This specification, developed by the W3C OpenTrack Community Group, introduces a data model to support the publication of Athletics data on the Web. This document is based on the OpenTrack Abstract Data Model that defines the main concepts and relations of Athletics competitions, including events schedule, competitors and other stakeholders, enabling a common representation of information in this sector.

This OpenTrack vocabulary proposes an extension of Schema.org [[SCHEMA-ORG]], producing a lightweight schema to identify, expose and process Athletics data on the Web.

This Schema.org extension takes into account its current version, and continuing with the work done previously by the specific Sports Schema.org task force.

This vocabulary is in process of development.

## Introduction This proposal is based on the [conceptual model for OpenTrack](../model/). As described in [the charter](https://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/charter.html) of the Community Group, this model describes data related to Athletics competitions including: Track and Field; Road Running; Race Walking; Cross-Country Running; Mountain Running; and trail Running disciplines. This model is focus on Athletics competitions, having into account: events; athletes and teams; results; performances; management of start lists; results; and facilities. This document specifies a lightweight schema, based on Schema.org [[SCHEMA-ORG]] to represent the main concepts and relations about sports competitions, athletes, and other stakeholders as a common representation of information in this realm. With the objective of a wide use of this model, the schema is very flexible and all examples are expressed in JSON-LD format. Along with the vocabulary, there is a specific JSON-LD context that will ease the adoption of the vocabulary, even for those who don not have deep knowledge of the Semantic Web. No section should be considered final, and the absence of any content does not imply that such content is out of scope, or may not appear in the future. If you feel something should be covered, please [tell us](https://github.com/w3c/opentrack-cg/issues). ## Structure of this document This specification is divided into two main sections: 1. **Introduction** - this introductory part; 2. **How to** - How to use the model and describe resources using OpenTrack and JSON-LD; 3. **Concepts** - describes the key entities and their attributes, including the concrete data model; 4. **Classification Schemas** - lists of taxonomies and value schemas related to Athletics. ## Background OpenTrack descriptions need homogeneous classes, properties and data types to specify values of properties. This work is based [on existing requirements](http://opentrack.run/standards/), and the rules set up by the IAAF [[IAAF-RULES]] and by WMA [[WMA-RULES]]. The core vocabulary is Schema.org [[SCHEMA-ORG]].
This specification makes use of the compact IRI Syntax; please refer to the [Compact IRIs](http://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld/#compact-iris) from [[JSON-LD]]. This specification makes use of the following namespaces: * `rdf`: `http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#` * `rdfs`: `http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#` * `ath` : `http://athletics.schema.org/` * `schema` : `http://schema.org/` * `skos` : `http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#` * `dct` : `http://purl.org/dc/terms/` * `xsd`: `http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#` * `qudt` : `http://qudt.org/2.0/schema/qudt` * `unit` : `http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/` The domain of this specification is Sports and Athletics ([http://dbpedia.org/resource/Sport_of_athletics](http://dbpedia.org/resource/Sport_of_athletics)). The namespace `ath` is used to indicate the proposal of Schema.org extension.
## Typographical Conventions The following typographic conventions are used in this specification: * `markup`: Markup (elements, attributes, properties), machine processable values (string, characters, media types), property name, or a file name is in a monospace font. * __*definition*__: A definition of a term, to be used elsewhere in this or other specifications, is in bold and italics. * [hyperlink](): A hyperlink is underlined and in blue.
Notes are in light green boxes with a green left border and with a "Note" header in green. Notes are normative or informative depending on the whether they are in a normative or informative section, respectively.
Examples are in light khaki boxes, with khaki left border, and with a
numbered "Example" header in khaki. Examples are always informative.
The content of the example is in monospace font and may be syntax colored.
## How to use OpenTrack with JSON-LD With the objective of a wide use of this model, the schema is very flexible and all examples will be expressed in [[JSON-LD]] format. Along with the vocabulary, there is a specific [[JSON-LD]] context that will ease the adoption of the vocabulary, even for those who don not have deep knowledge of the Semantic Web. This section includes introductory information for those who are not familiar with the semantic technologies. The Opentrack model is expressed under the [RDF](https://www.w3.org/RDF/) paradigm (a graph-oriented representation), so there is more than one format to represent (serialize) the graph of information: RDF/XML, turtle, RDFa, etc. Examples will be represented in [JSON-LD](https://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld/), a JSON-based syntax easy to adopt. In order to ease the adoption of this set of technologies, this document includes several recipes to help developers publish and reuse Athletics information through these mechanisms. ### Terminology * **JSON-LD**. JSON-LD is a lightweight Linked Data format. It is easy for humans to read and write. It is based on the already successful JSON format and provides a way to help JSON data interoperate at Web-scale. JSON-LD is an ideal data format for programming environments, REST Web services, and unstructured databases such as CouchDB and MongoDB. * **JSON-LD Context**. In JSON-LD, a context is used to map terms, i.e., properties with associated values in an JSON document, to URLs. A term is a short word that expands to a URL. Terms may be defined as any valid JSON string other than a JSON-LD keyword. * **Linked Data**. Linked Data is a way to create a network of standards-based machine interpretable data across different documents and Web sites. It allows an application to start at one piece of Linked Data, and follow embedded links to other pieces of Linked Data that are hosted on different sites across the Web. * **IRI (Internationalized Resource Identifier)**. An IRI is something like a unique web address (http://example.org/resource001) that serves for identifying resources. See [JSON-LD Best Practices](https://json-ld.org/spec/latest/json-ld-api-best-practices/#terminology) for more information. ### Filename extension, MIME type and encoding * Recommended document extension: `.jsonld` * MIME Type: `application/ld+json` * Encoding: `UTF-8` ### Basic JSON-LD concepts To illustrate the basic concepts of this Opentrack JSON-LD representation we will use a simple example with the description of an athlete:
{
    "@context" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/contexts/opentrack.jsonld",
    "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/001Farah.jsonld",
    "@type" : "Athlete",
    "name" : "Mohamed Muktar Jama Farah",
    "familyName" : "Farah",
    "givenName" : "Mohamed Muktar Jama",
    "alternateName" : "Mo Farah",
    "url" : "http://www.mofarah.com",
    "gender" : "Male" ,
    "birthDate" : "1983-04-23",
    "image" : "https://example.com/260px-MoPodiumRio2016.png",
    "club" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/club/NEB.jsonld"
} 
There are there keywords that should be always included in our documents: `@context`, `@type` and `@id`. The rest of the **properties are optional**. In case a property value is unknown, the pair key:value will be omitted. #### @context RDF resources (concepts, classes, properties, etc.) are identified by IRIs. For instance, the property `name` used in the example above is identified by `http://schema.org/name`. JSON-LD contexts define keys used within the document can have unambigious meaning, as they bind to the IRIs which describe their meaning. By specifying
    "@context" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/contexts/opentrack.jsonld"
we indicate the context of the document, that is defined in [the linked document](http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/contexts/opentrack.jsonld). So we can use the keys of the context as a simplification for the representation. #### @type `@type` indicates the class of the resource being described. In this example, the resource is an `Athlete` (the context maps `Athlete` to the IRI `http://purl.org/athletics#Athlete`, but we don't care about this now). * We should include always the type to the object we are describing. * In case the resource would have more than a type, several types may be specified within an array:
    "@type" : [ "Athlete", "Coach" ]
#### @id `@id` is used to uniquely identify entities or resources through IRIs. When dereferencing an entity related via a URL, the location should provide a representation of that entity.
