WebTransport

Editor’s Draft,

This version:
https://w3c.github.io/webtransport/
Latest published version:
https://www.w3.org/TR/webtransport/
Issue Tracking:
GitHub
Inline In Spec
Editors:
Bernard Aboba (Microsoft Corporation)
Victor Vasiliev (Google)
Yutaka Hirano (Google)
Former Editors:
Peter Thatcher (Google)
Robin Raymond (Optical Tone Ltd.)

Abstract

This document defines a set of ECMAScript APIs in WebIDL to allow data to be sent and received between a browser and server, utilizing [WEB-TRANSPORT-HTTP3]. This specification is being developed in conjunction with a protocol specification developed by the IETF WEBTRANS Working Group.

Status of this document

1. Introduction

This section is non-normative.

This specification uses [WEB-TRANSPORT-HTTP3] to send data to and receive data from servers. It can be used like WebSockets but with support for multiple streams, unidirectional streams, out-of-order delivery, and reliable as well as unreliable transport.

Note: The API presented in this specification represents a preliminary proposal based on work-in-progress within the IETF WEBTRANS WG. Since the [WEB-TRANSPORT-HTTP3] specification is a work-in-progress, both the protocol and API are likely to change significantly going forward.

2. Conformance

As well as sections marked as non-normative, all authoring guidelines, diagrams, examples, and notes in this specification are non-normative. Everything else in this specification is normative.

The key words MUST and SHOULD are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

This specification defines conformance criteria that apply to a single product: the user agent that implements the interfaces that it contains.

Conformance requirements phrased as algorithms or specific steps may be implemented in any manner, so long as the end result is equivalent. (In particular, the algorithms defined in this specification are intended to be easy to follow, and not intended to be performant.)

Implementations that use ECMAScript to implement the APIs defined in this specification MUST implement them in a manner consistent with the ECMAScript Bindings defined in the Web IDL specification [WEBIDL], as this specification uses that specification and terminology.

3. Terminology

The EventHandler interface, representing a callback used for event handlers, and the ErrorEvent interface are defined in [HTML].

The concepts queue a task and networking task source are defined in [HTML].

The terms event, event handlers and event handler event types are defined in [HTML].

When referring to exceptions, the terms throw and create are defined in [WEBIDL].

The terms fulfilled, rejected, resolved, pending and settled used in the context of Promises are defined in [ECMASCRIPT-6.0].

The terms ReadableStream and WritableStream are defined in [WHATWG-STREAMS].

4. UnidirectionalStreamsTransport Mixin

A UnidirectionalStreamsTransport can send and receive unidirectional streams. Data within a stream is delivered in order, but data between streams may be delivered out of order. Data is generally sent reliably, but retransmissions may be disabled or the stream may aborted to produce a form of unreliability. All stream data is encrypted and congestion-controlled.

interface mixin UnidirectionalStreamsTransport {
  Promise<SendStream> createUnidirectionalStream(optional SendStreamParameters parameters = {});
  /* a ReadableStream of ReceiveStream objects */
  readonly attribute ReadableStream incomingUnidirectionalStreams;
};

4.1. Methods

createUnidirectionalStream()

Creates a SendStream object for an outgoing unidirectional stream. Note that in some transports, the mere creation of a stream is not immediately visible to the peer until it is used to send data.

When createUnidirectionalStream() method is called, the user agent MUST run the following steps:

  1. Let transport be the UnidirectionalStreamsTransport on which createUnidirectionalStream is invoked.

  2. If transport’s state is "closed" or "failed", immediately return a new rejected promise with a newly created InvalidStateError and abort these steps.

  3. Let p be a new promise.

  4. Return p and continue the remaining steps in parallel.

  5. Create a SendStream with transport and p when all of the following conditions are met:

    1. The transport’s state is "connected".

    2. Stream creation flow control is not being violated by exceeding the max stream limit set by the remote endpoint, as specified in [QUIC].

    3. p has not been settled.

  6. Queue a task to reject p with a newly created InvalidStateError when all of the following conditions are met:

    1. The transport’s state is "closed" or "failed".

    2. p has not been settled.

incomingUnidirectionalStreams, of type ReadableStream, readonly

A ReadableStream of unidirectional streams, each represented by a ReceiveStream object, that have been received from the remote host.

The getter steps for incomingUnidirectionalStreams are:

  1. Let transport be the UnidirectionalStreamsTransport on which the incomingUnidirectionalStreams getter is invoked.

  2. Return transport’s [[ReceivedStreams]].

  3. For each unidirectional stream received, create a corresponding ReceiveStream and insert it into [[ReceivedStreams]]. As data is received over the unidirectional stream, insert that data into the corresponding ReceiveStream object. When the remote side closes or aborts the stream, close or abort the corresponding ReceiveStream.

4.2. Procedures

4.2.1. Add SendStream to UnidirectionalStreamsTransport

To create a SendStream given a transport and a promise p, run the following steps:

  1. Reserve a unidirectional stream association in the underlying transport.

  2. Queue a task to run the following sub-steps:

    1. If transport’s state is "closed" or "failed", abort these sub-steps.

    2. Let stream be a newly created SendStream for association.

    3. Add stream to transport’s [[OutgoingStreams]].

    4. Resolve p with stream.

4.3. SendStreamParameters Dictionary

The SendStreamParameters dictionary includes information relating to stream configuration.

dictionary SendStreamParameters {
};

5. BidirectionalStreamsTransport Mixin

A BidirectionalStreamsTransport can send and receive bidirectional streams. Data within a stream is delivered in order, but data between streams may be delivered out of order. Data is generally sent reliably, but retransmissions may be disabled or the stream may aborted to produce a form of unreliability. All stream data is encrypted and congestion-controlled.

interface mixin BidirectionalStreamsTransport {
    Promise<BidirectionalStream> createBidirectionalStream();
    /* a ReadableStream of BidirectionalStream objects */
    readonly attribute ReadableStream incomingBidirectionalStreams;
};

5.1. Methods

createBidirectionalStream()

Creates a BidirectionalStream object for an outgoing bidirectional stream. Note that in some transports, the mere creation of a stream is not immediately visible to the peer until it is used to send data.

