内側に配置した方が体裁がよいケースもある.

  3. As said in "b", normally, it is appropriate to specify a position starting from the hanmen. However, in the case of a bleed, it is necessary to jut out of the final size to position the illustration (see [[[#fig_ad1_8]]]). Furthermore, in such cases it is possible to specify an intuitive position, if the specification of the position uses the edge of the trim size as the origin (see [[[#fig3_4]]]).

    通常は,bで述べたように版面からの指定位置でよいが,裁切りにする場合などでは,仕上りサイズをはみ出して図版を配置できる必要がある(実例は[[[#fig_ad1_8]]]).なお,こうした場合などでは,仕上りサイズの角を原点としての位置指定ができれば,直感的な指定が可能になる.([[[#fig3_4]]])

    Bleed positioning 裁切りの配置の位置指定の原点例
    Bleed positioning 裁切りの配置の位置指定の原点例
  4. If base text is placed around illustrations, normally the smallest spacing between them is specified. The smallest spacing is the character size used for the main text (which is specified for the kihon-hanmen), or the line gap (also specified for the kihon-hanmen). It is also necessary to specify the line length of surrounding text as an integral multiple of the character size in use.

    図版を配置した周囲に本文のテキストを配置する場合は,通常,最小の空き量及び最大の空き量を指定する.最小の空き量は,一般に本文に使用する文字サイズ(基本版面で設定した文字サイズ)又は本文の行間(基本版面で設定した行間)である.また,周囲に配置する際の行長は,使用する文字サイズの整数倍にする必要がある.

    An example of spacing around illustration 図版の周囲の空き量の例
    An example of spacing around illustration 図版の周囲の空き量の例
  5. If the number of characters of main text to be placed around illustrations in inline direction is very small (for example 1/4 of the line length of the kihon-hanmen or less than 9 characters), it is better to not place the characters and leave the space free (see [[[#fig3_5]]]). Also, as shown in the left part of [[[#fig3_6]]], for the arrangement of illustrations in the block direction, it is bad style and should be avoided to have only one line of main text (in [[[#fig3_6]]], the right side shows the appropriate way).

    本文のテキストを図版の周囲に配置する場合で,その配置領域の字詰め方向の長さが極端に短い場合(例えば基本版面で指定する1行の行長の1/4又は9字以下の場合)は,本文のテキストは配置しないで,空けておいた方がよい([[[#fig3_5]]]).また,[[[#fig3_6]]]の左側の例のように,行送り方向の図版の前後には,本文のテキストを1行だけ配置することは体裁がよくないので避ける([[[#fig3_6]]]の例では右側のようにするとよい).

    A case where the number of characters of main text in inline direction is very short 縦組で配置領域の字詰め方向の長さが極端に短い場合
    A case where the number of characters of main text in inline direction is very short 縦組で配置領域の字詰め方向の長さが極端に短い場合
    Example of only one full length line of vertical text after  illustrations in the block direction (the left case should be changed to the right case) 縦組で行送り方向の図版の後ろに1行だけ配置した例 (左側を右側の配置に変更する)
    Example of only one full length line of vertical text after illustrations in the block direction (the left case should be changed to the right case) 縦組で行送り方向の図版の後ろに1行だけ配置した例(左側を右側の配置に変更する)

Requirements for Illustration Positioning in Horizontal Layout 横組における図版配置の条件

In the case of horizontal layout as in [[[#fig3_2]]], the following requirements for illustration positioning apply.

[[[#fig3_2]]]の横組の場合において,図版を配置する際に必要となる条件としては,次のような事項がある.

  1. In case of [[[#fig3_2]]], the basic approach is to position the illustration directly after the paragraph with its explanation (see [[[#fig3_7]]]).

    [[[#fig3_2]]]の場合,説明のある段落の直後に配置することが基本である([[[#fig3_7]]]).

    Positioning directly after the explaining paragraph 図版を説明のある段落の直後に配置した例
    Positioning directly after the explaining paragraph 図版を説明のある段落の直後に配置した例

    If due to space it is not possible to position the illustration in that place, it is placed at the head or foot of the hanmen (see [[[#fig3_8]]]).