    "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/001Farah.jsonld"
This example describes an `Athlete` that is identified as [http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/001Farah.jsonld](http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/001Farah.jsonld"). The web address will provide information about the entity (the same that is being described in the example). Having these identifiers we will be able to refer this entity from other entity descriptions or documents. Using this mechanism, we can enrich descriptions just linking our descriptions with other IRIs that already identify resources. For instance, the athlete is affiliated to a club:
    "club" : { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/club/NEB.jsonld" }
That club (identified by [http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/club/NEB.jsonld](http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/club/NEB.jsonld)) is described in the same way. There may be exceptions of JSON-LD objects that **do not** have `@id`s associated. We should avoid this case unless we are sure the object defined is useful only in the context of the current description (i.e., no reusable in future descriptions). #### Property values Properties that describe resources may have values of different nature: ##### Literals Some properties only may have **Literals** as value: Texts:
    "alternateName" : "Mo Farah"
Dates:
    "birthDate" : "1983-04-23"
Integers:
    "age" : 25
###### Predefined Values (enumerations) Some properties may have **Enumerations** as value: For instance, `gender` should only take one possible value (either `Male` or `Female`).
    "gender" : "Male"
In this case, the potential values are expressed in the context as aliases, so we can use `Male` instead of `http://schema.org/Male`. ##### Objects As shown above, a resource identified by an IRI may be used as value of a property. In case [the resource](http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/club/NEB.jsonld) is already identified (and described) we can link it directly:
    "club" : { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/club/NEB.jsonld" }
Otherwise we can describe that resource nested in the main object:
    "club" : {
        "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/club/NEB.jsonld",
        "@type": "Club",
        "name": "Newham & Essex Beagles",
        "alternateName": "BeaglesAC",
        "url": "http://www.newhamandessexbeagles.co.uk/",
        "logo": "http://example.org/logo.png",
        "telephone": "(+44) 020 7511 6463",
        "faxNumber": "(+44) 020 7511 4477",
        "address": {
            "name": "Terence McMillan Stadium - Newham Leisure Centre",
            "streetAddress": "281 Prince Regent Lane",
            "addressLocality": "London",
            "postalCode": "E13 8SD",
            "addressCountry": "countrycode:GBR"
        }
    }
See in the previous example that we can include descriptions of other entities nested (i.e., postal address). ##### Arrays Most of the properties may be repeated to describe the same resource. For instance, the athlete may be affiliated to two clubs:
    "club" : { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/club/NEB.jsonld" },
    "club" : { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/club/NOP.jsonld" }
Or:
    "club" : 
        [ 
            { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/club/NEB.jsonld" },
            { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/club/NOP.jsonld" }
        ]
### Multilingual Descriptions String properties may include information about its language, so we can include several representations of the same information in different languages. The property will include information about the textual information using a complex object with two keys: `@value` and `@language`. `@value` contains the string, and `@language` the tag identifying the language (using [Lenguage Tags](https://tools.ietf.org/html/bcp47)).
{
    "@type" : "Place",
    "name" : {
        "@value": "Berlin Olympic Stadium",
        "@language": "en"
    },
    "name": {
        "@value": "Olympiastadion Berlin",
        "@language": "de"
    }
}
### Typed Objects All JSON-LD objects should have a `@type` explicitly indicating the class of the resource. The Opentrack vocabulary includes several classes that can be used, but also other external vocabularies may be used. Classes may be described hierarchically to express differences in the model.
## Overview of the model The model is related to the competition management in Athletics. By using this model systems will be able to describe, collect, process, store and publish Athletics information. In order to represent properly the model, the work was divided in two main parts: 1. **Competition Calendar**. High-level representation of competitions, seen as sports events for competitors and the public in general. 2. **Competitors**, athletes and organizations that take part in the competition. ### Competition Calendar
![Competition Calendar Model](./images/high-level-competition_model.svg)
High-Level Competition Model
All the types and properties included in the diagram exists in Schema.org. The new ones are represented in bold red.
Sports Competition
Sports Competitions are organized occasions where sports events are planed and take place at a specific location during a period of time. Most Athletics events are part of a bigger meeting, or competition (sub events and super events). These competitions can be organized periodically (Competition Series), such as the Summer Olympic Games. These events may have of different nature, depending on the disciplines, schedule, competitors, and scope (e.g., championships tournaments, leagues, fund-raising road races, etc.).
Venue
Place or location where events and competitions are held.
Category
Specific category, or intended competitive audience, within an event (e.g., Senior Men, U18 Women, etc.).
### Competitors
![Competitor Conceptual Model](./images/competitor_model.svg)
Competitor Conceptual Model
All the types and properties included in the diagram exists in Schema.org. The new ones are represented in bold red.
Athlete
Person who takes part in Sports events as individual competitor. Athletes are defined by gender, age, nationality, and other personal information.
Sports Team
A group of people who takes part in a competition as a whole, competing against other groups of people. Both athletes and teams can be affiliated to [Organizations](#organization) such as clubs, schools, university, and/or federations.
Sports Governing Body
Sports Governing Bodies in charge of governing and rule Athletics in specific territories. Athletics Federations are Sports Governing Bodies that may be attached to other higher-level federations. Athletes, Teams, Clubs and other Organizations may be attached to Governing Bodies.

See below all the concepts and their attributes explained in detail, including the specific class and properties that serve to describe Athletics resources. Concepts include examples of implementation.