When createBidirectionalStream is called, the user agent MUST run the following steps:

  1. Let transport be the BidirectionalStreamsTransport on which createBidirectionalStream is invoked.

  2. If transport’s state is "closed" or "failed", immediately return a new rejected promise with a newly created InvalidStateError and abort these steps.

  3. Let p be a new promise.

  4. Return p and continue the remaining steps in parallel.

  5. Create a BidirectionalStream with transport and p when all of the following conditions are met:

    1. The transport’s state is "connected".

    2. Stream creation flow control is not being violated by exceeding the max stream limit set by the remote endpoint, as specified in [QUIC].

    3. p has not been settled.

  6. Queue a task to reject p with a newly created InvalidStateError when all of the following conditions are met:

    1. The transport’s state is "closed" or "failed".

    2. p has not been settled.

incomingBidirectionalStreams, of type ReadableStream, readonly

Returns a ReadableStream of BidirectionalStreams that have been received from the remote host.

The getter steps for the incomingBidirectionalStreams attribute SHALL be:

  1. Return [[ReceivedBidirectionalStreams]].

  2. For each bidirectional stream received, create a corresponding BidirectionalStream and insert it into [[ReceivedBidirectionalStreams]]. As data is received over the bidirectional stream, insert that data into the corresponding BidirectionalStream. When the remote side closes or aborts the stream, close or abort the corresponding BidirectionalStream.

5.2. Procedures

5.2.1. Add BidirectionalStream to BidirectionalStreamsTransport

To create a BidirectionalStream given a transport and a promise p, run the following steps:

  1. Reserve a bidirectional stream association in the underlying transport.

  2. Queue a task to run the following sub-steps:

    1. If transport’s state is "closed" or "failed", abort these sub-steps.

    2. Let stream be a newly created BidirectionalStream object for association.

    3. Add stream to transport’s [[ReceivedBidirectionalStreams]].

    4. Add stream to transport’s [[OutgoingStreams]].

    5. Resolve p with stream.

6. DatagramTransport Mixin

A DatagramTransport can send and receive datagrams, as defined in [HTTP3-DATAGRAM][QUIC-DATAGRAM]. Datagrams are sent out of order, unreliably, and have a limited maximum size. Datagrams are encrypted and congestion controlled.

interface mixin DatagramTransport {
    readonly attribute unsigned short maxDatagramSize;
    readonly attribute DatagramDuplexStream datagrams;
};

6.1. Attributes

maxDatagramSize, of type unsigned short, readonly

The maximum size data that may be passed to datagrams' writable.

datagrams, of type DatagramDuplexStream, readonly

A single duplex stream for sending and receiving datagrams over this connection.

Each datagram received will be readable on the ReadableStream member.

If too many datagrams are queued because the stream is not being read quickly enough, datagrams are dropped to avoid queueing. Implementations should drop older datagrams in favor of newer datagrams. The number of datagrams to queue should be kept small enough to avoid adding significant latency to packet delivery when the stream is being read slowly (due to the reader being slow) but large enough to avoid dropping packets when for the stream is not read for short periods of time (due to the reader being paused).

Datagrams written to the returned WritableStream member will be sent.

The getter steps for the datagrams attribute SHALL be:

  1. Return this's [[Datagrams]].

6.2. Procedures

To pullDatagrams, given a WebTransport object transport, run these steps:

  1. Assert: transport’s [[IncomingDatagramsPullPromise]] is null.

  2. Let queue be transport’s [[IncomingDatagramsQueue]].

  3. If queue is empty, then:

    1. Set transport’s [[IncomingDatagramsPullPromise]] to a new promise.

    2. Return transport’s [[IncomingDatagramsPullPromise]].

  4. Let bytes and timestamp be the result of dequeuing queue.

  5. Let chunk be a new Uint8Array object representing bytes.

  6. Enqueue chunk to transport’s [[Datagrams]]' s [[Readable]].

  7. Return a promise resolved with undefined.

To receiveDatagrams, given a WebTransport object transport, run these steps:

  1. Let timestamp be a timestamp representing now.

  2. Let queue be transport’s [[IncomingDatagramsQueue]].

  3. Let duration be transport’s [[IncomingDatagramsExpirationDuration]].

  4. If duration is null, then set duration to an implementation-defined value.

  5. Let connection be transport’s [[Connection]].

  6. While there are available incoming datagrams on connection: [WEB-TRANSPORT-HTTP3]

    We should probably use "session" instead of "connection", to support pooling.

    1. Let datagram be the first datagram, and remove it from connection.

    2. Let timestamp be a timestamp representing now.

    3. Let chunk be a pair of datagram and timestamp.

    4. Enqueue chunk to queue.

  7. Let toBeRemoved be the length of queue minus transport’s [[IncomingDatagramsHighWaterMark]].

  8. If toBeRemoved is positive, repeat dequeuing queue toBeRemoved times.

  9. While queue is not empty:

    1. Let bytes and timestamp be queue’s first element.

    2. If more than duration milliseconds have passed since timestamp, then dequeue queue.

    3. Otherwise, break this loop.

  10. If queue is not empty and transport’s [[IncomingDatagramsPullPromise]] is non-null, then:

    1. Let bytes and timestamp be the result of dequeuing queue.

    2. Let promise be transport’s [[IncomingDatagramsPullPromise]].

    3. Set transport’s [[IncomingDatagramsPullPromise]] to null.

    4. Queue a global task on the network task source with transport’s relevant global object and a task that runs the following steps:

      1. Let chunk be a new Uint8Array object representing bytes.

      2. Enqueue chunk to transport’s [[Datagrams]]'s [[Readable]].

      3. Resolve promise with undefined.

The user agent SHOULD run receiveDatagrams for any WebTransport object whose [[State]] is "connected" as soon as reasonably possible whenever the algorithm can make progress.

The writeDatagrams algorithm is given a transport as parameter and data as input. It is defined by running the following steps:

  1. Let timestamp be a timestamp representing now.

  2. If data is not a Uint8Array object, then return a promise rejected with a TypeError.

  3. Let promise be a new promise.

  4. Let bytes be a copy of bytes which data represents.

  5. Let chunk be a tuple of bytes, timestamp and promise.

  6. Enqueue chunk to transport’s [[OutgoingDatagramsQueue]].

  7. If the length of transport’s [[OutgoingDatagramsQueue]] is less than transport’s [[OutgoingDatagramsHighWaterMark]], then resolve promise with undefined.