    この位置にスペースの関係で配置できない場合は,版面の地又は次ページの天に配置する([[[#fig3_8]]]).

    Placing the illustration at the foot or head of the hanmen 図版を地又は天に配置した例
    Placing the illustration at the foot or head of the hanmen 図版を地又は天に配置した例
  2. As shown in [[[#fig3_2]]], often characters are not put to the right or left of an illustration, and the space is left blank. However, there is also the possibility of placing the illustration at the side of the fore-edge (see [[[#fig3_9]]]) or the right side (see [[[#fig3_10]]]). Also in these cases, the illustrations are not placed - like in vertical layout - at the side of the head, but often in linkage with the main text. That is, the illustrations are placed on the page with their explanations, beside the mid paragraph anchor point or on the head or foot (see [[[#fig3_9]]] and [[[#fig3_10]]]).

    [[[#fig3_2]]]のように図版の左右には本文のテキストを配置しないで空けておく方法が多い.しかし,ページの小口側([[[#fig3_9]]])又は右側([[[#fig3_10]]])に配置する方法もある.ページの小口側又は右側に配置する場合でも,縦組のように天側に配置するのではなく,[[[#fig3_9]]]又は[[[#fig3_10]]]のように本文のテキストと連動して配置位置を決めることが多い.つまり,説明のあるページ途中の段落の横か,天又は地に配置する.

    Example of placing an illustration at the fore-edge of the hanmen 版面の小口側に図版を配置した例
    Example of placing an illustration at the fore-edge of the hanmen 版面の小口側に図版を配置した例
    Example of placing an illustration at the right side of the hanmen 版面の右側に図版を配置した例
    Example of placing an illustration at the right side of the hanmen 版面の右側に図版を配置した例
  3. As shown in the left part of [[[#fig3_11]]], like in vertical layout, it is bad style and must be avoided to have just one line of the main text around an illustration in the block direction. In the example in [[[#fig3_11]]], the problem is solved by transferring the single line below the illustration above it and placing the illustration at the bottom fore-edge of the hanmen.

    [[[#fig3_11]]]の左側のように行送り方向の図版の前後に本文のテキストを1行だけ配置するのは,縦組同様に体裁がよくないので避ける.[[[#fig3_11]]]の例でいえば,図の下の1行を図版の上に移動し,図版は版面の下端に配置する.

    Example for horizontal layout of having just only one line after the illustration in the block direction (should change the left case to the right case) 横組で行送り方向の図版の後ろに1行だけ配置した例 (左側を右側の配置に変更する)
    Example for horizontal layout of having just only one line after the illustration in the block direction (should change the left case to the right case) 横組で行送り方向の図版の後ろに1行だけ配置した例(左側を右側の配置に変更する)
  4. Illustrations which stretch across several columns in a print space are normally placed at the head or foot (see [[[#fig3_12]]]).

    段組において,複数の段にまたがって配置する図版は,一般に天か地に配置する([[[#fig3_12]]]).

    Example of illustration stretching across several columns 複数段にまたがって配置した図版の例
    Example of illustration stretching across several columns

Basic Ideas about Illustration Positioning in JIS X 4051 JIS X 4051における図版配置の基本的な考え方

To provide some background for the preceding discussion, the main definitions of JIS X 4051 will be introduced below.

これまでの説明を前提にして,JIS X 4051の図版をページに配置する処理の主な規定内容を紹介する.

  1. JIS X 4051 defines two methods for illustration positioning: "relative position specification" and "absolute position specification". Below the definitions from this standard are described.

    JIS X 4051では,図版配置については“相対位置指定”と“絶対位置指定”の2つの方法を規定している.次に同規格の用語の定義を掲げる.

    Relative position specification: the specification of block units appears together with the flow of, say, paragraphs of the main text within lines. The lines are the basis for positioning, and segmentation of the line feed is not possible. ("block unit": a general term for blocks of figures, images etc. and tables)

    相対位置指定:ブロック類の指定が本文段落などの流れとともに出現した行を配置位置基準とし,行送り方向の分割を不可とする,ブロック類の配置位置指定方法.(ブロック類:図・写真等のブロッ