Concepts

Athlete

An Athlete is a **[Person](#person)** who participates in Sports events. * Class: `Athlete` (`ath:Athlete`) * subClassOf: `schema:Person` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `identifier` | `schema:identifier` | Unique character string to identify a person as an athlete. | Text | | `name` | `schema:name` | Athlete's full name. | Text | | `familyName` | `schema:familyName` | Athlete's family name; surname. | Text | | `givenName` | `schema:givenName` |Athlete's given name; first name. | Text | | `prevFamilyName` | `ath:previousFamilyName` | Athlete's former family name; surname. | Text | | `prevGivenName` | `ath:previousGivenName` | Athlete's former given name; first name. | Text | | `alternateName` | `schema:alternateName` | An alias to name an athlete. | Text | | `address` | `schema:address` | Main residence address of an athlete. | [Postal Address](#postal-address) or Text | | `image` | `schema:image` | Picture of an athlete. | URL | | `email` | `schema:email` | Email address. | Text | | `url` | `schema:url` | Webpage URL about an athlete. | URL | | `award` | `schema:award` | Award or prize given to an athlete. | Text | | `gender` | `schema:gender` | Athlete's gender. | [Gender Type](#gender-type) | | `height` | `schema:height` | Athlete's height. | [Distance](#distance) | | `weight` | `schema:weight` | Athlete's weight. | [Mass](#mass) | | `nationality` | `schema:nationality` | Athlete's nationality. | [Country](#country) | | `birthDate` | `schema:birthDate` | Date of birth. | [Date](#date) | | `deathDate` | `schema:deathDate` | Date of death. | [Date](#date) | | `birthPlace` | `schema:birthPlace` | Locality and country of birth (e.g. "Tallinn, Estonia") | [Place](#place) | | `coach` | `schema:coach` | Athlete's main coach. | [Person](#person) | | `sponsor` | `schema:sponsor` | Athlete's sponsor. | [Person](#person) or [Organization](#organization) | | `affiliation` | `schema:affiliation` | Organization ([Sports Club](#sports-club), [Sports Governing Body](#sports-governing-body), school, university, etc.) which an athlete is affiliated to. | [Organization](#organization) | | `memberOf` | `schema:memberOf` | Team which an athlete is part of (for instance, a National Team). | [Sports Team](#sports-team) | | `bestSportsPerformance` | `ath:bestSportsPerformance` | Athlete's records and best performances. | Sports Performance | | `captainOf` | `ath:captainOf` | Team which an athlete is captain of. | [Sports Team](#sports-team) |
{
    "@context": "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/contexts/opentrack.jsonld",
    "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/001Farah.jsonld",
    "@type" : "Athlete",
 
    "name" : "Mohamed Muktar Jama Farah",
    "familyName" : "Farah",
    "givenName" : "Mohamed Muktar Jama",
    "alternateName" : "Mo Farah",
    "url" : "http://www.mofarah.com",
    "gender" : "Male" ,
    "image" : "https://example.com/260px-MoPodiumRio2016.png",
    "nationality" : "countrycode:GBR",
    "email" : "fakeemail@example.com",
    "height" : {
        "@type" : "QuantitativeValue",
        "value" : "1.75",
        "unitCode" : "MTR"
    },
    "weight" : {
        "@type" : "QuantitativeValue",
        "value" : "65.0",
        "unitCode" : "KGM"
    },
    "birthPlace" : "Mogadishu, Somalia" ,
    "birthDate" : "1983-04-23",
    "coach" : {
        "name" : "Alberto Salazar"
    },
    "sponsor" : {
        "@type" : "Organization",
        "name" : "Nike Oregon Project",
        "url" : "https://nikeoregonproject.com"         
    },
    "affiliation" : 
        [
            { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/club/NEB.jsonld" },
            { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/club/NOP.jsonld" }
        ],
    "memberOf" : 
        [
            { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/team/GBR2012.jsonld" },
            { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/team/GBR2016.jsonld" }
        ],
    "affiliation" :
        [
           { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/GBR.jsonld" },
           { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/USATF.jsonld" }
        ],
    "bestPerformance" :
        [
           { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/performance/001Farah.jsonld#HMarathon" },
           { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/performance/001Farah.jsonld#1500m" },
           { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/performance/001Farah.jsonld#3000m" }
        ]
}
### Sports Team A Sports Team is a group of [Athletes](#athlete) who play a particular sport or game together against other similar groups of people. In Athletics there are certain events designed for teams competition (e.g., relay races). Teams in those competitions may be composed of [Athletes](#athlete) affiliated to the same or different organization, representing a federation (national, regional team), or just a joint of independent athletes. * class: `Team` (`schema:SportsTeam`) | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `identifier` | `schema:identifier` | Unique character string to identify a team. | Text | | `name` | `schema:name` | Descriptive name of a team. | Text | | `alternateName` | `schema:alternateName` | An alias to name a team. | Text | | `image` | `schema:image` | Picture of a team. | URL | | `logo` | `schema:logo` | Logo or flag of a team. | URL | | `url` | `schema:url` | Webpage URL about a team. | URL | | `memberOf` | `schema:memberOf` | Organization (federation, club, school, etc.) which a team is attached to. | [Organization](#organization) | | `nationality` | `schema:location` | Teams's location represented by its country. | [Country](#country) | | `sponsor` | `schema:sponsor` | Sponsor of a team. | [Person](#person) or [Organization](#organization) | | `coach` | `schema:coach` | Person who acts as coach for a team. | [Person](#person) | | `sportsPerformance` | `ath:sportsPerformance` | Record and/or best performance of a team (e.g., relay competition best). | Sports Performance | | `captain` | `ath:captain` | Athlete, leader of a team. | [Athlete](#athlete) | | `athlete` | `schema:athlete` | Athlete affiliated to a team. | [Athlete](#athlete) | Description of a national team:
{
    "@context": "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/contexts/opentrack.jsonld",
    "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/team/GBR2016.jsonld",
    "@type" : "Team", 
    "name" : "Great Britain National Team - Olympic Games 2016",
    "alternateName" : "GBR",
    "nationality" : "countrycode:GBR",
    "memberOf" : { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/GBR.jsonld" },
    "athlete" : [
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/001Farah.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/002Butchart.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/004Athlete4.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/005Athlete5.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/006Athlete6.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/006Athlete7.jsonld" }
    ],
    "captain" :  { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/001Farah.jsonld" }
}
### Person A Person is a basic entity to represent a human. A person may play one or more roles (i.e., athlete, coach, organizer, official, etc.). * class: `Person` (`schema:Person`) | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `identifier` | `schema:identifier` | Unique character string to identify a person. | Text | | `name` | `schema:name` | Person's full name. | Text | | `familyName` | `schema:familyName` | Person's family name; surname. | Text | | `givenName` | `schema:givenName` | Person's given name; first name. | Text | | `alternateName` | `schema:alternateName` | An alias to name a person. | Text | | `address` | `schema:address` | Main residence address of a person. | [Postal Address](#postal-address) or Text | | `image` | `schema:image` | Picture of a person. | URL | | `email` | `schema:email` | Email address of a person. | Text | | `url` | `schema:url` | Webpage URL about a person. | URL |
{
    "@type" : "Person",
    "name" : "Alberto Salazar"
}