  8. Return promise.

Note: The associated WritableStream calls writeDatagrams only when all the promises that have been returned by writeDatagrams have been resolved. Hence the timestamp and the expiration duration work well only when the web developer pays attention to WritableStreamDefaultWriter.ready.

To sendDatagrams, given a WebTransport object transport, run these steps:

  1. Let queue be transport’s [[OutgoingDatagramsQueue]].

  2. Let duration be transport’s [[OutgoingDatagramsExpirationDuration]].

  3. If duration is null, then set duration to an implementation-defined value.

  4. While queue is not empty:

    1. Let bytes, timestamp and promise be queue’s first element.

    2. If more than duration milliseconds have passed since timestamp, then:

      1. Resolve promise with undefined.

      2. Remove the first element from queue.

    3. Otherwise, break this loop.

  5. While queue is not empty:

    1. Let bytes, timestamp and promise be queue’s first element.

    2. If it is not possible to send bytes to the network immediately, then break this loop.

    3. Send bytes to the network. [WEB-TRANSPORT-HTTP3]

    4. Resolve promise with undefined.

    5. Remove the first element from queue.

The user agent SHOULD run sendDatagrams for any WebTransport object whose [[State]] is "connected" as soon as reasonably possible whenever the algorithm can make progress.

7. DatagramDuplexStream Interface

A DatagramDuplexStream is a generic duplex stream.

[Exposed=(Window,Worker)]
interface DatagramDuplexStream {
  readonly attribute ReadableStream readable;
  readonly attribute WritableStream writable;
};

7.1. Internal slots

A DatagramDuplexStream object has the following internal slots.

Internal Slot Description (non-normative)
[[Readable]] A ReadableStream for incoming datagrams.
[[Writable]] A WritableStream for outgoing datagrams.

To create a DatagramDuplexStream given a readable, and a writable, perform the following steps.

  1. Let stream be a new DatagramDuplexStream, with:

    [[Readable]]

    readable

    [[Writable]]

    writable

  2. Return stream.

7.2. Attributes

readable, of type ReadableStream, readonly

The getter steps are:

  1. Return this.[[Readable]].

writable, of type WritableStream, readonly

The getter steps are:

  1. Return this.[[Writable]].

8. WebTransport Interface

WebTransport provides an API to the HTTP/3 transport functionality defined in [WEB-TRANSPORT-HTTP3]. It implements all of the transport mixins (UnidirectionalStreamsTransport, BidirectionalStreamsTransport, DatagramTransport), as well as stats and transport state information.

[Exposed=(Window,Worker)]
interface WebTransport {
  constructor(USVString url, optional WebTransportOptions options = {});

  Promise<WebTransportStats> getStats();
  readonly attribute WebTransportState state;
  readonly attribute Promise<undefined> ready;
  readonly attribute Promise<WebTransportCloseInfo> closed;
  undefined close(optional WebTransportCloseInfo closeInfo = {});
  attribute EventHandler onstatechange;
};

WebTransport includes UnidirectionalStreamsTransport;
WebTransport includes BidirectionalStreamsTransport;
WebTransport includes DatagramTransport;

8.1. Internal slots

A WebTransport object has the following internal slots.

Internal Slot Description (non-normative)
[[OutgoingStreams]] A sequence of SendStream objects.
[[ReceivedStreams]] A ReadableStream consisting of ReceiveStream objects.
[[ReceivedBidirectionalStreams]] A ReadableStream consisting of BidirectionalStream objects.
[[State]] A WebTransportState.
[[Ready]] A promise fulfilled when the associated WebTransport object is ready to use, or rejected if it failed to connect.
[[Closed]] A promise fulfilled when the associated WebTransport object is closed gracefully, or rejected when it is closed abruptly or failed on initialization.
[[Datagrams]] A DatagramDuplexStream.
[[IncomingDatagramsQueue]] A queue of pairs of an incoming datagram and a timestamp.
[[IncomingDatagramsPullPromise]] A promise set by pullDatagrams, to wait for an incoming datagram.
[[IncomingDatagramsHighWaterMark]] An integer representing the high water mark of the incoming datagrams.
[[IncomingDatagramsExpirationDuration]] A double value representing the expiration duration for incoming datagrams (in milliseconds), or null.
[[OutgoingDatagramsQueue]] A queue of tuples of an outgoing datagram, a timestamp and a promise which is resolved when the datagram is sent or discarded.
[[OutgoingDatagramsHighWaterMark]] An integer representing the high water mark of the outgoing datagrams.
[[OutgoingDatagramsExpirationDuration]] A double value representing the expiration duration for outgoing datagrams (in milliseconds), or null.
[[Connection]] A connection for this WebTransport object, or null.

8.2. Constructor

When the WebTransport() constructor is invoked, the user agent MUST run the following steps:

  1. Let parsedURL be the URL record resulting from parsing url.

  2. If parsedURL is a failure, throw a SyntaxError exception.

  3. If parsedURL scheme is not https, throw a SyntaxError exception.

  4. If parsedURL fragment is not null, throw a SyntaxError exception.

  5. Let allowPooling be options's allowPooling if it exists, and false otherwise.

  6. Let dedicated be the negation of allowPooling.

  7. Let serverCertificateFingerprints be options's serverCertificateFingerprints if it exists, and null otherwise.

  8. If dedicated is false and serverCertificateFingerprints is non-null, then throw a TypeError.

  9. Let incomingDatagrams be a new ReadableStream.

  10. Let outgoingDatagrams be a new WritableStream.

  11. Let datagrams be the result of creating a DatagramDuplexStream, its readable set to incomingDatagrams and its writable set to outgoingDatagrams.

  12. Let transport be a newly constructed WebTransport object, with:

    [[OutgoingStreams]]

    empty

    [[ReceivedStreams]]

    a new ReadableStream

    [[ReceivedBidirectionalStreams]]

    a new ReadableStream

    [[State]]

    "connecting"

    [[Ready]]

    a new promise

    [[Closed]]

    a new promise

    [[Datagrams]]

    datagrams

    [[IncomingDatagramsQueue]]

    an empty queue

    [[IncomingDatagramsPullPromise]]

    null

    [[IncomingDatagramsHighWaterMark]]

    an implementation-defined integer

    [[IncomingDatagramsExpirationDuration]]

    null

    [[OutgoingDatagramsQueue]]

    an empty queue

    [[OutgoingDatagramsHighWaterMark]]

    an implementation-defined integer

    This implementation-defined value should be tuned to ensure decent throughput, without jeopardizing the timeliness of transmitted data.

    [[OutgoingDatagramsExpirationDuration]]

    null

    [[Connection]]

    null

  13. Let pullAlgorithm be an action that runs pullDatagrams with transport.

  14. Let writeAlgorithm be an action that runs writeDatagrams with transport.

  15. Set up incomingDatagrams with pullAlgorithm set to pullAlgorithm, and highWaterMark set to 0.

  16. Set up outgoingDatagrams with writeAlgorithm set to writeAlgorithm.

  17. Let promise be the result of initializing WebTransport over HTTP, with transport, parsedURL and dedicated.

  18. Upon fulfillment of promise, run these steps:

    1. If transport’s [[State]] is not "connecting", then abort these steps.

    2. Set transport’s [[State]] to "connected".

    3. Resolve transport’s [[Ready]] with undefined.

  19. Upon rejection of promise with error, run these steps:

    1. Set transport’s [[State]] to "failed".

    2. Reject transport’s [[Ready]] with error.

    3. Reject transport’s [[Closed]] with error.

  20. Return transport.

To initialize WebTransport over HTTP, given a WebTransport object transport, a URL record url, and a boolean dedicated, run these steps.
  1. Let promise be a new promise.

  2. Let networkPartitionKey be the result of determining the network partition key with transport’s relevant settings object.

  3. Return promise and run the following steps in parallel.

  4. Let connection be the result of obtaining a connection with networkPartitionKey, url’s origin, false, http3Only set to true, and dedicated set to dedicated.

  5. If connection is failure, then reject promise with a TypeError and abort these steps.

  6. Set transport’s [[Connection]] to connection.

  7. Wait for connection to receive the first SETTINGS frame, and let settings be a dictionary that represents the SETTINGS frame.

  8. If settings doesn’t contain SETTINGS_ENABLE_WEBTRANPORT with a value of 1, or it doesn’t contain H3_DATAGRAM with a value of 1, then reject promise with a TypeError and abort these steps.

  9. Create a WebTransport session with connection, as described in [WEB-TRANSPORT-HTTP3].

  10. If the previous step fails, then reject promise with a TypeError and abort these steps.

  11. Resolve promise with undefined.

8.3. Attributes

state, of type WebTransportState, readonly

The current state of the transport. On getting, it MUST return this's [[State]].

ready, of type Promise<undefined>, readonly

On getting, it MUST return this's [[Ready]].

closed, of type Promise<WebTransportCloseInfo>, readonly

On getting, it MUST return this's [[Closed]].

This promise MUST be resolved when the transport is closed; an implementation SHOULD include error information in the reason and errorCode fields of WebTransportCloseInfo.

onstatechange, of type EventHandler

This event handler, of event handler event type statechange, MUST be fired any time the [[State]] changes, unless the state changes due to calling close.

8.4. Methods

close()

Closes the WebTransport object. For a dedicated connection, this triggers an Immediate Close as described in [QUIC] section 10.2.

When close is called, the user agent MUST run the following steps:

  1. Let transport be the WebTransport on which close is invoked.

  2. If transport’s [[State]] is "closed" or "failed", then abort these steps.

  3. Set transport’s [[State]] to "closed".

  4. Let closeInfo be the first argument.

  5. If the connection is dedicated, start the Immediate Close procedure by sending an CONNECTION_CLOSE frame with its error code value set to the value of errorCode and its reason value set to the value of reason.

getStats()

Gathers stats for this WebTransport's HTTP/3 connection and reports the result asynchronously.

When close is called, the user agent MUST run the following steps:

  1. Let transport be the WebTransport on which getStats is invoked.

  2. Let p be a new promise.

  3. If the URL scheme associated with transport is not https, reject p with NotSupportedError and return p.

  4. Return p and continue the following steps in parallel.

    1. Gather the stats from the underlying QUIC connection.

    2. Once stats have been gathered, resolve p with the WebTransportStats object, representing the gathered stats.

8.5. Configuration

dictionary WebTransportOptions {
  boolean allowPooling;
  sequence<RTCDtlsFingerprint> serverCertificateFingerprints;
};

WebTransportOptions is a dictionary of parameters that determine how WebTransport connection is established and used.

allowPooling, of type boolean

When set to true, the WebTransport connection can be pooled, that is, the network connection for the WebTransport session can be shared with other HTTP/3 sessions.

serverCertificateFingerprints, of type sequence<RTCDtlsFingerprint>

This option is only supported for transports using dedicated connections. For transport protocols that do not support this feature, having this field non-empty SHALL result in a NotSupportedError exception being thrown.

If supported and non-empty, the user agent SHALL deem a server certificate trusted if and only if it can successfully verify a certificate fingerprint against serverCertificateFingerprints and satisfies custom certificate requirements. The user agent SHALL ignore any fingerprint that uses an unknown algorithm or has a malformed value. If empty, the user agent SHALL use certificate verification procedures it would use for normal fetch operations.

This cannot be used with allowPooling.

To compute a certificate fingerprint, do the following:
  1. Let cert be the input certificate, represented as a DER encoding of Certificate message defined in [RFC5280].

  2. Compute the SHA-256 hash of cert. Format it as fingerprint BNF rule described in Section 5 of [RFC8122].

To verify a certificate fingerprint, do the following:
  1. Let fingerprints be the input array of fingerprints.

  2. Let referenceFingerprint be the computed fingerprint of the input certificate.

  3. For every fingerprint fingerprint in fingerprints:

    1. If algorithm of fingerprint is equal to "sha-256", and value of fingerprint is equal to referenceFingerprint, the certificate is valid. Return true.

  4. Return false.

The custom certificate requirements are as follows: the certificate MUST be an X.509v3 certificate as defined in [RFC5280], the current time MUST be within the validity period of the certificate as defined in Section 4.1.2.5 of [RFC5280] and the total length of the validity period MUST NOT exceed two weeks.

Reconsider the time period above. We want it to be sufficiently large that applications using this for ephemeral certificates can do so without having to fight the clock skew, but small enough to discourage long-term use without key rotation.