### Organization An Organization is a basic entity to represent a organized group of people with a particular purpose (i.e., private company, public body, association, etc.). * class: `Organization` (`schema:Organization`) | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `identifier` | `schema:identifier` | Unique character string to identify an organization. | Text | | `name` | `schema:name` | Name of an organization. | Text | | `alternateName` | `schema:altenateName` | An alias to name an organization. | Text | | `address` | `schema:address` | Postal address where an organization is located. | [Postal Address](#postal-address) or Text | | `email` | `schema:email` | Main email address of an organization. | Text | | `url` | `schema:url` | Webpage URL about an organization. | URL | | `telephone` | `schema:telephone` |Main telephone number(s) of an organization. | Text | | `areaServed` | `schema:areaServed` | Spatial coverage of an organization, usually administrative areas (city, region, country, etc.) | [Place](#place), [Country](#country) or [Continent](#continent) | | `memberOf` | `schema:memberOf` | Organization, such as higher-level federation(s), to which an organization is attached to. | [Organization](#organization) | | `member` | `schema:member` | Person or organization attached to an organization. | [Person](#person) or [Organization](#organization) | #### Sports Club A Sports Club, **sport club** or **athletics club**, is an [Organization](#organization) for [Athletes](#athlete) formed for the purpose of playing sports. Clubs may have different [Teams](#sports-team) created for specific competitions, such as leagues, relay races, etc. * Class: `Club` (`schema:SportsClub`) * subClassOf: `schema:Organization` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `identifier` | `schema:identifier` | Unique character string to identify a club. | Text | | `name` | `schema:name` | Descriptive name of a club. | Text | | `alternateName` | `schema:alternateName` | An alias to name a club. | Text | | `address` | `schema:address` | Main postal address where a club is registered or located. | [Postal Address](#postal-address) or Text | | `image` | `schema:image` | Picture of a club. | URL | | `logo` | `schema:logo` | Logo or flag of the club. | URL | | `email` | `schema:email` | Main email address of the club. | Text | | `telephone` | `schema:telephone` | Telephone number of a club | Text | | `faxNumber` | `schema:faxNumber` | Fax number of a club | Text | | `url` | `schema:url` | Club's homepage. | URL | | `dissolutionDate` | `schema:dissolutionDate` | Date when a team was dissolved. | [Date](#date) | | `foundingDate` | `schema:foundingDate` | Date when a team was established. | [Date](#date) | | `organization` | `schema:memberOf` | Organization which a club is attached to. | [Organization](#organization) | | `sponsor` | `schema:sponsor` | Sponsor of a club. | [Person](#person) or [Organization](#organization) | | `athlete` | `schema:athlete` | Athlete who is affiliated to a club. | [Athlete](#athlete) | | `team` | `schema:member` | [Sports Team](#sports-team) attached to a club. | [Sports Team](#sports-team) |
{
    "@context": "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/contexts/opentrack.jsonld",
    "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/club/NEB.jsonld",
    "@type" : "Club",
    "name": "Newham & Essex Beagles",
    "alternateName": "BeaglesAC",
    "url": "http://www.newhamandessexbeagles.co.uk/",
    "image": "http://example.org/image.png",
    "logo": "http://example.org/logo.png",
    "telephone": "(+44) 020 7511 6463",
    "faxNumber": "(+44) 020 7511 4477",
    "email": "fakeemail@example.org",
    "address": {
        "name": "Terence McMillan Stadium - Newham Leisure Centre",
        "streetAddress": "281 Prince Regent Lane",
        "addressLocality": "London",
        "postalCode": "E13 8SD",
        "addressCountry": "countrycode:GBR"
    },
    "sponsor": { "name" : "Asics" } ,
    "athlete": [
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/001Farah.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/002Athlete2.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/athlete/003Athlete3.jsonld" }
    ],
    "memberOf" : { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/GBR.jsonld" }
}
#### Sports Governing Body A Sports Governing Body is a special type of organization in charge of governing and rule the sport of athletics. These **sports governing bodies**, sometimes referred as Federations, may be attached to other higher-level federations, and have other sports organizations (clubs or other governing bodies) attached to them. * class: `Federation` (`ath:SportsGoverningBody`) * subClassOf: `schema:SportsOrganization`
{
    "@context": "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/contexts/opentrack.jsonld",
    "@id": "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/EAA.jsonld",
    "@type": "Federation",
    "name": "European Athletics",
    "alternateName": "European Athletic Association",
    "email": "office@european-athletics.org",
    "url": "http://www.european-athletics.org",
    "faxNumber": "(41 21) 313 43 51",
    "telephone": "(41 21) 313 43 50",
    "address": {
        "name": "European Athletic Association",
        "streetAddress": "Avenue Louis-Ruchonnet 16",
        "addressLocality": "Lausanne",
        "postalCode": "CH-1003",
        "addressCountry": "countrycode:CHE"
    },
    "areaServed" : "continent:EUROPE",
    "memberOf": "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/IAAF.jsonld",
    "member": [
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/ALB.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/AND.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/ARM.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/AUT.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/AZE.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/BLR.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/BEL.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/BIH.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/BUL.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/CRO.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/CYP.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/ALB.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/AND.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/ARM.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/AUT.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/AZE.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/BLR.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/BEL.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/BIH.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/BUL.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/CRO.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/CYP.jsonld" }
    ]
}
### Category Category is a division that marks the competition of athletes and teams in sports events. A category describe the potential **audience** of a sports event. Categories may include restrictions of gender, age range and other specific rules depending of the sports discipline. Examples of categories in Athletics are: *M35* (Men aged 35-39), *U23* (Under 23) Men, or *ad hoc* categories for non-official competitions such as *teachers* and *parents* in school sports. There is a predefined list of [standard categories](#category-type) recognized by international federations. See a common predefined [list of the main categories](#category-type) recognized by international Sports Governing Bodies. * class: `Category` (`ath:CompetitiveAudience`) * subClassOf: `schema:PeopleAudience` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `identifier` | `schema:identifier` | Unique character string to identify a category. | Text | | `name` | `schema:name` | Name of a category (i.e., `Under 23 Men`, `Teachers`) | Text | | `alternateName` | `schema:alternateName` | Code used to identify a category (i.e., `M35`, `W35`) | Text | | `description` | `schema:description` | Description and notes about a category. | Text | | `requiredGender` | `schema:requiredGender` | Gender of athletes involved in a category. | [Gender Type](#gender-type) | | `requiredMinAge` | `schema:requiredMinAge` | Athletes' minimum age to be eligible for a category. | Integer | | `requiredMaxAge` | `schema:requiredMaxAge` | Athletes' maximum age to be eligible for a category. | Integer | | `recognizingAuthority` | `schema:recognizingAuthority` | Governing body or organization that recognizes and rule a specific category. | [Organization](#organization) | | `geographicArea` | `schema:geographicArea` | The geographic area associated with the category. | [AdministrativeArea ](http://schema.org/AdministrativeArea) | | `healthCondition` | `schema:healthCondition` | Specifying the health condition(s) of the target audience of a competition (e.g., in the case of a medical certificate is required). | [MedicalCondition](http://schema.org/MedicalCondition) | | `referenceDate` | `ath:referenceDate` | A date of reference in the current year used to calculate the permitted age in a category (i.e., IAAF categories take the 31st December of the current year as reference). Values of this property must be represented in [truncated ISO8601 notation](https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6350#section-4.3.1), specifying only month and day (e.g., Dec 31: `--1231`). | [Date](#date) | Example of category description (Senior Women):
{