8.6. WebTransportState Enum

WebTransportState indicates the state of the transport.

enum WebTransportState {
  "connecting",
  "connected",
  "closed",
  "failed"
};
"connecting"

The transport is in the process of negotiating a secure connection. Once a secure connection is negotiated, incoming data can flow through.

"connected"

The transport has completed negotiation of a secure connection. Outgoing data and media can now flow through.

"closed"

The transport has been closed intentionally via a call to close() or receipt of a closing message from the remote side. When the WebTransport's [[State]] transitions to closed the user agent MUST run the following steps:

  1. Let transport be the WebTransport.

  2. Close the ReadableStream in transport’s [[ReceivedStreams]].

  3. Close the ReadableStream in transport’s [[ReceivedBidirectionalStreams]].

  4. For each SendStream in transport’s [[OutgoingStreams]] run the following:

    1. Let stream be the SendStream.

    2. Remove the stream from the transport’s [[OutgoingStreams]].

"failed"

The transport has been closed as the result of an error (such as receipt of an error alert). When the WebTransport’s [[State]] transitions to failed the user agent MUST run the following steps:

  1. Close the ReadableStream in transport’s [[ReceivedStreams]].

  2. Close the ReadableStream in transport’s [[ReceivedBidirectionalStreams]].

  3. For each SendStream in transport’s [[OutgoingStreams]] run the following:

    1. Remove the stream from the transport’s [[OutgoingStreams]].

8.7. WebTransportCloseInfo Dictionary

The WebTransportCloseInfo dictionary includes information relating to the error code for closing a WebTransport. This information is used to set the error code and reason for a CONNECTION_CLOSE frame.

dictionary WebTransportCloseInfo {
  unsigned long long errorCode = 0;
  DOMString reason = "";
};

The dictionary SHALL have the following attributes:

errorCode, of type unsigned long long, defaulting to 0

The error code communicated to the peer.

reason, of type DOMString, defaulting to ""

The reason for closing the WebTransport.

8.8. WebTransportStats Dictionary

The WebTransportStats dictionary includes information on HTTP/3 connection stats.

Now that quic-transport has been removed, this section needs to be revised. Some of those are safe to expose for HTTP/2 and HTTP/3 connections (like min-RTT), while most would either result in information disclosure or are impossible to define for pooled connections.

dictionary WebTransportStats {
  DOMHighResTimeStamp timestamp;
  unsigned long long bytesSent;
  unsigned long long packetsSent;
  unsigned long numOutgoingStreamsCreated;
  unsigned long numIncomingStreamsCreated;
  unsigned long long bytesReceived;
  unsigned long long packetsReceived;
  DOMHighResTimeStamp minRtt;
  unsigned long numReceivedDatagramsDropped;
};

The dictionary SHALL have the following attributes:

timestamp, of type DOMHighResTimeStamp

The timestamp for when the stats are gathered, relative to the UNIX epoch (Jan 1, 1970, UTC).

bytesSent, of type unsigned long long

The number of bytes sent on the QUIC connection, including retransmissions. Does not include UDP or any other outer framing.

packetsSent, of type unsigned long long

The number of packets sent on the QUIC connection, including retransmissions.

numOutgoingStreamsCreated, of type unsigned long

The number of outgoing QUIC streams created on the QUIC connection.

numIncomingStreamsCreated, of type unsigned long

The number of incoming QUIC streams created on the QUIC connection.

bytesReceived, of type unsigned long long

The number of total bytes received on the QUIC connection, including duplicate data for streams. Does not include UDP or any other outer framing.

packetsReceived, of type unsigned long long

The number of total packets received on the QUIC connection, including packets that were not processable.

minRtt, of type DOMHighResTimeStamp

The minimum RTT observed on the entire connection.

numReceivedDatagramsDropped, of type unsigned long

The number of datagrams that were dropped, due to too many datagrams buffered between calls to datagrams' readable.

9. Interface SendStream

A SendStream is a WritableStream of Uint8Array that can be written to, to transmit data to the remote host.

[ Exposed=(Window,Worker) ]
interface SendStream : WritableStream /* of Uint8Array */ {
  readonly attribute Promise<StreamAbortInfo> writingAborted;
  undefined abortWriting(optional StreamAbortInfo abortInfo = {});
};

9.1. Overview

The SendStream will be initialized by running the WritableStream initialization steps.

9.2. Attributes

writingAborted, of type Promise<StreamAbortInfo>, readonly

The writingAborted attribute represents a promise that is fulfilled when the a message from the remote side aborting the stream is received. For QUIC, that message is a STOP_SENDING frame. When the stream receives this mesage, the user agent MUST run the following:

  1. Let stream be the SendStream object.

  2. Let transport be the WebTransport, which the stream was created from.

  3. Remove the stream from the transport’s [[OutgoingStreams]].

  4. Resolve the promise with the resulting StreamAbortInfo with the errorCode set to the value from the aborting message from the remote side.

9.3. Methods

abortWriting()

A hard shutdown of the SendStream. It may be called regardless of whether the SendStream was created by the local or remote peer. When the abortWriting method is called, the user agent MUST run the following steps:

  1. Let stream be the SendStream object which is about to abort writing.

  2. Let transport be the WebTransport, which the stream was created from.

  3. Remove the stream from the transport’s [[OutgoingStreams]].

  4. Let abortInfo be the first argument.

  5. Start the closing procedure by sending a RST_STREAM frame with its error code set to the value of |abortInfo.errorCode|.

9.4. StreamAbortInfo Dictionary

The StreamAbortInfo dictionary includes information relating to the error code for aborting an incoming or outgoing stream ( in either a RST_STREAM frame or a STOP_SENDING frame).

dictionary StreamAbortInfo {
  [EnforceRange] octet errorCode = 0;
};

The dictionary SHALL have the following fields:

errorCode, of type octet, defaulting to 0

The error code. The default value of 0 means "CLOSING."

10. Interface ReceiveStream

A ReceiveStream is a ReadableStream of Uint8Array that can be read from, to consume data received from the remote host.

[ Exposed=(Window,Worker) ]
interface ReceiveStream : ReadableStream /* of Uint8Array */ {
  readonly attribute Promise<StreamAbortInfo> readingAborted;
  undefined abortReading(optional StreamAbortInfo abortInfo = {});
};

10.1. Overview

The ReceiveStream will be initialized by running the ReadableStream initialization steps.

10.2. Attributes

readingAborted, of type Promise<StreamAbortInfo>, readonly

The readingAborted attribute represents a promise that is fulfilled when the a message from the remote side aborting the stream is received. For QUIC, that message is a RST_STREAM frame. When the stream receives this mesage, the user agent MUST run the following:

  1. Let stream be the ReceiveStream object for which the abort message was received.

  2. Let transport be the WebTransport, which the stream was created from.

  3. Resolve the promise with the resulting StreamAbortInfo with the errorCode set to the value from the aborting message from the remote side.

10.3. Methods

abortReading()

A hard shutdown of the ReceiveStream. It may be called regardless of whether the ReceiveStream was created by the local or remote peer. When the abortWriting method is called, the user agent MUST run the following steps:

  1. Let stream be the ReceiveStream object which is about to abort reading.

  2. Let transport be the WebTransport, which the stream was created from.

  3. Let abortInfo be the first argument.

  4. Start the closing procedure by sending a message to the remote side indicating that the stream has been aborted (using a STOP_SENDING frame) with its error code set to the value of |abortInfo.errorCode|.

11. Interface BidirectionalStream

[ Exposed=(Window,Worker) ]
interface BidirectionalStream {
  readonly attribute ReceiveStream readable;
  readonly attribute SendStream writable;
};

The BidirectionalStream will initialize with the following:

  1. Let duplexStream be the BidirectionalStream.

  2. Let duplexStream have a [[Readable]] internal slot initialized to a new ReceiveStream.

  3. Let duplexStream have a [[Writable]] internal slot initialized to a new SendStream.

12. Protocol Mappings

This section is non-normative.

This section describes the [QUIC] protocol behavior of methods defined in this specification, utilizing [WEB-TRANSPORT-HTTP3].

Method QUIC Protocol Action
abortReading send STOP_SENDING with code
abortWriting send RESET_STREAM with code
writable.abort() send RESET_STREAM
writable.close() send STREAM_FINAL
writable.getWriter().write() send STREAM
writable.getWriter().close() send STREAM_FINAL
writable.getWriter().abort() send RESET_STREAM
readable.cancel() send STOP_SENDING
readable.getReader().read() receive STREAM or STREAM_FINAL
readable.getReader().cancel() send STOP_SENDING

13. Privacy and Security Considerations

This section is non-normative; it specifies no new behaviour, but instead summarizes information already present in other parts of the specification.

13.1. Confidentiality of Communications

The fact that communication is taking place cannot be hidden from adversaries that can observe the network, so this has to be regarded as public information.

All of the transport protocols described in this document use either TLS [RFC8446] or a semantically equivalent protocol, thus providing all of the security properties of TLS, including confidentiality and integrity of the traffic. Http3Transport uses the same certificate verification mechanism as outbound HTTP requests, thus relying on the same public key infrastructure for authentication of the remote server. In WebTransport, certificate verification errors are fatal; no interstitial allowing bypassing certificate validation is available.

13.2. State Persistence

WebTransport by itself does not create any new unique identifiers or new ways to persistently store state, nor does it automatically expose any of the existing persistent state to the server. For instance, none of the transports defined in this document automatically send cookies, support HTTP authentication or caching invalidation mechanisms. Since they use TLS, they may support TLS session tickets, which could be used by the server (though not by passive network observers) to correlate different connections from the same client. This is not specific to WebTransport by itself, but rather an inherent property of all TLS-based protocols; thus, this is out-of-scope for this specification.

13.3. Protocol Security

WebTransport imposes a set of requirements as described in [WEB-TRANSPORT-OVERVIEW], including:

  1. Ensuring that the remote server is aware that the connection in question originates from a Web application; this is required to prevent cross-protocol attacks. [WEB-TRANSPORT-HTTP3] uses ALPN [RFC7301] for this purpose.

  2. Allowing the server to filter connections based on the origin of the resource originating the transport session.

Protocol security considerations related are described in the Security Considerations sections of [WEB-TRANSPORT-HTTP3].

Networking APIs can be commonly used to scan the local network for available hosts, and thus be used for fingerprinting and other forms of attacks. WebTransport follows the WebSocket approach to this problem: the specific connection error is not returned until an endpoint is verified to be a WebTransport endpoint; thus, the Web application cannot distinguish between a non-existing endpoint and the endpoint that is not willing to accept connections from the Web.

14. Examples

14.1. Sending a buffer of datagrams

This section is non-normative.

Sending a buffer of datagrams can be achieved by using the datagrams' writable attribute. In the following example datagrams are only sent if the DatagramTransport is ready to send.

async function sendDatagrams(url, datagrams) {
  const wt = new WebTransport(url);
  const writer = wt.datagrams.writable.getWriter();
  for (const datagram of datagrams) {
    await writer.ready;
    writer.write(datagram).catch(() => {});
  }
}

14.2. Sending datagrams at a fixed rate

This section is non-normative.

Sending datagrams at a fixed rate regardless if the transport is ready to send can be achieved by simply using datagrams' writable and not using the ready attribute. More complex scenarios can utilize the ready attribute.

// Sends datagrams every 100 ms.
async function sendFixedRate(url, createDatagram, ms = 100) {
  const wt = new WebTransport(url);
  await wt.ready;
  const writer = wt.datagrams.writable.getWriter();
  const datagram = createDatagram();
  setInterval(() => writer.write(datagram).catch(() => {}), ms);
}

14.3. Receiving datagrams

This section is non-normative.

Datagrams can be received by reading from the transport.datagrams.datagrams.readable attribute. Null values may indicate that packets are not being processed quickly enough.

async function receiveDatagrams(url) {
  const wt = new WebTransport(url);
  for await (const datagram of wt.datagrams.readable) {
    // Process the datagram
  }
}

14.4. Sending a stream

This section is non-normative.