    "@context": "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/contexts/opentrack.jsonld",
    "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/category/SENF.jsonld",
    "@type": "Category",
    "name": "Senior (Female)",
    "description": "Open class with no upper age limit but some limitations on younger people competing in endurance events. Female gender.",
    "requiredMinAge" : 16,
    "requiredGender" : "Female",
    "recognizingAuthority" : { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/IAAF.jsonld" }
}
### Competition Registration Competition Registration is the action of applying to the competition organizers for taking part in the competition. * class: `RegisterAction` (`schema:RegisterAction`) | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `description` | `schema:description` | Description of the potential action of registration. | Text | | `target` | `schema:target` | The entry point for the registration. | EntryPoint (URL) | | `startTime` | `schema:startTime` | DateTime when the registration period starts. | [DateTime](#datetime) | | `endTime` | `schema:endTime` | DateTime when the registration period ends. | [DateTime](#datetime) | Example of competition with open registration:
{
    "@context": "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/contexts/opentrack.jsonld",
    "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/competition/001.jsonld",
    "@type": "SportsCompetitionEvent",
    "name": "London Half Marathon",
    "competitionRegistration" : { 
        "@type" : "RegisterAction",
        "target" : "http://example.com/half-marathon/registration",
        "startTime" : "2012-01-03",
        "endTime" : "2012-02-03"
    }
}
### Competition A Competition, Athletics Competition or Sports Competition is an event in which [Athletes](#athlete) or [Teams](#sports-team) take part in order to find out who is best at a particular sports activity. Athletics [Competitions](#competition) may be of different nature, depending on disciplines (e.g., 100m, marathon, pole vault, etc.), schedule (e.g. one-day meetings, World championships, etc.), competitors (e.g., U23, Masters, etc.), and scope (e.g., regional, national, supranational championships, leagues, etc.). Other amateur competitions such as fund-raising road races or school races are also considered as [Competitions](#competition). * class: `Competition` (`ath:SportsCompetitionEvent`) * subClassOf: `schema:SportsEvent` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `identifier` | `schema:identifier` | Unique character string to identify a competition. | Text | | `name` | `schema:name` | Descriptive name of a competition. | Text | | `alternateName` | `schema:alternateName` | An alias to name the competition. It could be an acronym or abbreviation. | Text | | `description` | `schema:description` | Descriptive text about a competition. | Text | | `location` | `schema:location` | Venue where a competition is held (for instance, Berlin Olympic Stadium). | [Place](#place) or Text | | `url` | `schema:url` | Webpage URL about a competition. | URL | | `image` | `schema:image` | Picture about a competition. | URL | | `startDate` | `schema:startDate` | Date and time when a competition starts. | [Date](#date) or [DateTime](#datetime) | | `endDate` | `schema:endDate` | Date and time when a competition ends. | [Date](#date) or [DateTime](#datetime) | | `eventStatus` | `schema:eventStatus` | Status of a competition according to a enumeration of potential values (i.e., scheduled, completed, etc.) | [Event Status Type](#competition-status) | | `organizer` | `schema:organizer` | Person(s) or organization(s) that organizes a competition. | [Person](#person) or [Organization](#organization) | | `contributor` | `schema:contributor` | Person(s) or organization(s) that collaborates in the organization of a competition. | [Person](#person) or [Organization](#organization) | | `starter` | `schema:competitor` | Athletes(s) or teams(s) taking part in the competition at the beginning of the event to compete in the event. | [Person](#person) or [Sports Team](#sports-team) | | `sponsor` | `schema:sponsor` | Person(s) or organization(s) that sponsors a competition. | [Person](#person) or [Organization](#organization) | | `attendee` | `schema:attendee` | Person(s) who attends a competition. | [Person](#person) | | `sportsDiscipline` | `ath:sportsDiscipline` | Type of an Athletics competition according to specific rules set by governing bodies (e.g., `Outdoor Sprint Relays`). | [SportsDiscipline](#sports-discipline) | | `competitionCategory` | `ath:competitionCategory` | The specific category for a competition (e.g., *M35*, *U18 Male*, *local competitors*, etc). | [Competition Category](#category) | | `entryRequirements` | `ath:entryRequirements` | Requirements to take part in a competition. | Text | | `results` | `ath:resultDecision` | List with the results of the participation in a competition. There may be different results during the competition (start list, intermediate results, partial results, final results, etc.) . | Results | | `competitionRegistration` | `schema:potentialAction` | Potential action of athletes' sign up to take part in the competition. | [Competition Registration](#competition-registration) | Competitions may be part of [Competition Series](#competition-series), this is, competitions that have events periodically (e.g., [2016 Summer Olympic Games in Rio](https://www.olympic.org/rio-2016/athletics) as part of the Olympic Games held every four years); #### Competition Series Competition Series are competitive events held periodically (for instance, the Summer Olympic Games have recurring events organized every four years). * class: `CompetitionSeries` (`schema:EventSeries`) | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `identifier` | `schema:identifier` | Unique character string to identify a recurring competition. | Text | | `name` | `schema:name` | Descriptive name of a recurring competition. | Text | | `alternateName` | `schema:alternateName` | An alias to name a recurring competition. | Text | | `description` | `schema:description` | About a recurring competition. | Text | | `subEvent` | `schema:subEvent` | A competition that happens as a recurring event within a series of competitions (e.g., *London 2012* *Olympic Games*) | [Competition](#competition) |
{
    "@context": "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/contexts/opentrack.jsonld",
    "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/competition/EuropeanChampionships.jsonld",
    "@type": "CompetitionSeries",
    "name": "European Athletics Championships",
    "description": "The European Athletics Championships is a recurring event organized by European Athletics, that is held every two years. This championship gathers together the best athletes and national teams in Europe.",
    "organizer": { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/federation/EAA.jsonld" },
    "subEvent" : [
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/competition/Euro2016.jsonld" },
        { "@id" : "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/competition/Euro2018.jsonld" }
    ]
}
### Place A Place is a location, venue or territories where events are held or organizations are located. Events may take part either in stadia (e.g., track and field events at Helsinki Olympic Stadium) or outside stadia (e.g., cross-country, mountain races, road races, etc.). Federations may cover specific Administrative Areas. * class: `schema:Place` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `identifier` | `schema:identifier` | Unique character string to identify a venue. | Text | | `name` | `schema:name` | Descriptive name of a venue. | Text | | `description` | `schema:description` | Descriptive text about a place. | Text | | `address` | `schema:address` | Postal address related to a venue. | [Postal Address](#postal-address) or Text | | `url` | `schema:url` | Webpage URL about a venue. | URL | | `image` | `schema:image` | Picture about a venue. | URL | | `geo` | `schema:geo` | Geographic coordinates and/or elevation (expressed in metres, following [WGS 84](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Geodetic_System)) of a venue. | [Geo Coordinates](#geo-coordinates) | | `map` | `schema:hasMap` | URL to a map pointing to a venue. | URL | | `telephone` | `schema:telephone` | Telephone number of a venue. | Text | | `fax` | `schema:faxNumber` | Fax number of a venue. | Text | #### Geo Coordinates Geo Coordinates are the geographic coordinates of a place or event. * class: `schema:GeoCoordinates` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `latitude` | `schema:latitude` | The latitude of a location. For example 37.42242 ([WGS 84](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Geodetic_System)). | Number | | `longitude` | `schema:longitude` | The longitude of a location. For example -122.08585 ([WGS 84](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Geodetic_System)). | Number | | `elevation` | `schema:elevation` | The elevation of a location in metres ([WGS 84](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Geodetic_System)). | Number |
{