Sending data as a one-way stream can be achieved by using the createUnidirectionalStream function and the resulting stream’s writer.

async function sendData(url, data) {
  const wt = new WebTransport(url);
  const writable = await wt.createUnidirectionalStream();
  const writer = writable.getWriter();
  await writer.write(data);
  await writer.close();
}

Encoding can also be done through pipes from a ReadableStream, for example using TextEncoderStream.

async function sendText(url, readableStreamOfTextData) {
  const wt = new WebTransport(url);
  const writable = await wt.createUnidirectionalStream();
  await readableStreamOfTextData
    .pipeThrough(new TextEncoderStream("utf-8"))
    .pipeTo(writable);
}

14.5. Receiving incoming streams

This section is non-normative.

Reading incoming streams can be achieved by iterating over the incomingUnidirectionalStreams attribute, and then consuming each ReceiveStream by iterating over its chunks.

async function receiveData(url, processTheData) {
  const wt = new WebTransport(url);
  for await (const readable of wt.incomingUnidirectionalStreams) {
    // consume streams individually, reporting per-stream errors
    ((async () => {
      try {
        for await (const chunk of readable.getReader()) {
          processTheData(chunk);
        }
      } catch (e) {
        console.error(e);
      }
    })());
  }
}

Decoding can also be done through pipes to new WritableStreams, for example using TextDecoderStream. This example assumes text output should not be interleaved, and therefore only reads one stream at a time.

async function receiveText(url, createWritableStreamForTextData) {
  const wt = new WebTransport(url);
  for await (const readable of wt.incomingUnidirectionalStreams) {
    // consume sequentially to not interleave output, reporting per-stream errors
    try {
      await readable
       .pipeThrough(new TextDecoderStream("utf-8"))
       .pipeTo(createWritableStreamForTextData());
    } catch (e) {
      console.error(e);
    }
  }
}

14.6. Complete example

This section is non-normative.

This example illustrates use of the closed and ready promises, opening of uni-directional and bi-directional streams by either the client or the server, and sending and receiving datagrams.

// Adds an entry to the event log on the page, optionally applying a specified
// CSS class.

let wt, streamNumber, datagramWriter;

connect.onclick = async () => {
  try {
    const url = document.getElementById('url').value;

    wt = new WebTransport(url);
    addToEventLog('Initiating connection...');
    await wt.ready;
    addToEventLog('Connection ready.');

    wt.closed
      .then(() => addToEventLog('Connection closed normally.'))
      .catch(() => addToEventLog('Connection closed abruptly.', 'error'));

    streamNumber = 1;
    datagramWriter = wt.datagrams.writable.getWriter();

    readDatagrams();
    acceptUnidirectionalStreams();
    document.forms.sending.elements.send.disabled = false;
    document.getElementById('connect').disabled = true;
  } catch (e) {
    addToEventLog(`Connection failed. ${e}`, 'error');
  }
}

sendData.onclick = async () => {
  const form = document.forms.sending.elements;
  const rawData = sending.data.value;
  const data = new TextEncoder('utf-8').encode(rawData);
  try {
    switch (form.sendtype.value) {
      case 'datagram': {
        await datagramWriter.write(data);
        addToEventLog(`Sent datagram: ${rawData}`);
        break;
      }
      case 'unidi': {
        const writable = await wt.createUnidirectionalStream();
        const writer = writable.getWriter();
        await writer.write(data);
        await writer.close();
        addToEventLog(`Sent a unidirectional stream with data: ${rawData}`);
        break;
      }
      case 'bidi': {
        const duplexStream = await wt.createBidirectionalStream();
        const n = streamNumber++;
        readFromIncomingStream(duplexStream.readable, n);

        const writer = duplexStream.writable.getWriter();
        await writer.write(data);
        await writer.close();
        addToEventLog(`Sent bidirectional stream #${n} with data: ${rawData}`);
        break;
      }
    }
  } catch (e) {
    addToEventLog(`Error while sending data: ${e}`, 'error');
  }
}

// Reads datagrams into the event log until EOF is reached.
async function readDatagrams() {
  try {
    const decoder = new TextDecoderStream('utf-8');

    for await (const data of wt.datagrams.readable.pipeThrough(decoder)) {
      addToEventLog(`Datagram received: ${data}`);
    }
    addToEventLog('Done reading datagrams!');
  } catch (e) {
    addToEventLog(`Error while reading datagrams: ${e}`, 'error');
  }
}

async function acceptUnidirectionalStreams() {
  try {
    for await (const readable of wt.incomingUnidirectionalStreams) {
      const number = streamNumber++;
      addToEventLog(`New incoming unidirectional stream #${number}`);
      readFromIncomingStream(readable, number);
    }
    addToEventLog('Done accepting unidirectional streams!');
  } catch (e) {
    addToEventLog(`Error while accepting streams ${e}`, 'error');
  }
}

async function readFromIncomingStream(readable, number) {
  try {
    const decoder = new TextDecoderStream('utf-8');
    for await (const chunk of readable.pipeThrough(decoder)) {
      addToEventLog(`Received data on stream #${number}: ${chunk}`);
    }
    addToEventLog(`Stream #${number} closed`);
  } catch (e) {
    addToEventLog(`Error while reading from stream #${number"}: ${e}`, 'error');
    addToEventLog(`    ${e.message}`);
  }
}

function addToEventLog(text, severity = 'info') {
  const log = document.getElementById('event-log');
  const previous = log.lastElementChild;
  const entry = document.createElement('li');
  entry.innerText = text;
  entry.className = `log-${severity}`;
  log.appendChild(entry);

  // If the previous entry in the log was visible, scroll to the new element.
  if (previous &&
      previous.getBoundingClientRect().top < log.getBoundingClientRect().bottom) {
    entry.scrollIntoView();
  }
}

15. Acknowledgements

The editors wish to thank the Working Group chairs and Team Contact, Jan-Ivar Bruaroey, Will Law and Yves Lafon, for their support.

The WebTransport interface is based on the QuicTransport interface initially described in the W3C ORTC CG, and has been adapted for use in this specification.