    "@id": "http://w3c.github.io/opentrack-cg/examples/competition/Euro2016.jsonld#venue",
    "@type": "schema:StadiumOrArena",
    "name": "Olympic Stadium Amsterdam",
    "geo": {
        "latitude": "52.343417",
        "longitude": "4.854192",
        "elevation": "123.93"      
    },
    "map": "http://example.org/map",
    "address": {
        "streetAddress": "Olympisch Stadion 2",
        "addressLocality": "Amsterdam",
        "postalCode": "1076 DE",
        "addressCountry": "countrycode:NLD"
    }
}
### Postal Address Postal Address describes a postal address relative to a place. * class: `schema:PostalAddress` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `identifier` | `schema:identifier` | Unique character string to identify a postal address. | Text | | `name` | `schema:name` | Descriptive name of the place (e.g., Helsinki Olympic Stadium). | Text | | `streetAddress` | `schema:streetAddress` | The street address (e.g., Paavo Nurmen tie 1). | Text | | `locality` | `schema:addressLocality` | The locality (e.g., Helsinki). | Text | | `postOfficeBoxNumber` | `schema:postOfficeBoxNumber` | The post office box number for PO box addresses. | Text | | `postalCode` | `schema:postalCode` | The postal code (e.g., 00250)| Text | | `country` | `schema:addressCountry` | The country (e.g., Finland). | [Country](#country) |
{
    "streetAddress": "Olympisch Stadion 2",
    "locality": "Amsterdam",
    "postalCode": "1076 DE",
    "addressCountry": "countrycode:NLD"
}
### Sports Discipline An Athletics Discipline is a particular type of Athletics event defined by specific rules. [According to IAAF](https://www.iaaf.org/disciplines), Athletics events may be classified into: _Sprints_, _Middle/long distance_, _Hurdles_, _Road Running_, _Jumps_, _Throws_, _Combined Events_, _Race Walks_, _Relays_, _Cross Country_, _Mountain Running_ and _Ultra Running_. IOC ODF [[IOC-ODF]] uses: _Races (track and road) and relays_, _Throws_, _Horizontal Jumps_ and _Vertical Jumps_. [Athlib proposes codes](http://opentrack.run/athlib/build/html/eventcodes.html) to represent disciplines. Disciplines are described by specific features (i.e., throws disciplines, such as shot put, are defined by *weight*). So, having into account the features related to the competition, disciplines are modelled in this taxonomy of concepts:
![Taxonomy for Athletics Disciplines](images/disciplines_model.svg)
Athletics Discipline Taxonomy
This hierarchical taxonomy enables the definition of any type of Athletic event. * class: `Discipline` (`ath:AthleticsDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:SportsDiscipline` * superClasses: `ath:RaceDiscipline`, `ath:ThrowsDiscipline`, `ath:HorizontalJumpsDiscipline`, `ath:VerticalJumpsDiscipline`, `ath:CombinedDiscipline` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `name` | `schema:name` | Descriptive name of the discipline. | Text | | `venueType` | `ath:AthleticsVenueType` | Type of a stadium with track and/or field facilities (indoor/outdoor). | [Venue Type](#venue-type) | #### Race Race is a type of competition to see who is the fastest, including running or race-waking. * class: `Race` (`ath:RaceDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:AthleticsDiscipline` * superClasses: `ath:DistanceDiscipline`, `ath:SteeplechaseDiscipline`, `ath:HurdlesDiscipline`, `ath:SprintsDiscipline`, `ath:RaceWalkingDiscipline`, `ath:CrossCountryDiscipline`, `ath:RoadRunningDiscipline`, `ath:MountainRunningDiscipline`, `ath:TrackRelaysDiscipline`, `ath:UltraRunningDiscipline` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `distance` | `schema:distance` | Distance of the race. | [Distance](#distance) | | `raceCompetitionType` | `ath:raceCompetitionType` | Type of competition (time trial, relays, etc.). | [Competition Type](#competition-type) | | `maxDuration` | `ath:maxDuration` | Maximum duration of the race in case of being a time-fixed competition (i.e., one hour, one day, etc.). | [Time](#time) | ##### Distance Race A Distance Race is a Middle-distance or Long-distance running event, over a distance longer than sprints. Range of distances includes 800 m, up to Marathon 42.195 Km. * class: `DistanceDiscipline` (`ath:DistanceDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:RaceDiscipline` ##### Steeplechase Steeplechase is a long distance running event where runners must clear obstacles and water jumps. * class: `SteeplechaseDiscipline` (`ath:SteeplechaseDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:RaceDiscipline` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `height` | `schema:height` | Obstacle height. | [Distance](#distance) | ##### Hurdles Hurdles is a running event where athletes jump over hurdles at speed. * class: `HurdlesDiscipline` (`ath:HurdlesDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:RaceDiscipline` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `height` | `schema:height` | Hurdles height. | [Distance](#distance) | | `spacing` | `ath:spacing` | Horizontal distance between hurdles. | [Distance](#distance) | ##### Sprints Sprints are running events over a short distance (less than 800m). * class: `SprintsDiscipline` (`ath:SprintsDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:RaceDiscipline` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `trackType` | `ath:runningTrackType` | Type of track where a sprint race is held (straight, curved). | [Running Track Type](#running-track-type) | ##### Race-walking Race-walking, or race walking, is a long-distance discipline where one foot must appear to be in contact with the ground at all times. * class: `RaceWalkingDiscipline` (`ath:RaceWalkingDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:RaceDiscipline` ##### Cross Country Cross Country is a running discipline in which teams and individuals run a race on open-air courses over natural terrain such as dirt or grass. * class: `CrossCountry` (`ath:CrossCountry`) * subClassOf: `ath:RaceDiscipline` ##### Road Running Road Running is an Athletics discipline on a measured course over an established road. * class: `RoadRunningDiscipline` (`ath:RoadRunningDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:RaceDiscipline` ##### Mountain Running Mountain Running is a Athletics discipline that takes place on terrain that is mainly off-road and which course may gain elevation. * class: `MountainRunningDiscipline` (`ath:MountainRunningDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:RaceDiscipline` ##### Track Relays Relays, relays race or relay race, is a track race between two or more teams where each member of the team runs one leg of the race. * class: `TrackRelaysDiscipline` (`ath:TrackRelaysDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:RaceDiscipline` ##### Ultra Running Ultra running, ultra distance or ultramarathon, is a road race longer than the traditional marathon length (42.195 Km). * class: `UltraRunningDiscipline` (`ath:UltraRunningDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:RaceDiscipline` #### Throws Throws are types of field events in which athletes throws heavy objects in an attempt to mark a farther distance than their competitors. * class: `ThrowsDiscipline` (`ath:ThrowsDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:AthleticsDiscipline` * superClasses: `ath:ShotPutDiscipline`, `ath:DiscusThrowDiscipline`, `ath:HammerThrowDiscipline`, `ath:JavelinThrowDiscipline`, `ath:WeightThrowDiscipline` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `weight` | `schema:weight` | Weight of the throwing object. | [Mass](#mass) | ##### Shot Put Shot Put is a track and field event involving throwing/putting (throwing in a pushing motion) a heavy spherical object (the shot) as far as possible. The size of the ball, and the length of the wire varies depending on the competition rules. * class: `ShotPutDiscipline` (`ath:ShotPutDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:ThrowsDiscipline` ##### Discus Throw Discus Throw is a track and field event in which an athlete throws a heavy disc (the discus) in an attempt to mark a farther distance than their competitors. The diameter and weight of the discus varies depending on the competition rules. * class: `DiscusThrowDiscipline` (`ath:DiscusThrowDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:ThrowsDiscipline` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `discusDiameter` | `ath:discusDiameter` | Discus diameter. | [Distance](#distance) | ##### Hammer Throw Hammer Throw is a track and field event in which an athlete throws a metal ball attached by a steel wire to a