Index

Terms defined by this specification

Terms defined by reference

References

Normative References

[DOM]
Anne van Kesteren. DOM Standard. Living Standard. URL: https://dom.spec.whatwg.org/
[ECMASCRIPT-6.0]
Allen Wirfs-Brock. ECMA-262 6th Edition, The ECMAScript 2015 Language Specification. June 2015. Standard. URL: http://www.ecma-international.org/ecma-262/6.0/index.html
[ENCODING]
Anne van Kesteren. Encoding Standard. Living Standard. URL: https://encoding.spec.whatwg.org/
[FETCH]
Anne van Kesteren. Fetch Standard. Living Standard. URL: https://fetch.spec.whatwg.org/
[HR-TIME-2]
Ilya Grigorik. High Resolution Time Level 2. 21 November 2019. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/hr-time-2/
[HTML]
Anne van Kesteren; et al. HTML Standard. Living Standard. URL: https://html.spec.whatwg.org/multipage/
[HTTP3-DATAGRAM]
David Schinazi; Lucas Pardue. Using QUIC Datagrams with HTTP/3. Internet-Draft. URL: https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-ietf-masque-h3-datagram
[INFRA]
Anne van Kesteren; Domenic Denicola. Infra Standard. Living Standard. URL: https://infra.spec.whatwg.org/
[QUIC]
Jana Iyengar; Martin Thomson. QUIC: A UDP-Based Multiplexed and Secure Transport. Internet-Draft. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-quic-transport
[QUIC-DATAGRAM]
Tommy Pauly; Eric Kinnear; David Schinazi. An Unreliable Datagram Extension to QUIC. Internet-Draft. URL: https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-ietf-quic-datagram/
[RFC2119]
S. Bradner. Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels. March 1997. Best Current Practice. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2119
[RFC5280]
D. Cooper; et al. Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Profile. May 2008. Proposed Standard. URL: https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/rfc5280
[RFC8122]
J. Lennox; C. Holmberg. Connection-Oriented Media Transport over the Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol in the Session Description Protocol (SDP). March 2017. Proposed Standard. URL: https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/rfc8122
[URL]
Anne van Kesteren. URL Standard. Living Standard. URL: https://url.spec.whatwg.org/
[WEB-TRANSPORT-HTTP3]
Victor Vasiliev. WebTransport over HTTP/3. Internet-Draft. URL: https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-ietf-webtrans-http3/
[WEB-TRANSPORT-OVERVIEW]
Victor Vasiliev. WebTransport Protocol Framework. Internet-Draft. URL: https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-ietf-webtrans-overview
[WEBIDL]
Boris Zbarsky. Web IDL. 15 December 2016. ED. URL: https://heycam.github.io/webidl/
[WEBRTC-1]
WebRTC 1.0: Real-time Communication Between Browsers URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/webrtc/
[WHATWG-STREAMS]
Adam Rice; Domenic Denicola; 吉野剛史 (Takeshi Yoshino). Streams Standard. Living Standard. URL: https://streams.spec.whatwg.org/

Informative References

[RFC7301]
S. Friedl; et al. Transport Layer Security (TLS) Application-Layer Protocol Negotiation Extension. July 2014. Proposed Standard. URL: https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/rfc7301
[RFC8446]
E. Rescorla. The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Version 1.3. August 2018. Proposed Standard. URL: https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/rfc8446

IDL Index

interface mixin UnidirectionalStreamsTransport {
  Promise<SendStream> createUnidirectionalStream(optional SendStreamParameters parameters = {});
  /* a ReadableStream of ReceiveStream objects */
  readonly attribute ReadableStream incomingUnidirectionalStreams;
};

dictionary SendStreamParameters {
};

interface mixin BidirectionalStreamsTransport {
    Promise<BidirectionalStream> createBidirectionalStream();
    /* a ReadableStream of BidirectionalStream objects */
    readonly attribute ReadableStream incomingBidirectionalStreams;
};

interface mixin DatagramTransport {
    readonly attribute unsigned short maxDatagramSize;
    readonly attribute DatagramDuplexStream datagrams;
};

[Exposed=(Window,Worker)]
interface DatagramDuplexStream {
  readonly attribute ReadableStream readable;
  readonly attribute WritableStream writable;
};

[Exposed=(Window,Worker)]
interface WebTransport {
  constructor(USVString url, optional WebTransportOptions options = {});

  Promise<WebTransportStats> getStats();
  readonly attribute WebTransportState state;
  readonly attribute Promise<undefined> ready;
  readonly attribute Promise<WebTransportCloseInfo> closed;
  undefined close(optional WebTransportCloseInfo closeInfo = {});
  attribute EventHandler onstatechange;
};

WebTransport includes UnidirectionalStreamsTransport;
WebTransport includes BidirectionalStreamsTransport;
WebTransport includes DatagramTransport;

dictionary WebTransportOptions {
  boolean allowPooling;
  sequence<RTCDtlsFingerprint> serverCertificateFingerprints;
};

enum WebTransportState {
  "connecting",
  "connected",
  "closed",
  "failed"
};

dictionary WebTransportCloseInfo {
  unsigned long long errorCode = 0;
  DOMString reason = "";
};

dictionary WebTransportStats {
  DOMHighResTimeStamp timestamp;
  unsigned long long bytesSent;
  unsigned long long packetsSent;
  unsigned long numOutgoingStreamsCreated;
  unsigned long numIncomingStreamsCreated;
  unsigned long long bytesReceived;
  unsigned long long packetsReceived;
  DOMHighResTimeStamp minRtt;
  unsigned long numReceivedDatagramsDropped;
};

[ Exposed=(Window,Worker) ]
interface SendStream : WritableStream /* of Uint8Array */ {
  readonly attribute Promise<StreamAbortInfo> writingAborted;
  undefined abortWriting(optional StreamAbortInfo abortInfo = {});
};

dictionary StreamAbortInfo {
  [EnforceRange] octet errorCode = 0;
};

[ Exposed=(Window,Worker) ]
interface ReceiveStream : ReadableStream /* of Uint8Array */ {
  readonly attribute Promise<StreamAbortInfo> readingAborted;
  undefined abortReading(optional StreamAbortInfo abortInfo = {});
};

[ Exposed=(Window,Worker) ]
interface BidirectionalStream {
  readonly attribute ReceiveStream readable;
  readonly attribute SendStream writable;
};

Issues Index

We should probably use "session" instead of "connection", to support pooling.
Reconsider the time period above. We want it to be sufficiently large that applications using this for ephemeral certificates can do so without having to fight the clock skew, but small enough to discourage long-term use without key rotation.
Now that quic-transport has been removed, this section needs to be revised. Some of those are safe to expose for HTTP/2 and HTTP/3 connections (like min-RTT), while most would either result in information disclosure or are impossible to define for pooled connections.