grip (the hammer). The size of the ball, and the length of the wire varies depending on the competition rules. * class: `HammerThrowDiscipline` (`ath:HammerThrowDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:ThrowsDiscipline` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `hammerLength` | `ath:hammerLength` | Hammer wire length. | [Distance](#distance) | ##### Javelin Throw Javelin Throw is a track and field event where the javelin, a spear about 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in) in length, is thrown. Lenght and weight of javelin may vary depending on the rules of the competition. * class: `JavelinThrowDiscipline` (`ath:JavelinThrowDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:ThrowsDiscipline` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `javelinLength` | `ath:javelinLength` | Javelin length. | [Distance](#distance) | ##### Weight Throw Weight Throw is a track and field event usually play indoors which is equivalent to the hammer throw event, which can only be held outdoors. Ball weight may vary depending on the rules of the competition. * class: `WeightThrowDiscipline` (`ath:WeightThrowDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:ThrowsDiscipline` #### Horizontal Jumps Horizontal Jumps are track and field events in which athletes combine speed, strength and agility in an attempt to leap as far as possible from a take off point. Horizontal jumps include: long jump and triple jump. * class: `HorizontalJumpsDiscipline` (`ath:HorizontalJumpsDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:AthleticsDiscipline` * superClasses: `ath:LongJumpDiscipline`, `ath:TripleJumpDiscipline ##### Long Jump Long Jump (or broad jump) is a track and field event in which athletes combine speed, strength and agility in an attempt to leap as far as possible from a take off point. * class: `LongJumpDiscipline` (`ath:LongJumpDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:HorizontalJumpsDiscipline` ##### Triple Jump Triple Jump (sometimes referred to as the hop, step and jump or the hop, skip and jump), is a track and field event, where competitors run down the track and perform a hop, a bound and then a jump into the sand pit. * class: `TripleJumpDiscipline` (`ath:TripleJumpDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:HorizontalJumpsDiscipline` #### VerticalJumps Vertical Jumps are track and field events in which competitors must jump or vault over a horizontal bar placed at measured heights without dislodging it. * class: `VerticalJumpsDiscipline` (`ath:VerticalJumpsDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:AthleticsDiscipline` * superClasses: `ath:HighJumpDiscipline`, `ath:PoleVaultDiscipline` ##### High Jump High Jump is a track and field event in which competitors must jump unaided over a horizontal bar placed at measured heights without dislodging it. * class: `HighJumpDiscipline` (`ath:HighJumpDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:VerticalJumpsDiscipline` ##### Pole Vault Pole Vault is a track and field event in which a person uses a long, flexible pole as an aid to jump over a bar. * class: `PoleVaultDiscipline` (`ath:PoleVaultDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:VerticalJumpsDiscipline` #### Combined Discipline Combined Discipline is a competition where athletes participate in a number of track and field events, earning points for their performance in each event, which adds to a total points score. * class: `CombinedDiscipline` (`ath:CombinedDiscipline`) * subClassOf: `ath:AthleticsDiscipline` | Key | Property | Description | Value Type | |:--- |:-------- |:----------- |:---------- | | `sportsDiscipline` | `ath:sportsDiscipline` | Combined sub-disciplines for this event. | [Sports Discipline](#sports-discipline) | | `scorePointsReference` | `ath:scorePointsReference` | Reference to the score table used for this competition. | URL |

## Classification Schemas and Data Types Most of the following definitions and values for this set of value schemas are extracted from the official [Technical Competition Rules](https://www.iaaf.org/about-iaaf/documents/rules-regulations) published by IAAF. ### Date Date is represented using the [ISO 8601](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_8601) standard: `[YYYY][MM][DD]` or `[YYYY]-[MM]-[DD]` For instance, 7th April 2017:
2017-04-07
### Time Time is represented using the [ISO 8601](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_8601) standard: `[hh][mm][ss].sss` or `[hh]:[mm]:[ss].sss` Example, 2 hours 5 minutes 34 seconds:
02:05:34.000
Example, 10 seconds, 345 milliseconds:
00:00:10.345
#### High Resolution Time Milliseconds should be enough to represent all time measurements in Athletics according to IAAF's rules [[IAAF-RULES]]. In the case of timing systems capturing higher resolution of time, values must be represented as quantified values using the Space and Time Units Vocabulary [[QUDT-SPACETIME]]. Editors may indicate the magnitude as a numeric value and the kind of the quantity (unit). Any unit of measurement may be used (hour, second, millisecond, etc.), but *it is recommended using the 'second'* (s), as it is the base unit of time in the International System of Units (SI). Example, 10 seconds, 3454 microseconds:
{
    "@type" : "QuantitativeValue",
    "qudt:numericValue" : "10.3454",
    "qudt:unit" : "unit:SEC" 
}
### DateTime DateTime is represented using the [ISO 8601](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_8601) standard: `<date>T<time>` Time can include the timezone `<time>±[hh]:[mm]`. For instance, 7th April 2017 at 4:45 am (UTC+1):
2017-04-07T04:45:00.000+01:00
### Distance Distances and heights must be represented by a quantified value, expressing the magnitude and kind of a quantity (unit). Values will be expressed as a numeric value (decimal or integer) and a measurement code. It is recommended using the UN/CEFACT Common Codes [[UNECE-CODES]] for Codes for Units of Measurement used in the International Trade. *It is recommended using the 'metre'* (m), as it is the base unit of time in the International System of Units (SI). Exceptionally, distance and height may be also represented using other units such as 'mile' (statute mile). * Metre: `MTR` * Mile: `SMI`
{
    "@type" : "QuantitativeValue",
    "value" : "2.20",
    "unitCode" : "MTR"
}
Other unit codes may be used if needed. Check and select the correspondent code from the [UN/CEFACT Common Codes](../references/rec20_Rev9e_2014.xls). ### Mass Mass must be represented by a quantified value, expressing the magnitude and kind of a quantity (unit). Values will be expressed as a numeric value (decimal or integer) and a measurement code. It is recommended using the UN/CEFACT Common Codes [[UNECE-CODES]] for Codes for Units of Measurement used in the International Trade. *It is recommended using the 'kilogram'* (kg), as it is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI). * Kilogram (kg): `KGM` * Pound (lb): `LBR`
{
    "@type" : "QuantitativeValue",
    "value" : "56.3",
    "unitCode" : "KGM"
}
Other unit codes may be used if needed. Check and select the correspondent code from the [UN/CEFACT Common Codes](../references/rec20_Rev9e_2014.xls). ### Gender Type Enumeration of genders with two values: | Code | Gender Type | | ---- | ----------- | | `Male` | Men and/or boys. | | `Female` | Women and/or girls. | ### Competition Feature Type According to IAAF Rule 132.4, there are official standard abbreviations and symbols used in the preparation of start lists and results. | Code | Issue/feature | | ------------- | ---- | | `DNS` | Did Not Start | | `DNF` | Did Not Finish | | `DQ` | Disqualified | | `R` | Retired from competition | | `Q` | Qualified by place (track) or standard (field) | | `q` | Qualified by performance (time in timed events and rank in field events) | | `qR` | Advanced to next round by Referee | | `qJ` | Advanced to next round by Jury of Appeal | | `>` | Bent knee (Race walking) | | `~` | Loss of contact (Race walking) | | `yC` | yellow Card | | `yRC` | Second yellow Card | | `RC` | Red Card | | `Fn` | False Start | | `o` | Clearance (valid trial in Height Events) | | `-` | Pass (passed trial in field events) | | `x` | Failure (failed trial in field events) | | `NM` | No Mark | | `NH` | No Height | | `h` | Hand-timing | | `a` | Automatic timing with no hundredths of a second measured | | `A` | Performance achieved at altitude | | `OT` | Oversized Track | ### Category Type Standard categories are combinations of gender and age-range. The following predefined categories are recognized by IAAF, European Athletics and/or WMA: | Age Range | Mixed | Male | Female | | --------- | ----- | ---- | ------ | | 16—17 | `category:U18` | `category:U18M` | `category:U18F` | | 18—19 | `category:U20` | `category:U20M` | `category:U20F` | | 20—22 | `category:U23` | `category:U23M` | `category:U23F` | | 23—34 | `category:SEN` | `category:SENM` | `category:SENF` | | 35—39 | `category:V35` | `category:M35` | `category:W35` | | 40—44 | `category:V40` | `category:M40` | `category:W40` | | 45—49 | `category:V45` | `category:M45` | `category:W45` | | 50—54 | `category:V50` | `category:M50` | `category:W50` | | 55—59 | `category:V55` | `category:M55` | `category:W55` | | 60—64 | `category:V60` | `category:M60` | `category:W60` | | 65—69 | `category:V65` | `category:M65` | `category:W65` | | 70—74 | `category:V70` | `category:M70` | `category:W70` | | 75—79 | `category:V75` | `category:M75` | `category:W75` | | 80—84 | `category:V80` | `category:M80` | `category:W80` | | 85—89 | `category:V85` | `category:M85` | `category:W85` | | 90—94 | `category:V90` | `category:M90` | `category:W90` | | 95—99 | `category:V95` | `category:M95` | `category:W95` | | 100+ | `category:V100` | `category:M100` | `category:W100` | ### Country Each country should be represented by an IRI that includes a unique three-character *Authority code*. It is recommended using the EU [Named Authority List (NAL) of Countries](http://publications.europa.eu/mdr/resource/authority/country/html/countries-eng.html), that relays on the [ISO 3166-1/alpha-3](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_3166-1) positions in case the country is present in the ISO standard. A traceability of this codes creation is ensured and historical relationships are also offered. The IRI scheme of countries is `http://publications.europa.eu/resource/authority/country/{countrycode}`. The JSON-LD context enables a `countrycode` prefix to simplify usage, allowing the use of the following form:
    countrycode:{countrycode}
For instance: `countrycode:ZWE` for *Zimbabwe*, `countrycode:ZAF` for *South Africa* and `countrycode:TGO` for *Togo*. Check the full list of authority country codes at [http://publications.europa.eu/mdr/resource/authority/country/html/countries-eng.html](http://publications.europa.eu/mdr/resource/authority/country/html/countries-eng.html). ### Continent If we need to represent a supranational spatial coverage (for instance, when defining the `areaServed` of organisations), it is recommended using the EU [Named Authority List (NAL) of Continents](http://publications.europa.eu/mdr/resource/authority/continent/html/continents-eng.html). These are be represented in a similar way than countries. The IRI scheme of continents is `http://publications.europa.eu/resource/authority/continent/{continentcode}`. The JSON-LD context enables a `continent` prefix to simplify usage, allowing the use of the following form:
    continent:{continentcode}
Examples: `continent:AFRICA` for *Africa*, `continent:AMERICA` for *America*, `continent:ANTARCTICA` for *Antarctica*, `continent:ASIA` for *Asia*, `continent:EUROPE` for *Europe* and `continent:OCEANIA` for *Oceania*. ### Competition Status Status of a competition. | Code | Status | | ---- | ------ | | `schema:EventScheduled` | Competition is scheduled. | | `schema:EventPostponed` | Competition will be postponed without being rescheduled yet. | | `schema:EventRescheduled` | Competition is rescheduled. | | `schema:EventCancelled` | Competition will not take place (`suspended`, `cancelled`, `discarded` in SportsML) | ### Record or Best Type Types of record of best achieved by competitors in competitions. | Code | Record Type | | ---- | ----------- | | `WR` | World Record | | `=WR` | Equal World Record | | `PR` | Paralympic Record | | `AF` | African Record | | `=AF` | Equal African Record | | `AS` | Asian Record | | `=AS` | Equal Asian Record | | `ER` | European Record | | `=ER` | Equal European Record | | `AM` | American Record | | `=AM` | Equal American Record | | `OC` | Oceania Record | | `=OC` | Equal Oceania Record | | `AR` | Area (or continental) Record | | `=AR` | Equal Area (or continental) Record | | `NR` | National Record (for a specific country) | | `=NR` | Equal National Record | | `RR` | Regional Record | | `=RR` | Equal Regional Record | | `OR` | Olympic Record | | `=OR` | Equal Olympic Record | | `CR` | Championship Record | | `=CR` | Equal Championship Record | | `GR` | Games Record | | `=GR` | Equal Games Record | | `MR` | Meet Record | | `=MR` | Equal Meet Record | | `DLR` | Diamond League Record | | `=DLR` | Equal Diamond League Record | | `#` | indicates a record has not been accepted. The same mark is also used to indicate some sort of irregularity with a result. | | `X` | indicates the athlete has been disqualified after the performance | | `ClubR` | Club Record | Records can be described by the type of record and the age-range category. | Code | Record Type | | ---- | ----------- | | `AJR` | Area (or continental) Junior Record | | `=AJR` | Equal Area (or continental) Junior Record | | `EUR` | European U23 Record | | `=EUR` | Equal European U23 Record | | `WJR` | World Junior Record | | `=WJR` | Equal World Junior Record | | `EJR` | European Junior Record | | `=EJR` | Equal European Junior Record | | `NUR` | National U23 Record | | `=NUR` | Equal National U23 Record | | `NJR` | National Junior Record | | `=NJR` | Equal National Junior Record | The concept of 'best' refers to athlete's personal achievements, without setting official records. | Code | Best Type | | ---- | ----------- | | `WYB` | World Youth Best (the best mark achieved by an athlete in the youth age category) | | `=WYB` | Equal World Youth Best | | `WB` | World Best (the best mark recorded for a non-IAAF world record event) | | `=WB` | Equal World Best | | `PB` | Personal Best (the best mark achieved by an athlete on a personal level) | | `=PB` | Equal Personal Best | | `SB` | Seasonal Best (the best mark achieved by an athlete on a personal level within a given season) | | `=SB` | Equal Seasonal Best | | `WL` | World Leader (the best mark achieved worldwide within a given season) | | `=WL` | Equal World Lead | | `EL` | European Lead | | `=EL` | Equal European Lead | | `EB` | European Best | | `=EB` | Equal European Best | | `CB` | Championship Best Performance | | `=CB` | Equal Championship Best Performance | ### Results Status Possible status types for results within a competition. | Code | Status | | ---- | ------ | | `results:startList` | Before competition, Start List | | `results:live` | For live updates during competition | | `results:intermediate` | When competition is stopped, used at pre-defined points | | `results:unconfirmed` | When the unit is over but not yet unofficial or official. Only used if other statuses do not come quickly. | | `results:unofficial` | Results of the competition released as soon as the event is over, not waiting any official decision of the International Federation. The correctness of data must be assured. | | `results:official` | Results of the competition released as soon as the event is officially confirmed taking into account the resolution of the protests, etc. | | `results:partial` | Incomplete list, Final Ranking. | | `results:protested` | After the competition is no longer LIVE and a protest has been lodged. | ### Protest Status Status of a protest process in a competition. | Code | Status | | ---- | ---- | | `protest:CLS` | Closed | | `protest:OPN` | Open | | `protest:PND` | Pending | | `protest:ROPN` | Re Open | ### Competition Type Type of competition in races, defined by the way of how competitors take part in the competition (against the clock, relays or individual). | Code | Type | | ---- | ---- | | `race:IndividualCompetition` | Individual Competition | | `race:RelayCompetition` | Relay Competition | | `race:TimeTrialCompetition` | Time Trial Competition | Multiple types can be specified (e.g., relays time trial races). ### Venue Type Type of stadium, track and/or field where a competition take places. | Code | Type | | ---- | ---- | | `venue:VenueIndoor` | Indoor venue | | `venue:VenueOutdoor` | Outdoor venue | ### Wind Speed Like distance, wind speed must be represented by a quantified value, expressing the magnitude and kind of a quantity (unit). Values will be expressed as a numeric value (decimal or integer) and a measurement code. It is recommended using the UN/CEFACT Common Codes [[UNECE-CODES]] for Codes for Units of Measurement used in the International Trade. Typically, in Athletics wind speed assistance is represented in *metres per second (m/s)*, recognized by the International System of Units (SI). * Metre per second (m/s): `MTS`
{
    "@type" : "QuantitativeValue",
    "value" : "0.22",
    "unitCode" : "MTS"
}
Other unit codes, such as knot (`KNT`) can be used if needed. Check and select the correspondent code from the [UN/CEFACT Common Codes](../references/rec20_Rev9e_2014.xls) list. ### Running Track Type Types of tracks where running races are held. | Code | Issue/feature | | ------------- | ---- | | `track:straight` | Straight track | | `track:curved` | Curved track |